A deep-sea animal community crowded around whale bones was found near the summit of the Torishima Seamount during the submersible Shinkai 6500 cruise of Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC). The Torishima Seamount, east of Torishima Island, about 550 km south off Tokyo, is tectonically situated in forearc of the Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin) arc-trench system. The focus of Shinkai 6500 dives was on forearc seamounts of the system, where serpentinite was recovered at the time of Leg 125 of the Ocean Drilling Program. The deep-sea animal community, therefrom, offers some significant insight on origin of deep-sea ones. Deep sea animal communities have hitherto known along the oceanic ridge system and from the landward slopes of the subduction zones. The former is a hydrothermal vent community in divergent plate boundary. whereas the latter is cold seep community in convergent plate boundary. Another quite rare type of chemosynthetic animal community, life of which supported by nutrition of lipid seepage from sunken whale bones, was found in the Santa Catalina Basin, west of the United States. The deep-sea animal community from the Torishima Seamount is biologically similar to the last one in depending on nutrition of whale bones. The whale bones was discovered as white cubic materials on the way to the summit of the Torishima Seamount during the dive #148 of Shinkai 6500. The white cubic stuffs were linealy distributed and were together with various kind of deep-sea animals such as shrimps, sea urchins, star fish, vivalves, worms, and gastropods. Such different type of queer animal community were recorded by video movie and photographs, and specimen of the whale bones was collected.
Mit Berufung auf das Raumordnungsgesetz hat Bundeskanzler Kohl am 30. Januar 1991 angekündigt, gleichwertige Lebensbedingungen in den neuen Ländern der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zu schaffen. Es interessierte mich, welche raumordnerischen Instrumente der “alien” Bundesrepublik, die dort seit Mitte 60er Jahre entwickelt worden waren, nun unter ganz anderen geographischen und wirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in den neuen Ländern angewendet werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, unter Berücksichtigung der heutigen Situation der Infrastruktur und unter Einbeziehung der Umweltfragen zu verdeutlichen, welches raumordnerische Konzept bzw. welche Raumordnungspolitik im Beitrittsgebiet verfolgt wird. Die Hauptergebnisse sind folgende : 1. Im Vergleich nicht nur mit der alten Bundesrepublik, sondern auch mit anderen EG-Ländern liegt die Infrastruktur des Beitrittsgebietes (mit Ausnahme der kulturellen Einrichtungen wie z. B. Theater und Orchester) auf dem schlechsten Niveau. Die dringendste Aufgabe steilte der Ausbau der Kommunikations-und Verkehrsinfastruktur dar. Hinzu kommt die ernste Situation der Umwelt insbesondere in den südlichen Industriegebieten ; fast die Hälfte der Bevölkerung leidet dort unter großen Luftbelastung, was zu einem guten Teil die hohen Abwanderungsquoten erklärt. 2. In siedlungsstrutureller Hinsicht gibt es den großen Gegensatz zwischen den dünn besiedelten, strukturschwachen ländlichen Räumen im Norden und den industriellen Verdichtungsräumen im Süden. Berlin hatte allerdings als Hauptstadt der ehemaligen DDR mit ihrer zentralistischen Planwirtschaft eine sehr günstige Lage. Der Abbau der regionaler Disparitäten ist somit nicht nur wegen des großraumigen Ost-W est-Gefälles, sondern auch wegen des Süd-Nord-Gefälles innerhalb der ehemaligen DDR eine wichtige Aufgabe der Raumordnungspolitik. 3. Zur Schaffung einer ausgewogenen Siedlungsstruktur nahm das Bundesministerium für Raumordnung, Bauwesen und Städtebau “das punktachsiales Entwicklungskonzept” wieder auf, das in der Anfangsphase der westdeutschen Raumordnungspolitik eine wesentliche Rolle gespielt hat, seit den späten 70er Jahren jedoch deutlich an Bedeutung verloren zu haben scheint. Da zentrale Orte im Raumordnungsprogramm oder -plan jedes Landes ausgewiesen werden sollen, werden anstelle von Oberzentren “12 Entwicklungsregionen” vorläufig festgelegt. Die Ausweisung der Gebietskategorien und Vorranggebiete liegt in der Zuständigkeit der jeweiligen Länder. 4. Die Eindämmung der starken Abwanderung jünger und hochqualifizierter Menschen nach Westdeutschland ist abhängig vom Erfolg der raumordnerischen Malßnhamen im Beitrittsgebiet. Sicherlich ist die Ausweisung von Entwicklungsregionen (als Entwicklungspole) und großräumigen Achsen (für den Leistungsaustausch) nützlich. Hinsichtlich der Übertragung des punktachsialen Entwicklungskonzepts habe ich allerdings einige Zweifel, obwohl ich selbst auch kein neues Rezept habe. W ird es möglich sein, mit der Konzentration der Fördermaßnahmen auf die 12 Entwicklungsregionen positive Effekte für alle Teile des Beitrittsgebietes zu erreichen ? Man sagt, daß es zumindest in den hochentwickelten Ländern nur wenige erfolgreiche Beispiele der Wachstumszentren-Politik gibt. Können die gegensätzlichen Probleme der nördlichen und südlichen Gebieten von der Erneuerung der Siedlungsstruktur gelöst werden ? Diese Entwicklungen werde ich mit besonderem Interesse verfolgen.
