Land-use and land-cover changes in the world are now an important theme in the study of global environmental change. This paper first outlines the international programmes of IGBP International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and IHDP (International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme), which are the fundamental programmes of global environmental research. Second, the framework of LUCC (Land Use and Land Cover Change programme) and related activities are explained with reference to the “Implementation St rategy for LUCC” issued in June 1999. Third, the research network in Japan centered at the LUCC committee of the Science Council of Japan, along with the guidelines of LUCC studies in Japan, is explained. Fourth, two typical examples of LUCCrelated projects, one conducted by IIASA in Austria and another by NIES in Japan, are introduced. Finally, there are some recommendations for LUCC studies in Japan.
To estimate degradation processes and rates of river deepening, terraces and buried valley bottoms of the Sagami River, the Kabura River, and the Ara River in the Kanto region and the Shinano River in the Chubu region were studied. In the glacial epoch, each river aggraded at a rate of 0.2-0.7m/kyr by filling the valleys with sand-gravel sediments. Fill-top terraces and buried valleys were formed. In the interglacial epoch, each river deepened its bed and dropped its bed at a rate of 2-7m/kyr. Consequently, gradual degradation of the riverbeds occurred during the Quaternary. This process of river deepening and aggradation shows an almost reverse phase to that of sea level changes during the Quaternary. A linear relationship is found in the rivers studied when the heights of filltop terraces are plotted against their ages (=TT lines). A linear relationship is also found when the heights of buried valley bottoms are plotted against their ages (=BB lines). TT and BB are almost parallel in each river. These relationships indicate that each riverbed changed its level between TT and BB to reach the recent level. The parallel relationship of TT and BB indicates that each river deepened by almost equal values of uplift during the period of one glacial and interglacial cycle. The gradients of these lines indicate not only degradation rates but also the uplift rate of each drainage basin, i. e., in the rivers studied, the degradation rate almost equal to the uplift rate.
Japan is one of the leading flower producers, with chrysanthemums being typical flowers. Although the plastic green house sector has been developed in Japanese floriculture since the 1970's, a considerable amount of chrysanthemums is still cultivated in open fields. Tomobe town, located in Hitachi diluvial upland, is known as an active chrysanthemum producing area in Kanto Plain. In this research, the author pays attention to the production and distribution basis of floricultural farms to examine the maintain mechanism of chrysanthe mum cultivation in Tomobe town, Ibaraki prefecture. Open field chrysanthemum cultivation at Tomobe town was started by a veteran returning in 1946. Because the major crop cultivation system on the upland fields at the time was a double cropping system of wheat and potato, only a few farms were interested in floriculture. When chrysanthemums were sold at high prices in the flower wholesale market in Mito city, chrysanthemum cultivation began to spread among farms in the Namusanzuke district of Tomobe town. The number of chrysanthemum farms in Tomobe increased from the 1950's to the mid-1960's. Chrysanthemums were shipped to flower wholesale markets in Tokyo metropolis and Tochigi prefecture in the early 1950's. After three shipment cooperatives were founded in the mid-1950's, chrysanthemums were also shipped to local flower wholesale markets in distant regions, such as Kanagawa prefecture and Miyagi prefecture. Although the three cooperatives were united as a branch of Agricultural Cooperatives in 1972, the relationship between farms and wholesale markets still restricts distribution by floricultural farm. Floricultural farms in Namusanzuke district are divided into two types, on bases of total sales revenue from cut flowers: six full-time floricultural farms and 15 part-time floricultural farms. The farm management of the former farms is characterized by two generations of agricultural family labor with chrysanthemum cultivation in open fields and cut flower cultivation in plastic greenhouse facilities. The farm management of the latter farms is characterized by one generation of agricultural family labor and chrysanthemum cultivationin open fields. The aging of family labor and lack of successors is hindering cut flower cultivation in some of the later farms. The former farms sell a large amount of products through cooperative shipments of Central Ibaraki Agricultural Cooperative. The latter farms sell products largely through individual shipments of the Agricultural Cooperative. Cooperative shipments forward cut flowers mainly to large flower wholesale markets in Tokyo metropolis and Kanagawa prefecture. Individual shipments forward cut flowers mainly to various local flower wholesale markets in eastern Japan through distribution centers in Tokyo metropolis. The cut flower's production-distribution mechanism is suitable for the structure of flower wholesale markets of Japan, e. g., several enormous wholesale markets in the metropolitan area and many small wholesale markets in local cities. The individual distribution system for local wholesale markets is an important factor for maintaining the chrysanthemum production, especially by part-time floricultural farms. However, unified flower wholesale markets in Tokyo and large-scale wholesale markets, which request high-quality flowers through cooperative shipments, are to be constructed. The regional organizations, such as the flower section of Central Ibaraki Agricultural Cooperative and the municipality of Tomobe town, should endeavor to introduce producers to new cultivation techniques for producing high-quality flowers that can pass the standard for cooperative shipment.
