This study focuses on the educational context of population geography, in which common key words are extracted from population geography textbooks, considering interrelations between the key words with the presentation of the minimum essentials for population geography education. Population geography emerged as a pivotal element in geography in the 1950s and became more systematic in human geography in the 60s and 70s. The demographic revolution in population geography became evident in the 80s, redefining the subdiscipline as spatial demography. In the 90s, population geography again emphasizes its identity of being a subdiscipline of geography (Fig. 1). Eight population geography textbooks are selected, which range from an introductory guide to an advanced review of academic affairs (Table 1). The extraction of key words is based on the KWIC (key word in context) method, which extracts nouns and noun phrases from textbook contents. The results are summarized as follows (Table 2 and Fig. 2). 1. It is the principal requirement of population geography education to comprehend the characteristics of “population” (key word number 1 in Table 2) from geographical perspectives. Comprehension is based on the following six subcontents : definition of “population geography” (4); process of “population growth” (8); components of “populationchange” (20); “population distribution” (22) and its spatial pattern ; contribution to “population policy” (43); and projection through “population modelling” (45). 2. “Migration” (2) is the second principal common key word, which has two categories : “internal migration” (31) and “international migration” (37). The former contains intraurban “mobility” (16) and daily “circulation” (41) in some cases. 3. The importance of “fertility” (7) or “mortality” (14) is lower than that of “migration” (2). But it is important to clarify “fertility pattern” (34) in a spatial context. 4. In population geography, “transition” (12) is almost used as “demographictransition” (28). While, traditionally, demographic transition was regarded in the same context of vital transition, some textbooks make it possible to include mobility transition and epidemiological transition. 5. The remaining common key words also play important roles as components of population geography education. Concretely, they can be expressed as follows : learning through “case study” (19); “analysis” (44) oriented to “theory” (6), “model” (21), “factor” (33), “process” (36) and “system” (40); and emphasizing “scale” (47) and “individual” (48) concepts.
The Ulsan fault system situated in the southeastern part of Korean Peninsula marks the western range front of the Mt. Tohan (745.1 m) to the Sandae Peak (629.1 m) with the remarkable Ulsan fault scarp. This system extends with a N-S trend for a distance of more than 40 km. The NNE-SSW trending 200 km-long Yangsan fault and this Ulsan fault are recognized as the most important active faults on the Korean Peninsula. From interpretations of aerial photographs and detailed topographic maps, and field surveys along the central part of the Ulsan fault system, the major results are summarized as follows : 1. The Ulsan fault system extends in the direction of NNW-SSW to N-S and the trace is slightly sinuous (Fig. 1). The middle to higher river terrace surfaces on this system are displaced up thrown to the east side (Fig. 2). The streams and the ridges across this fault trace are not accompanied by systematic lateral displacement. The Ulsan fault system is a typical example of reverse faulting, considered from the behavior of fault outcrops (Figs. 3, 4, 5). 2. The vertical displacements are about 5 m on the middle terrace, and about 15 m on the higher terrace from measurements of topographical cross-section across the fault scarplets. The cumulative vertical displacement is recognized during and after the formation of the terraces. The sense of vertical displacement of fluvial terraces coincides with the magnificent fault scarp. This mode of mountain-building movement has continued repeatedly at least since the middle of Quaternary. 3. The terrace surfaces originated from the dissected fan surfaces in the late Quaternary. From geomorphic correlation, facies analysis, development of soil covering the terraces, and results of dating of humic material, etc., the ages of terrace surfaces are roughly estimated and the average slip rates of vertical displacement are measured to be about 0.1-0.08 mm/y. 4. Fault outcrops are clearly observed along the Ulsan fault in this area. The shattered granite rocks thrust over the gravel deposits composing the middle terrace at the north bank of Sagok Pond, Malbang-ri, Wedong-eop, Kyeongju-gun, Kyeongsang-bukdo (Fig. 3-A, B). The fault strikes in the direction of N-S and dips eastward at an angle of 20-30°E. The shattered granite is in contact with the slightly weathered and deformed gravel at the northeast of Kaegok-ri settlement (Fig. 5). 5. Liquefaction phenomena are observed within the upper horizon of the middle terrace deposits at the northwest of the Sagok Pond (Fig. 6). 6. As the NNW-SSE (or N-S) trending Ulsan fault system is predominantly a reverse fault and NNE-SSW trending Yangsan fault system has been dislocated with a predominant right-lateral slip in the late Quaternary, it is estimated that this area is situated under the maximum horizontal stress field in the ENE-WSW (or E-W) direction.
