Present writer compiled here a description of the progress of the great excavation at Choukoutien which was shown party in the works by Black, Teilhard de Chardin, Young, Pei, Weidenreich, Chia and Hasebe.
From the standpoint of urban geography, Batavia, the colonial city in the tropic, includes various interesting problems. Among them, the distribution of street-names of the city is rather unique. Besides many names originated from things Netherlands, name-groups due to natural or historical facts in Indonesia are more often given as street-names. Among them, we can distinguish islands, flora or fauna in Indonesia, volcanoes or rivers in Java, places in Sumatra, personal names of ancient Javanese Kingdom or various gods of Hindu religion. As mostly these name-groups are given collectively to various parts of the city, together with the special atmosphere which every parts creates, they are playing a big role on the formation of geographical pattern of the city. This synthetic expression of natural and historical characteristics in whole Indonesia seems especially suitable, because the city is the capital of the archipelago. By the way, when we investigate about the meaning of place-names in Java, we know the greater majority is occupied by the names originated from volcanoes, rivers, fauna and flora of the island. Here, where the natural strength is powerful, it seems quite natural, too.
Most Japanese diatomaceous earths occur, like foreign ones, in the formations belonging to the Neogene Tertiary, viz. Miocene and later. There are some distinct differences between the marine diatomaceous deposits and fresh-water deposits. Whether the origin of the earth is pelagic or Emilie, can be readily detectable by studying the assemblage of specks and by identifying the types of frustules. The diatom rich beds are commonly found in the Tertiary formations composing the oil fields along the coast of Japan Sea. These beds are of use in geologic research as key beds, if the rock facies and the floral, assemblages of fossil diatoms, are closely inspected. Besides, there are a good many localities in Japan, where deposits of diatomaceous earth of excellent commercial quality, which are mostly of fresh water origin, are found.
This is a sort of shale which contains minute grains of diaspore besides kaolinite. There are nine layers of “aluminous shales” in permo-Carboniferous beds, which cover Ordovician limestone unconformably, and the layers are classified as A, B, C, D, E, F and G from upper to lower. The shale is composed of kaolinite, diaspore, nontronite, rutile, sporogelite, halloysite, chlor-opal, and doelterite, and the granularities of crystals are as follows.
It is a remarkable fact that in spite of proximity to Tokyo, eastern Kanto plain is characterized by self-sustenance economy, and extensive use of land, as well as by low standard of living of agrarian people. Contrary to western Kanto where more intensive use of land is of common practise as indicated by the usage of heavy commercial fertilizers and consequently bigger per unit area yield of crops, as well as by double crops system of rice fields, and where agriculture is closely combined with sericulture and various sorts of manufacturing industries including silk weaving, eastern Kanto is dominated by single crop rice system, self support of fuels and fertilizers, predominance of food crop production such as sweet potatoes besides rice, barley and wheat, extensive distribution of flat upland forests and pastoral lands, as well as by the absence of significant manufacturing industries. In many respects, eastern Kanto may be regarded as the southern extension of Tohoku district in terms of agricultural land use. The present article treats of the historical development of land reclamation of Shimosa upland, the central portion of this district, then deals with the agrarian condition by taking a rural village called Yamakura-mura as an example, and lastly tries to find out some clue to the solution of the problems concerning future development of this region.