地学雑誌
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
ISSN-L : 0022-135X
65 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
  • 福井 英一郎
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 149-158
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Among many of the climatic classifications of the world, the Köppen's is one of the most useful and widely adopted one for many practical purposes, although it has been about thirty years since the publications of his climatic map of the world (Klimakarte der Erde, 1928, Gotha). However, this does not mean that his scheme is completely satisfactory and reasonable, because it contains many differences with actual distribution of geographical phenomena in the light of more recent knowledge. Aside from methodological and theoretical considerations, we can find the following two important weak points in the Köppen map.
    (A) Actual wrong position of the boundary lines due to the inadequateness of reliable climatic data. Especially in Asia and Africa, the net of the meteorological observation was very thin, in addition, the length of observation period was short, so that the placing of climatic boundaries was not exact.
    (B) Unsatisfactory choice of numerical value limits between two climates. This results from the fact that Keippen built his system mainly on the information from the northern hemisphere and from Europe. For example, the D-E boundary corresponding to the tree-limit given by the 10°C isothermal line of the warmest month, is fairly consistent with the actual features in northeastern Europe and northern Siberia ; it does agree as well in northern Canada and there is much deviation in the high latitude region of South America. The same difficulty is experienced in the b-c boundary. Furthermore, the division of C climate (Cf, Cw and Cs) is fairly satisfactory in Europe and Western America, but it is not acceptable in the eastern side of Asia and N. America.
    In the present paper, the study is limited to the first item (A) and I have reconstructed the Köppen map of Japan, Korea, China, Indian Peninsula and Indonesia, using the new available data, but not changing the Köppen's numerical values. As for item (B), discussion will appear in the “Geographical Review of Japan” in the near future. In brief, the changes are as follows : Japan : Japan proper is altered very little even with new data. In Northern Japan, D climate appears at a relatively low altitude, the Mizusawa-Morioka Plain and a part of the Aomori Plain belong to D, rather than C climate. The greater part of the Japanese mainland is Cf a, but Dr. Sekiguchi found also that Cwa occupies small separate areas mainly on the Pacific side of Honsyu, Shikoku and Kyusyu Islands. Hokkaido consists of D climate excepting the southwest periphery of the island, but it is divided into Dfa, Dfb and Dfc (Fig. 1.), instead of Dfb only as on the original map. Sakhalin : no change
    Taiwan (Formosa) : A-C line is shifted somewhat to the north, and A is divided into Aw and Af instead of Aw only, as shown in Fig. 2.
    Korea : C-D line is moved southward in the inland region, and D is divided into Dfa, Dwa and Dwb instead of Dwa only, as shown in Fig. 3 as compared with the original map.
    China proper and Manchuria : Modification is greatest in this region. Cwa is limited to a narrow strip and the former wide region is replaced by Cfa. Also BS climate spreads far south as compared with Köppen, reaching to the northern side of Shantung Peninsula. Hence the Dw climate in Northern China is restricted to the very small area near Peking-Tientsin district. In Manchuria, however, Dwa is the typical climate, and only the western part is occupied by BS climate as shown in Fig. 4.
    Indian Peninsula : BS climate on the Deccan Plateau has been enlarged (Fig. 5.) and this may have some geographical significance for India. Other regions show only small changes from the original map.
    Indonesia : A considerable area of Am climate is interposed between Af and Aw in Java Island as shown in Fig. 6.
  • 長井 政太郎
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 159-167
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Gozoku-yashiki-mura is a village type originated from the premises of local powerful families in the southern part of Tohoku district. The origin of the older ones of them goes back to Heian period (8-12 centuries), and in some places the sites of residence of still earlier period are well preserved. Many of the rulers of early days who were the heads of the mansions became the farmers later, and settled in this part of the country. Their ways of living are to be surmised by the remaining earthen walls, moats surrounding the mansions, family shrines and the like.
    The question is why this kind of powerful families could have survived through long ages in this particular district like a cultural fossil. It is partly explained by the remoteness of Tohoku district which enabled them not to be too much influenced by the changes in the center. It is also because the feudal lords of later period adopted the policy to take advantage of their influence over local people, so long as it was not against their own interests.
    We can surmise the development of rural settlement here, through the analysis of present aspects of such premises. These are the grounds some 55 X 55 meters large, surrounded by moats and earthen walls. Some of them are even larger, and near them there lived their hereditary retainers called Nago or Fudai. Besides the historical reasons, here to be noticed is the existence of conditions for the preservation of such a way of living. The general nature of landform here is a very gentle slope, which developed some local habits different from most parts of this country. Such are the habit of using stream water for drinking, and that to let the rubbish flow into the fields as fertilizer, by means of irrigation canals. These habits all put together, helped to make the disseminated village an economically favorable type of settlement.
  • 尾原 信彦, 中村 久由, 渡辺 和衞
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 169-179
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    奥羽山脈東側寄りの緑色凝灰岩 (グリーンタフ) 地域は雪崩による裸岩地と崩壊地とが発生し, 河川は常時荒れ川の相貌をみせるのに反し, 西側出羽丘陵の油田第三紀層 (オイルターシヤリ) 地域は地辷地が卓越し, 特にその南部の銅山川一帯は油田第三紀層の上に厚い火山灰 (シラス) が被覆しているために, 地辷の程度が桁外れに激しさを加えていることがわかつた。
    中央の盆地は含炭層地帯となつているが, こゝは洪水時の洪水冠水と扇状地の干魃以外には土地災害があまり顕著でない。
    南東限の東小国村には, 凝灰質砂岩層および礫岩層が分布し, 河川に流れ込む土砂の量が多く, これは下流部に被害を及ぼす。
    なお断層線に沿つて地辷地の発生している所が, 数カ所見受けられた。
    崩壊と地辷りとは直接関係はないが, 硬質岩地域では崩壊は裸岩地に進む。渓流の側方侵蝕と雪崩とが主要な営力であり, 岩石の天然風化も補助的な営力である。軟質岩地域では渓流の縦侵蝕と側方侵蝕とがともに作用して, 川沿いに亀裂を生じさせ, その亀裂に沿って深層風化が進み, その部分が滑面となつて地たりが起きる。この地辷りは後方へ後方へと拡大して行く。粗鬆岩地帯では雨裂・崩壊, まれには陥没が起きるが, 構成粒子の形が角ばつているか, あるいは円味を帯びているかによつて, 地形も異なり, また災害の程度も違つてくる。
    滲透水の速度を計算してみると, 第2表のようになるが, これは地辷り・崩壊・雨裂などを量的に表示する指標となりうる。
    モンモリロナイト系粘土は地た地から検出され, カオリナイト系粘土はシラス以外の崩壊地から検出された!透水係数とこれら粘土鉱物との間に一定の関係がある。
  • ペ・エヌ クローポトキン
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 181-196
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • レイマー
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 197-204
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    粒径分布 (Particle size distribution) と比表面 (Specific surface) とは, 種々の窯業原料のもっ幾っかの性質, ならびに窯業混合物中におけるそれらの行動を支配している。このような理由で, 窯業家は粒径測定法のいくっかを理解し, かっこれら種々の方法の限界と適合性を承知していることが好ましい。こゝに粒径分布および比表面決定方法の幾通りかについて概括的な検討を加え, 実験室操作, 固有誤差, 各種の方法によって測定可能な粒径の範囲などについて論議をする。
  • 青野 壽郎
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 205-206
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 諏訪 彰
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 207-208
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 208
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 208a
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 208b
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 208c
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 208d-209
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 209
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 209a
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 209b
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 209c
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 帷子 二郎
    1956 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 209d
    発行日: 1956/12/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
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