Rock mechanics is a branch of science put forward very recently by several researchers_ It shows good promise of benefit to economization and security of various ground engineering projects such as works for roads, tunnels, dams, mines, drills, reclamations, etc. In these connections, rock mechanics is a younger sister of soil mechanics. Indeed there is no apparent boundary between them. The sediments of young geological ages may be treated as soils, but in view of subconsolidation due to grain to grain bond by water, they appear as. aelotropic plastic solids. Experiments prove almost perfectly plastic behaviour of these materials. This nature may be ascertained by the fact that the bond cannot be hardened under the due deviatoric stress. The crystallogenic rocks to the contrary have been supposed to be brittle rigid substances, ., but for that those under high geostatic pressure act as plastic body like metals. All the rocks are creepable subjects. Although the rate of flow in creep is very slow, it seems to be the principal process that makes folded structures. Therefore, the rock creep is a phenomenon of paramount interest in pure scientific aspect of rock mechanics. The knowledge will be useful in oil and gas exploration. Rock mechanics is more intimately connected with geology than with the other related sections of science, for not only the rock masses are heterogeneous and aelotropic, but they have complex fracture systems including clefts with crushed and pulverized substances. The precise analysis of the system may be helpful in prospective work for the underground resources. In the mathematical analysis, we will adopt the generalized tensor notation for convenience sake instead of classical farmalities. Also application of Cartesian tensor analysis may be appreciated. Outdoor observation and model testing are pari passu important approaches to the larger objects in geological scale, but executions of laboratory experiments by means of extensive modern scientific equipments are very desirable.
In February, 1957, the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition established a station, called “Syowa”, on a small island off Prince Olav Coast, East Antarctica. The station had been occupied by the wintering teams untill February, 1962, except during the period from February, 1958, to January, 1959. Various kinds of scientific observations, for example, aeronomy, meteorology, geology, geomorphology, glaciology, biology, and so on, had been carried out at the station and on its surrounding Antarctic continent. The station was temporarily closed in February, 1962, on account of logistic and financial difficulties, and the reopenning of the station for scientific activities is now being discussed by the Japanese government. In this paper, activities of the Japanese Antarctic Research.Expedition are described and some of scientific results in geography, geology, geodesy, glaciology, and so on are briefly explained.
General review of the Antarctic observation in the field of cosmic rays, ionosphere, aurora, night air glow and geomagnetism was presented and several advantageous points of observation in the Antarctic region were emphasized. World-wide distribution of cosmic-ray intensity was studied by means of the observations made on board the ship “Soya” and the problems existing between cosmic-ray equator and geomagnetic equator were discussed. Relations existing between solar phenomena and ionosphere were reviewed and the results of observation of ionosphere in the Antarctic region, especially spiral distributions of maximum occurrence for blackouts, relations between auroral Es and polar cap blackout were mentioned. The latitude effect of night air glow was studied by the observation made on board the ship “Soya” and the relation between the intensity and the ionosphere F2 layer was discussed. In order to solve the complicated phenomena in the field of aeronomy, the reopening of the observation in the Antarctic region is strongly hoped.