The study is aimed at the development of processing methods of remotely sensed data from satellite for extraction of the groundwater potential areas. Analyses of the existing operational wells for groundwater supply indicate that 81 % of them are related with lineaments and 51 % of them are located at the intersections of lineaments. Thus the features of lineaments are considered to be one of the most important parameters to extract a high potential area of groundwater. Taking into account features of lineaments and also information obtained from geographic information system, high potential points for groundwater were extracted from landsat TM data based on the theory developed in the research, then verifications were made through actual boring. The result of verification indicates that 9 out of 18 points yield more 200 cubic meter/day which is the amount required from economical point of view for an operational use. Since actual boring was made not on the recommended points for 4 points which did not yield enough output due to difficulty of approach to the exact points and approval for boring could not be obtained the result might have been improved if the exact points were bored and if boring had been made deeper since the maximum depth of boring was limited to 62 meters.
Migratory flows involving an urban environment include movements into, out of, and within towns and cities (Lewis, 1982, p.118). Urban migration refers to all of such movements, that is, in-migration, out-migration and intra-urban migration. Previous studies have put emphasis on differences between the former two and the last one types of migration. But both yield insights into the urban residential mobility. The purpose of this study is to elucidate distribution patterns of urban migration in the Kanto district where rapid urbanization has created the most advanced society in Japan. 125 administrative cities in the Kanto district constitute one dimension of the geographic matrix (Figs. 1 and 2). And the other dimension represents attributes of migration, which are divided into four variable groups named as mobility (Table 1), sex ratio (Table 4), age structure (Fig. 5) and migration field (Fig. 8). It sums up to 61 variables and the data are derived from the Population Census of Japan 1970 and 1980. In order to eliminate the garrulous correlation, the principal component analysis is applied to the variable groups individually (Tables 2, 5, 7 and 8). Then, by means of Ward's method of cluster analysis, the 125 cities are classified into three types in the mobility (Table 3 and Fig. 3), four types in the sex ratio (Table 6 and Fig. 4), five types in the age structure (Figs. 6 and 7), and seven types in the migration field (Figs. 9 and 10). The results are summarized as follows (Fig. 11) : 1. The cities with low mobility are distributed in the outer suburban zones of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. In the inner suburbs, cities show high mobility of the in-and out-migrations. And, in terms of intra-urban migration, high mobility characterizes the cities with large population or high centrality. 2. It can be observed that Tokyo and its inner suburban cities tend to be male-dominant in the in-migration. However, it is not sure whether the distribution has a zonal structure or not, and the sex selectivity is of less significance especially in the intra-urban migration. 3. The youth labor force aged 15-19 is the most important age group in explaining the distribution pattern of age structure. The out-migration of this age group shows a very strong contrast between the high mobility level of cities located in the outer suburban zones of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area on the one hand and the low mobility level of those located in the inner suburbs on the other. Additionally the cities with high centrality are characterized by the high mobility level of in-migrated 15-19 age group. 4. Generally speaking, the number of in-and out-migrants decreases rapidly with the increase of distance to travel, and thus the migration field exhibits a horn-like shape which is common to all of the cities. However, there are differences between those migration fields in terms of the location of another peak of shape, which represents the distance from Tokyo and determines the types of migration field. Therefore it becomes very apparent that the distribution of those types forms a concentric pattern centering around Tokyo. 5. In quantitative comparison between the four distributions of urban migration mentioned above, the intensity of concentric pattern becomes lower in the order of migration field, mobility, age structure and sex ratio (Table 9). Also, in terms of urban population size, it can be confirmed that there is the high level of correspondence between the two distributions, that is, mobility and city size (Table 10).
