This paper discusses a number of general issues and new trends of spatial data analysis in the GIS environment and focuses on two kinds of spatial data analysis, i. e., exploratory and confirmatory data analysis. The exploratory data analysis is the most common approach in GIS and has taken different forms. In an exploratory data analysis, data are used in an inductive fashion to gain new insights. On other hand, a confirmatory data analysis is a traditional approach, and uses spatial statistics and quantitative geographical methods in a GIS environment. In particular, spatial statistics are more general than statistics for non-spatial information, because they require access not only to attributes (non-spatial information), but also to locational and topological information. Recently, spatial interpolation has become a major function of many GIS. In this paper, two forms of spatial interpolation, the interpolation of point and areal data, are distinguished and reviewed. A series of methods that link spatial data analysis modules with GIS are outlined and how the linkage should be made in practice is discussed. Two types of linkage are distinguished in this area. The first is an interface type, which involves interfacing spatial data analysis modules via macro languages provided by the GIS. The second type integrates GIS with spatial data analysis software, which involves file transfers between the GIS and other software. This paper also reviews directions for future research on GIS applications and there is a conviction that the future success of GIS technology will depend to a large extent on incorporating more powerful analytical and modelling capabilities.
Construction of the Chubu International Airport has started off Tokoname City (Chita Peninsula) in Ise Bay, Central Japan. Various surveys such as bathymetry, seafloor drilling, sonic prospecting, and geologic examinations of recovered borehole core samples have been performed to reveal soil engineering characteristics, submarine topography, submarine geology, and the precise locality and mode of movement of the Ise Bay Fault at the bay area (Chubu Kukou Chousakai=The Chubu International Airport Research Foundation, 1994). Many fruitful results on the Ise Bay Fault have been gained, as follows: (1) The bay area is underlain by the A (Holocene), B (upper Pleistocene), C1-C2 (upper to middle Pleistocene), and T (basement) Formations, in descending order. The A, B, C1, and C2 Formations are correlated with the Nan'yo, Nohbi-First Gravel-Toriimatsu Gravel, Atsuta (lower part), and Ama Formations below the Nohbi Plain, respectively. The basement T Formation corresponds to the Mio-Pliocene Tokoname Group. (2) The Ise Bay Fault extends several kilometers off the west coast of Chita Peninsula, parallel with the coast line, downthrown on the Ise Bay (west) side. (3) Mode of faulting is divided into three types, namely, a) flexure type in the northern part. b) steeply westward dipping type with small-scaled thrusts downthrown Chita Peninsula (east) side in the middle part. c) high-angle faulting type in the southern part. (4) Mean vertical slip of the Cl Formation is measured 46, 42, and 35 meters in the southern, middle and northern part, respectively. Vertical slip of the B Formation measures 2-11 and 2-5 meters in the southern and middle part, respectively, and is not clearly detected in the northern part because of horizontal bedding. Accordingly, the fault is inferred to be more active in the southern and middle parts. Based on the above mentioned results, the Ise Bay Fault is evaluated as follows, (5) The average slip rate of vertical displacement ranges from 0.23 to 0.45 meters per 1000 years, which ranks Class B (lower) in the degree of activity.
To analyze the relationship between temporary changes in water current and water pollution, we constructed a numerical model for drift current in this paper. Water quality estimation maps were also drawn by fuzzy regression analysis between remote sensing data and water quality measurements. Lake Hachiro in Akita was selected as the test site for the case study. Computer simulation result of the flow vector agreed well with the water quality estimation maps. It can be concluded that drift current helps clarify water quality.
Late Quaternary glacial fluctuations in the Esaoman-Tottabetsu Valley, inthe northern Hidaka Range, central Hokkaido were reconstructed based on stratigraphy of glacial landforms and sediments. By mean of tephrochronology, the two previously known stadials of the Last Glacial Stage, the Poroshiri and Tottabetsu Stadials, were reassessed. Shikotsu 1 tephra overlain by the terminal moraine of the Poroshiri Stadial at the river bed of 850m a. s. l. indicates that the glacier reached its maximum at around 40ka (Oxygen Isotopic Stage 3: OIS-3). This advance should have been initiated in the preceding cold period of 01S-4. Kuttara 6 tephra (86 ka) in the proglacial outwash deposits indicates that a glacier fluctuated in the vicinity of the cirque bottom even in the relatively warm period of the early Last Glacial Stage (01S-5b). Contrary to this stadial, the glacial and proglacial deposits including Eniwa a tephra (18 ka) show that the glacial advance during the Tottabetsu Stadial (LGM) in this region was restricted within the cirque bottom. The penultimate glaciation, named the Esaoman Glaciation in this study, was suggested by the discontinuously traceable remnant bed topography along the river basin. These features recommend that the glacial advance of this stage reached at 750m a. s. l., lower than during the Last Glacial Stage.
