The writer classifies alluvial fans in Formosa according to the eight standards as follows : (1) evolutional process (2) plane figure (3) locality, where fans are established (4) cause of establishment (5) disposition (6) mode of establishment (7) gradient of fan surface (8) age. This classification will benefit studies on evolutional history of geomorphology in certain regions. (Abstracted by a member of the editorial staff.)
Reviewing the recent development of the geochemical prospecting in various nations, such as U. S. A., Soviet Union & Japan etc., the authors have shown a newer method which they now practise, especially application of organic indicator (reagent) “dephenylthiocarbazone” (dithizone). They refer to objects, for instance rocks, soils, plants and natural water, to which the newer method is applied. (Abstracted by a member of the editorial staff.)
Some aspects concerning a seismic sea wave warning system for North-Eastern coast of Japan organized in Sep. 1941 and the one for the Pacific established after the great Aleutian earthquake of Apr. 1, 1946 are described. A preliminary short note about the system now in action in Japan is also added. Some details about Hawaiian tsunamis and studies on a tidal gauge specially constructed for the warning of tsunamis and a new phase observed in seismic records of submarine earthquakes are noted.
Rivers in Japan have of late been apt to flood owing to disforestation during war times. Abundant debris accumulate in existing reservoirs, and so the capacity of reservoirs becomes smaller year after year, while the floor of the down-stream is upheaved by accumulation of finer detritus. This condition threaten us with flood and actually the river has diminished in hydro-electric power At present sand-controlling dams are being built everywhere-along the upstream, but this operation is to loose a favourable site of hydro-electric power. (Abstracted by a member of the editorial staff.)
In addition to 14 species described or simply mentioned by TOKUNAGA and NISHIAMA, 29 species and subspecies were described (including spines of two genera just mentioned) by HAYASAKA and MORISHITA, and HAYASAKA in 1947-1948, in the 4 papers referred to above. Of the 29 forms 13 belong to SPATANGIDAE. The fossil echinoids range from Eocene to Pleistocene in Taiwan. The new subgenus Peronellites of the genus Peronella, proposed by HAYASAKA and MORISHITA, is diagnosed : “Test elliptical in outline ; genital pores four, wanting in interambulacrum, V : apical system and proximal ends of petals markedly vaulted up”. The new genus Sinaechinus with its type species, kawaguchii, proposed by HAYASAKA should be cancelled. Considering the tube-like peristome with an anteriorly projecting labrum, and the duplication in front of the peripetalous fasciole unique features, owing to the shortness, of reference works in Taiwan, the Recent specimen from Tonkin Bay and an incomplete fossil specimen from the Pliocene sandstone in Tainan Prefecture, Taiwan, were named Sinaechinus kawaguchii gen. et sp. n. On rehabilitating from Taiwan in 1949, NISHIYAMA of the 'Tohoku University kindly informed me of the fact that the, double-fascioled echinoid had been known since 1851 when J. E. Gray described Faorina chinensis from the Chinese waters. NISHIYAMA moreover favored me with copying the descriptions and pictures of the species by GRAY, KOEHLER, and CLARK. By parusing these descriptions, and comparing the descriptive features of the Tonkin Bay specimen with them, it has become evident that the specimen is nothing but Faorina chinensis GRAY, although no pictures copied from GRAY and KOEHLER show the.duplication of the peripetalous fasciole. The fossil specimen from Taiwan, though incomplete and deformed, also may be identified. with Faorina chinensis, or, possibly it may be a subspecies if the relative lowness of the test is its original, natural shape. Three species from, the Pleistocene Riukiu Limeston of Tokuno-shima are described in the Notes side by side with allied or comparable Formosan forms, simply because of convenience. On comparing this fossil fauna and the Recent one as has been known up to present, there is only one species common to both, i. e., Echinoneus cyclostomus : and only 4 genera are represented in both faunas. The cause of this divergence might be that : while the fossils were buried where they had been, the Recent.material was mostly found stranded, although some of them belonged to the systematic collection carried out by KAWAGUCHI.