In this paper, the author discusses urban agriculturalfunctions and their changes in the metropolitan area of Tokyo prefecture. Following this discussion, the author analyzes some factors that have caused changes infunctions of urban agriculture, and she demonstrates the multi-functional system of urban agriculture with a case study in the Nishi-Ooizumi area of Nerima ward. Nerima is located in the northwestern suburbs of metropolitan Tokyo about ten kilometersfrom the metropolitan center, and Nishi-Ooizumi is located in the northwestern part of the ward. Although this area has had good accessibility to the metropolitan center in terms of commuting, agriculture has continued to be practiced since the 1970s. Productive green land, an importantfactor in the sustainability of urban agriculture, comprised 66.4 percent of all thefarmland in Nerima ward in 1997. Based onfield surveys and land use maps, somefunctions in terms of both agriculture andfarmland wereidentified in Nishi-Ooizumi area. They have beenclassified intofive types: agricultural production, amenity and environment, disaster prevention, leisure activity, and land supply. Changes in these functions have been divided into threeperiods: urban fringe agriculture, early urban agriculture, and growth of urban agriculture. In each period, the author considers the interaction among functions and the conditions affecting them. In the period of urbanfringe agriculture, before the early 1960s, farmland was the dominant use of land in the Nishi-Ooizumi area, and agriculture there was mono-functional and belonged to the agricultural production function. In the period of early urban agriculture, the latter 1960s and the 1970s, the land supplyfunction dominated because of high economic growth and the enforcement of the City Planning Act, but because some agriculture in the area fell under the agricultural production function, there was a dual functional system at this time. In the period of urban agriculture growth, during andafter the 1980s, agriculture continued tofall into the agricultural production and land supply functions, but the other three functions-amenity and environment, disaster prevention, and leisure-were introduced at this time. Thus, thesefivefunctions have interacted with eachother and created a multi-functional system in the last two decades. This multifunctionalization was caused by rising land prices, a review of measures against calamities after the Hanshin earthquake in 1995, and environmental conservation. The land supply function has been regarded as detrimental for sustainable urban agriculture because it also appropriated land for nonagricultural use and thus contributed to the decline of agriculture. Nevertheless, urban farmland also performed an important function in getting funds for farmers. Accordingly, sustainability of urban agriculture depended on the land supply function. In summary, the differences in function in each period were caused by the influence of enforcement of laws, business conditions, and urbanization of the area. Although urban agriculture originally was mono-functional and fell under the agricultural production function, it came to include other functions as a dual-functional and then a multi-functional system.
Coalbed Methane (CBM), a clean natural gas, has been expected to be utilized as one of the new domestic supply energy sources in China. The development of CBM in China has entered into a new phase, namely the execution of feasibility studies on exploration and production in particular areas, following the first phase of a general survey of CBM reserves. Institute of Petroleum Geology, Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources (MGMR) performed a general survey of CBM reserves in China, and they evaluated the potential for developing and using CBM at each reserved area from such criteria as methane contents in coal, coal rank, permeability, and coal deposit conditions. The purposes of this paper are to introduce the said evaluation of CBM reserves in China, and also to introduce some CBM reserves data obtained by test drilling in North China area, Hunan Province and Sichuan Province.
This paper discusses the recent spatial changes in the Lille Metropolitan Area under EU Integration. Lille was once a dull industrial city in northern France with low transport accessibility. However, the opening of the TGV and Channel Tunnel has greatly enhanced Lille's proximity to other European large cities, and Lille is now enjoying its excellent position in the heart of Europe. Low-level functions are being dispersed in surrounding areas, while high-level functions such as finance and corporate headquarters are being concentrated in central Lille. Though Lille has succeeded in transforming itself into a major international node of the European system of cities, it is, on the other hand, now in the thick of intense cross-border inter-city competition brought about by the unification of the EU
The aim of this paper is to study how German social geography has been developed since the Second World War. The obvious differences in geographical thought between H. Bobek and W. Hartke canbe noted, although both geographers played leading roles in the post-war development of German social geography. Bobek founded German social geography by publishing his paper in1948 and debated vigorously with E. Otremba in 1961. He also published famous papers on“main stages in socio-economic evolution” and “rent capitalism” as empirical studies. Atthe same time, he contributed to constructing a scientific system of geography which becamea paradigm that would lead German geography until the German Geographic Congress Kiel in 1969. On the other hand, Hartke studied spatial actions of small social groups or individuals by means of an indicator approach as shown in studies of regional identity based on analysing newspapers in 1952 and of social fallows in 1956. Establishing the ‘Munich school’, he had a large impact on German geography. In the 1970s studies on action spaces of individuals rather than of social groups were developed in German social geographyby introducing behavioral geography of English-speaking countries. And, in the late 1970s when a textbook titled ‘Social geography’ was first published, the ‘Munich school’ of German social geography was already on the decline. Comparing the development of German geography with that in English-speaking countries, old-fashioned systems and organizations of universities and geographical associations are observed in Germany; due to poor contact with German sociology and its lack of empirical studies, the development of social geography was delayed in Germany, although analyses at the micro level depending on field surveys were highly developed. At the German Geographical Congress Kiel held in the midst of university strugglesin 1969 students and young geographers asserted the abolishment of regional geography (Landerkunde) and Landschaftskunde by adopting concepts and theories of positivist geography introduced by D. Bartels in his habilitation thesis in 1968. This event had a serious effect on German geography. The education of regional geography took a step back, but curiously, more books on regional geography were published than before. Quantitative methods have been developed, while it was required to be socially relevant. However, positivist geography itself could not so spread as it did in English-speaking countries ; after its decline not only humanistic geography but also Marxist geography were not so highly developed as in English-speaking countries. Under the existence of plural paradigms some new movements appeared at the end of the 1970s. The reconstructing of regional geography and improving of scientific systems such as “Theoretical geography” published by E. Wirth were discussed and severely criticized by D. Bartels and G. Bahrenberg. In the early 1980s research on regional consciousness was examined as a new branch of social geography. In addition, social geography that depended on spatial actions came into existence.