The Himalayas are composed of E-W stretching mountain ranges formed as a foreland fold-thrust wedge. This paper discusses the latest phase of fold-thrust wedge development through morphogenesis and active tectonics of the Himalayan Front. The deformation front of the Himalayas is generally known as the sub-Himalaya or the Outer Himalaya. The sub-Himalayan morphostructure is characterised by a sequence of range-front anticlinoriums, which are fault-propagation-folds of the Himalaya Frontal Fault (HFF), and piggyback basins. Piggyback-basin deposition has been shifting from the Garhwal Front in Middle Pleistocene time to the Eastern Nepal Front in the Holocene. In other words, the morphogenesis of the HFF propagates from west to east. The lateral propagation of thrusting is considered to be possible under a left-oblique convergence between the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayas. The growth rate of the range-front anticlinorium is in accord with uplifting rate surveyed in interseismic periods. Conversely, coseismic deformation, which was recorded in the 1905 Kangra earthquake, was in conflict with the morphostructural profile of the sub-Himalaya. These facts suggest that interseismic slips chiefly generate the morphostructure of the Himalayan Front.
The Mitoke active fault system (MAFS) is about 50 km long with a NW-WNW strike in the western margin of the Tamba Mountains, and is generally characterized by an uplifting of the northeast side accompanied by a left-lateral slip. The MAFS is composed of many active faults and is one of the largest active fault system in the northern Kinki district. The Tonoda fault is situated in the central part of the MAFS and is about 15 km long. Based on a study of the fault topography, the Tonoda fault acted with an uplifting northeastern side and a left-lateral slip during the late Quaternary period. A paleoseismological study was requested due to the lack of evidence on which to base on evaluation of earthquake risk. To clarify the age of the latest event and intervals of events of the Tonoda fault during the late Quaternary, trenches were excavated across the fault scarplet at Sekibayashi where this fault cut river terraces with a NW trend. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: This fault is a reverse fault with northeastern side up-thrown and fault planes dips about 80° to the north. Based on differences of geologic section and fault striation, this is accompanied by a left lateral slip. 1) The vertical displacements of depositional surfaces of Li and L2 terraces are 5 to 9m and 1.9-3m respectively, based on drilling and trenching data. This fault is characterized by a average vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3m/1, 000 years during the late Quaternary period. 2) At trench B, three faulting events were identified since 11 ka. The latest event was dated to be 1, 950-2, 310y. B. P.(A. D. 100-B.C. 395), that is from the Middle Yayoi to Latest Jomon period. The second and third latest events were dated to be 5, 500-7, 500y. B. P, and 8, 500-10, 710y. B. P. The average reccurence interval of faulting is estimated to be about 3, 740 years. A much older faulting event from 17, 000-22, 000y. B. P. was only identified at trench A because of the poor resolution for a paleoseismicity analysis.