In the northern part of Nagano Prefecture, the Pliocene strata are well exposed. They consist of the Arakurayama, Ogikubo and Sarumaru Formations in ascending order. The Ogikubo Formation, which age is assigned to 43Ma, yields abundant molluscan fossils. Four molluscan associations, showing different environments, are discriminated in the Ogikubo Formation. They are Mya-Macoma Association (intertidal zone), Mizuhopecten-Chlamys Association (upper sublittoral zone), Conchocele Association and Chlamys-Tridonta Association (lower sublittoral to upper bathyal zone). The first shallow association distributes only in the southeast flank of the Orihashi Syncline, whereas the distribution of the last two deeper ones are limited to the northwest. In this area, the shallower associations are recognized at the upper stratigraphic horizon than the deeper ones. The molluscan fauna of the Ogikubo Formation includes many cold-water species, whereas a few warm-water species are found in the Mizuhopecten-Chlamys Association of the southeast flank of the Orihashi Syncline.
The authors have an interest in establishing a valuable method for obtaining reliable information on environmental changes in the past by examining humus properties of volcanic ash soils. In this study we investigated Pg absorption, the spectral characteristics of humic acids. Remarkable absorbances in alkaline humic acids at wavelength of 615, 570 and 450nm were named Pg absorption by Kumada et al. (1967). Kumada (1981) considered that Pg is a kind of green pigments derived from sclerotia and that Pg contains compounds similar to DHPQ the derivative of 4 : 9-hydroxyperylene-3 : 10-quinone. Though Pg is widely found in world soils and is suggested to be a reliable indicator to infer vegetational and climatic environments of the past, the mechanisms of Pg formation is not yet known well. The purpose of this study is to clarify the environmental factors regulating the distribution of Pg absorption strength in the field and to evaluate Pg absorption strength as an environmental indicator through the investigation of properites of Pg absorption strength in volcanic ash soils in Japan. In this study we investigated 21 sites in six volcanic areas, the Towada, Akagi, Nantai (Nikko) of Northeastern Japan and Ashitaka of Central Japan and the Daisen and Kirishima of Western Japan. Each soil were sampled from surface layers of uncultivated lands. Besides soil humus analyses, which are of organic carbon content, humus composition and spectral properties of humic acids, phytolith composition was investigated to examine the relationship between Pg absorption strength and vegetational environment at present. Warmth Index and Humidity Index, which are climatic indices proposed by Kira (1945), were also calculated for each sample site using climatic grid data compiled in the Digital Information on Japanese Land. There was no relation between Pg absorption strength and carbon content. On the other hand, PQ (percentage of humic acid to total humus) and RF (color intensity of humic acid) both show negative correlation with Pg absorption. These facts confirm that Pg absorption strength is regulated not by the amount of humus but by the quantity and quality of humic acid. Referring to the report of Sato (1974), we consider that brown fractions in humic acids called Pb fractions mask Pg absorption appeared in spectral curves of humic acids. As for climatic environment, Pg absorption strength has a negative correlation with Warmth Index (n=20, r=-0.55*). The relationship between Pg absorption and Humidity Index is not clear enough to remark. Furthermore, we estimated the yield of grasses from the density of grass phytolith in soils. We found a strong positive relation between Pg absorption strength and the yield of Bambusoideae Sasa (n=21, r= 0.81***), while a negative correlation with that of Miscanthus (n=21, r=-0.67***). From this study, we confirmed that the strength of Pg absorption is strongly regulated by the vegetation. Particularly Miscanthus acts to control down the strength of Pg absorption. We must notice that most of the investigated sites in this study range in cool temperate forests. The role of Pg absorption strength as an environmental indicator will be clearer at the time when we make further investigation in soils formed under warm temperate forests.