Generally, most sake breweries were established by local people. But in case of present day sake breweries in Saitama prefecture, more than half were established by brewers from Echigo and Ohmi, while a few were established by brewers from Saitama. One reason for this is that brewers from Echigo and Ohmi extended markets by establishing many branch houses, on the other hand, brewers from Saitama were conservative. Then, the sake brewers had to produce more delicious sake to meet demand. They need well water which contains little Fe and Mn, good quality rice, and excellent brewing technology to make delicious sake. The well water quality and the brewing technology together with the organization and the market were closely related with the rise and fall of sake brewers. In this paper, differences of well water quality and brewing technology of breweries are analyzed. As a result, the successful brewers established breweries where there was good quality well water, and they had excellent technologies. The typical brewers were from Echigo and Ohmi. While brewers from Saitama operated in the eastern part of Saitama where they pumped well water that was unsuitable for brewing. Because there was very little competition among brewers in eastern Saitama, brewers from Saitama could continue to operate breweries. Brewers from Echigo and Ohmi also used bought-in rice for brewing. Brewers from Echigo especially had excellent techniques to produce high-quality sake in eastern Japan. Brewers from Ohmi lagged behind brewers from Echigo on technical innovation. Conversely, most brewers from Saitama depended on tenant rices as well as traditional technologies. They were defeated in competition over quality and disappeared. But the quality improvements of brewers from Echigo and Ohmi had not gained competitive power in the Tokyo market. There was a price gap between Saitama sake and national brands, and Saitama sake was helped by selling at lower prices. As a result, brewers from Echigo tried to sell within Saitama, and brewers from Ohmi changed their sales outlet from Tokyo to Saitama. Brewers from Saitama who lost sales outlets, sold sake at bargain prices in Tokyo, and this caused a declining general popularity of Saitama sake in Tokyo.
The High Plains regions of the western United States, once called the Great AmericanDesert, recently emerged as a center of beef production. This paper examines the development process of cattle feedlots and beef packing plants and the vertical integration attained by major agribusinesses in southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River valley in southwestern Kansas has retained optimal conditions forcattle fattening since the late nineteenth century. Prior to the advent of irrigation farming, cattle were grazed on native grassland and stubbles of wheat and milo (grain sorghum), while the region was an important winter refuge to which cattle were brought from other grazing areas. The beet sugar factory operated in Garden City during the first half of the twentieth century also provided cattle with excellent feed. Cattle finishing began with farmer feedlots where grain growers fattened their cattle, depending on subsistent feed harvested within their farms. The number of feedlots increased from the late 1960s through 1980 as the plentiful ground water resources of the Ogallala Aquifer were exploited using center pivot irrigation systems, and feed crop production increased rapidly. Although the majority of farmer feedlots went out of business with a return to grain farming by the 1980s due to unstable beef prices, the number of commercial feedlots, owned and operated by agribusiness firms and depending entirely on purchased feed, increased. The total number of feedlots decreased after 1980, while the sizes of feedlots expanded and their integration proceeded. Some commercial feedlots developed into corporate custom feedlots by expanding feeding capacity and diversifying business operations. The development of cattle feeding in the High Plains promoted a locational shift ofAmerican beef packing industry. It was traditionally found in and around large cities adjacent to stockyards. Large packers, such as IBP, originated in the Corn Belt to take advantage of feed supplies and to secure easy access to feedlots, began to establish new packing plants in the High Plains. Monfort and Excell, two other major beef packers, also expanded their beef packing operations in the High Plains by either initiating or purchasing beef packing plants. New developments in marketing such as refrigerated boxed meat also promoted such locational shifts. Four major beef packers of IBP, Monfort, Excell, and National Beef Packing have major packing plants in southwestern Kansas. Major grain companies have been playing an important role in the development of vertically integrated grain-cattle-beef business. A subsidiary of Cargill, Inc. operates seven large feedlots, and Excell also belongs to this grain company. Continental Grain, another major grain company, operates the largest feedlot in the United States. Thus, southwestern Kansas is characterized by the beef industry where feed production, cattle fattening at feedlots, and beef packing are effectively integrated on the abundant ground water resources of Ogallala Aquifer.