Various studies have been carried out on whaling mainly by American vessels throughout the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans in the 18th and 19th centuries. The studies cover firstly the natural history of whales; secondly, an enlarged geographical view in accordance with the expansion of operating areas, almanac of whaling activities, and studies on whaling from the standpoint of the social sciences. Naturally, there are many unsolved problems in social science studies with their relatively short history. Nevertheless, the writer seeks to identify-by approaching new resources and references-the conditions that made New England the center of whaling in the 18th and 19th centuries. The writer wishes to point out that the favorable environment for investors made it possible for them to acquire enough funds to start whaling businesses. In those days, new vessels were built and used ones were purchased by consortiums supported by joint small investments in each vessel. A consortium, unlike companies today, did not try to increase the number of vessels. It dissolved itself when a vessel was no longer used or was sold. There are two explanatory theories; deficiency of capital for ship building and losses due to various accidents. These two theories do not necessarily seem to match the facts. As for the former case, investors allocated small amounts for many vessels at the same time. As for the latter, there already existed insurance to cover sea accidents although not a poor hunt. Accordingly, many consortiums were repeatedly established or dissolved. At the same time, each consortium provided good opportunities for investors. Under these circumstances, no individual risked owning a whaling vessel by investing a substantial amount. Instead, investors left the management of their vessels to an agent. The agent was one of the investors in a consortium, but his investment was modest. He was also a merchant who handled supplies of necessities for voyages of vessels, and sales of whale products upon a vessel's return. Therefore, an agent, like other investors, tried to expand his sales by investing small amounts in many vessels, and at the same time protected himself from a poor catch. Even if a loss was incurred, it was covered by profits from other vessels and sales. Thus the fund provided by other investors was also protected. Profits from whaling to the crew members were distributed by a lay system. According to this system the crew had to share the risks of fluctuating whaling fortunes, but even in this case the investors' fund was always protected. Conventional social restrictions upon employing crew members had already been removed, and a new employment custom based on a distribution of profit was established. The contract between the whaling management and the crew was renewed at each voyage. In this case, head hunters were active. They provided crew members with information on the personal experience of each master of a vessel, and on the productivity of each vessel. These facts were very important because they affected the distribution of profits, and the crew selected the next vessel based on such information provided by head hunters. Under such circumstances, investments encouraged further investments in New England, and whaling developed into an industry. New England attracted many people with professional skills and knowledge, and became the center of the American whaling business. It lasted much longer in the region than in any other parts of the country.
An urban system consists of node and linkage, which are indispensable to study the changing process of an urban system. In this study, we investigate the changing process of the urban system of Korea through linkagesby analyzing the OD data of long-distance intercity passenger flows using public transportationbetween 38 major cities in Korea in 1977, 1985, and 1995. Intercity passenger flows withinthe same Do (province) and short-distance flows of less than 90km are excluded toconcentrate the analysis to long-distance flows, which reflect linkages of the natural urban system. Theresults are as follows: The factor analysis (R-mode) selects majorlinkages with factor scores of more than ±1.0 and with factor loadings of more than ±0.6. In 1977, Factor 1 represents the most dominantflows from Seoul or Taegu to most of the other cities. Factor 2 represents flows from theinland cities to the coastal industrial cities in Kyongsangnam-do. Factor 3 repersents flowsto Kyonggi-do (Seoul metropolitan area), and Factor 4 represents flows to cities inouter part of the coastal industrial area. In 1985, Factor 1 and Factor 2 represent the samepatterns as those of Factors 1 and 2 in 1977, respectively. But Factors 3 and 4 in 1977changed positions with each other, because of the rapid growth of the coastal industrial cities in Kyongsangnam-do. In 1995, Factor 1 represents flows from Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, and Taejon. Factor 2 represents flows to Kyonggi-do. The factors representingflows to the coastal industrial cities in Kyongsangnam-do (Factor 2 in 1985), however, losttheir relative importance, because of the termination of rapid economic growth. TheSeoul metropolitan area has reinforced its primacy in the 1990s, followed by the growth ofregional centers such as Pusan, Taegu, and Taejon. The analysis of the largest flow from each cityshows that Seoul has always been the largest destinaton and has strengthened its dominance.As for the second largest flow, Pusan, Taegu, and Taejon have been major destinations, and Pusan has become the second important city after Seoul. On the other hand, manysmaller cities have lost their status as destinations of flows, and cities in Cholla-do have becomemore closely connected to the Seoul metropolitan area. The four large cities, Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, and Taejon also occupy high relative positions in the linkage between cities. Kwanjiu and Chonjurank next, and other cities such as Ulsan, Pohang, Suwon, Kangnung, and Chinju also raised theirrelative positions in the 1990s. Judging from these results, we can conclude that thehierarchical structure in the urban system of Korea has strengthened at the side of the linkageas seen from that of node.
Data for Japanese alluvial fans have been made available on the Internet using ArcView IMS, a GIS-based map server software package. This system permits easy on-line browsing of the data from anywhere in the world and the creation of thematic maps at various scales for the area around an alluvial fan.