Sequences of blooming dates of the cherry blossoms at Kyoto (35°N, 136°E) have been given in chronological order. Examination of this documentary evidence in Japan shows a long period from the 11 th century to the 14 th century much colder than the average, even though there is a definite sequence of fluctuation between cold and warm.
The retrocession of the strand line in Hokuriku district has been well known to the people living there, while the discovery of submerged forest at Uozu has proved the subsidence of the ground. The excavation of the submerged forest has attracted the attention of not only scholars but many people, and the Ministry of Education has designated it as special natural monument. Soon after the discovery of the submerged forest, it was found that there was a submarine forest at the coast of Uchidegahama. It is concluded, therefore, that one of the causes of the retrocession of the strand line along the coast in the eastern half of Toyama Bay has been the subsidence of the ground. Dr. T. Wakimizu thinks that the cause of the subsidence is the fault, but the writer believes it to be the block movement. Hojozu Lagoon is also supposed to have submerged judging from the peat found around the lagoon, and the writer has concluded that the beach line was once far in the offing. As the result of the revised levelling to prove that the block movement is the cause of the retrocession, it has been found that the land along the coast of the eastern half of Toyama Bay subsides 2 or 3 mm a year, on an average, while that of the western half of the bay up-heaves. It has also been proved that the eastern half of the bay belongs to the large scale block of Tateyama, while the western half is rather a small block ranging from Himi to Noto, and that the block of Futagami are moving. As the main cause of the retrocession of the strand line was the wave erosion, especially, Yorimawari wave, the Beach Line Survey Association of Toyama Prefecture has been organized to find out what to do with it. The writer has been appointed to head geological department and made a survey of the district on its geology, geography and historical facts with the help of fourteen people who have interest in it. We have found that the districts of Ueharamura, Namerikawa and Shinminato have suffered heavily from the wave erosion. In trying to find out the cause, we have obtained the following results. About Ueharamura district, we have found that the amount of the sand and pebbles supplied by the Kurobe River has decreased since the mouth of the river was moved to the west, and that the tide flows from the east to the west along its coast. About Namerikawa and Shinminato, we have found through the study of old maps and old records a striking fact that the strand line along the district has retroceded 1 meter a year, on an average. Recently, a research has been made on the submarine canyon based on the study of late Dr. R. Tayama, and it has been proved that the canyon has much connection with the development of waves and that it is the result of subsidence of ground in recent geological age, that is to say, the canyon is the remains of an old valley. Although this has no direct connection with the theme of my study, I think it is adequate to refer to it.
The Uji group of islands (Uji gunto) and the Kusagaki group (Kusagaki jima) are two groups of uninhabited islets scattered at a distance of about 70 km and 90 km respectively to the south west of the western point of Noma peninsula, Kagoshima Prefecture. At the end of May, 1953, the writer paid a short visit for several days to these islets to carry out a scientific survey enterprised by Kagoshima University. They had been left scientifically untouched till the present survey. The longitudinal axes of these islets run SSW-NNE and many rocks are arranged in the same direction. A greater number of islets in both the Uji group and the Kusagaki group are composed of these augite-hornblend andesite and co-essential agglomeratic lava which are fairly dissected. The sandstone beds which are intruded by the andesite outcrop only in a very small area on the southern coast of Mukai-jima of the Uji group. Although the exact geological age of the andesite and the sandstone beds is uncertain, they will be, judging from the petrographical and stratigraphical evidences just given, correlated respectively with the hornblend andesite and a member of unknown. Mesozoic formation in the northern districts of Sendai City, Kagoshima Prefecture. The probable north-east prolongation of the longitudinal axes of the above mentioned islets trend toward Sendai district. Personally, he is inclined to the opinion that these islets are structurally connected with the mainland, and also the northern part of arcuate Riukiu islands is divisible into four longitudinal zones which are, from the inner side, arranged in the following zones Palaeo-Riukiu Volcanic, Meso-Neo-Riukiu Volcanic, Palaeozoic and Granitic, Tertiary.