Hachijo Island, located on the volcanic front of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc, consists of two stratovolcanoes : Nishiyama and Higashiyama. Nishiyama (Alt. 854.3 m) is a scarcely dissected cone called “Hachijo-fuji”. Nishiyama began its volcanic activities about 10, 000 years ago. Many lateral volcanoes exist around Nishiyama, and one of them, Kandoyama (Alt. 194.9 m) is a tuff cone which was formed by a phreatomagmatic eruption. This study discusses the stratigraphy of deposits, and the eruptive types and the eruption ages of Nishiyama after the formation of Kandoyama. The results are summarized as follows. 1) This study names four air-fall pyroclastic materials “Ny1-4”, which erupted from Nishiyama after the pyroclastic surge eruption of Kandoyama (ca. 2, 500 y.BP). All of them are scoriaceous. 2) Ny2 erupted from a lateral volcano on the west of Kandoyama. This scoria cone is composed of agglutinate. 3) Ny3 erupted from the summit crater of Nishiyama ca. 1, 100 y.BP. Ny3 was widely distributed on the southeast flank of Nishiyama, but it did not reach the foot of Higashiyama. Prior to the eruption of Ny3, a large amount of lava flowed down the southeast flank of Nishiyama. 4) Ny4 erupted from a crater row along the southeast side of Nishiyama. From the description found in archives, it is clear that the eruption of Ny4 corresponds to A.D. 1605 (Keicho 10th) eruption. Ny4 deposited around the vents as agglutinate, and air-fall materials were widely distributed on the southeast side of Nishiyama. However, the total volume of Ny4 was the same or less than that of the Miyakejima 1983 eruption and the Izu-Oshima 1986 eruption. 5) There are descriptions in the archives of at least four eruptions and about ten occurrences of earthquakes and tsunami in and around Hachijo Island. The fissures and tsunami deposits which followed historic earthquakes were found at the Yaene site located on the south side of Nishiyama. The pyroclastic materials from Nishiyama date these past earthquakes.
Holocene cores with many highly dense 14C ages present new methods for stratigraphy. For example, the following new information can be obtained from the Holocene in the southern part of the Miura and Boso Peninsulas, such as, 1) development over time of a sequence during a transgressive-regressive cycle; 2) time-series of the progradation of beach-shoreface systems; 3) variation of paleo-depths; 4) accumulation (depositional) rates and rates of sea level rise; 5) explanation of disagreement between age and stratigraphic horizon; 6) recognition of tsunami deposits and determination of ages; and 7) crustal movements of earthquake uplifting area. The unique information is shown with short time errors within 100 years, and is also given as a time-series and variation rates. This dynamic information and the interpretation of Holocene strata will introduce a new paradigm in sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology.
Ground temperature was continuously measured during 1994-1996 on a debris-mantled slope near Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen. Measurements were taken at one-hour intervals using a digital data logger connected to four platinum thermistor sensors, which were inserted at 0, 10, 40, 80 cm in depth. Diurnal freeze-thaw cycles occurred only five times during the 1994 freezing period and 14 times during the 1995 freezing period. The average frost depth during these diurnal cycles was 4.7 cm. Small daily temperature ranges at the ground surface indicate that the slope was covered with snow from middle September to June or July. The late-lying snow cover was responsible for the absence of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles during the thawing period. Seasonal freezing began in middle to late September, and the freezing front penetrated to a depth of 80cm during these weeks. The seasonal frost began to melt in mid-June, and the thawing front reached a depth of 80 cm in two weeks. The thickness of the active layer was estimated to be about 110 cm on the basis of the distribution of the mean ground temperature profile in July. Seasonal freeze-thaw cycles are considered to be much more selective in producing periglacial landforms in this region than diurnal cycles.