The Kuma formation of Kyusyu is the type of the Kuman series, the highest stratigraphical division of the Permian System of the Japanese Islands. It has a characteristic fusulinid fauna including highly evolved forms and quite free from Neoschwagerina remains ; the Yabeina yasubaensis-Lepidolina toriyamai zone, with this fauna, is the highest fusulinid zone in the Permian System in Japan. This is the view maintained by R. Toriyama and K. Kanmera and supported by many followers. This Kuman series seems originally to have had an extensive geographical distribution, since the remains of its fauna are found from several localities wide apart one another, not only in the Outer Zone of Southwest Japan, but also in its Inner Zone (the Mainzuru group) and even in Northeast Japan (the Takagami conglomerate of Tyosi Peninsula). Notwithstanding such an extensive distribution of the Kuma formation during the Later Permian, it does not exist, remarkably to say, along the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Takatiho district, Nisi-Usuki-gun, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyusyu., where according to N. Kanbe, the limestone with a Skytic fauna, at the base of his Kamura formation is continuous downwards, through a 10 meters thick unfossiliferous limestone, to another with Neoschwagerina megasphacricaDeprat, N. margaritae Deprat, Yabeina cfr. katoi (Ozawa) at the top of his Iwato formation. This faunule differs evidently from the Kuma fauna and is rather closely similar to the Yabeina shiraiwensis fauna geochronologically, the uppermost limestone with this faunule of the Iwato formation may be as old as, or rather somewhat younger than the Yabeina shiraiwensis zone. Then, the Kuma formation some 900 meters thick, of slate, sandstone, conglomerate, and poor in limestone, is entirely lacking between the two formations, unless it is represented by the 10 meters unfossiliferous limestone-an interpretation which seems to the writer hardly convincing. By way, it will be mentioned that the writer now suspects the approximate contemporaneity of the Yabeina globosa-Y. shiraiwensis subzone of Neoschwagerina-Verbeekina zone and Yabeina yasubaensis-Lepidolina toriyamai zone in Toriyama's scheme of the Permian stratigraphy of Japan.
One of the objects in a geographical study of underdeveloped countries in various parts of Asia is to investigate the process of ecological changes of their rural communities, which, combined with various regional factors such as natural environments, patterns of land utilization, economic condition, social and historical structure of villages, religions, life cycle of the inhabitants or the level of contacts with the outer world, represent exceedingly complicated conditions. In aiming to visualize regional characteristics, a geographer must comprehend the changes from a 'synthetic point of view. At the same time, these changes show us different examples of modernizing process of rural communities which can be treated comparatively. Through these investigations it is important to discover to what degree the traditional factors still dominate the rural life or hinder the process of modernization. By collecting these data can be obtained suggestions as to the speed and perspective of modernization of Asiatic rural communities. In studying these problems, the writer wishes to give special consideration to the religious factors which are inseparable from the rural life in most parts of Asia and to investigate the religious influence upon the patterns of land utilization as well as upon the economic status of the village life. The construction of this paper is as follows : 1) Traditional factors perceived in the process of land utilization. 2) Traditional factors perceived in the daily life, especially from the standpoint of income and expenditure. 3) Changing traditional factors as the result of impact from outside. 4) Necessary conditions demanded for the modernization. Investigations include various examples such as of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaya, Thailand, India and Southwestern countries.
With the development of ultra-long-period seismograph, dispersion of mantle Rayleigh waves of more than seventy up to several hundreds seconds of period has been actively investigated. Existence of low-velocity layer in the upper mantle has become clearer. Dispersion of mantle Rayleigh waves also revealed that the depth of low-velocity layer beneath the oceanic basins is shallower than that beneath the continents. Further discovery of lateral variation of upper mantle structure is expected.
A flank eruption in a radial fissure took place at the basaltic volcano of Miyake-jima, one of the Seven Izu Islands, on August 24, 1962, after a repose of 22 years. The activity lasted only about 28 hours and the total volume of lava and ejecta is estimated to have been about 0.009 km3. But the islanders (population : 6359) became extremely uneasy and nearly 60 % of them sought safety on other islands of Japan, because swarms of severe earthquakes were felt on the island after the eruption. The writer intends here to sketch in broad outline the 1962 eruption and also the characteristics of the volcanism of Miyake-jima in pre-historic and historic times.