In this study, we explored cultural scripts in narratives about future life by comparing three different cultural groups. Participants were 236 Japanese, 83 Chinese, and 179 American undergraduates. They were asked to imagine and describe freely one day 10 years ahead. Through content analysis, we found that narratives about one's future life are likely to reflect scripts unique to each culture. Japanese narratives tended to be vague and to focus more on inner states. Chinese narratives were likely to contain concrete goals and behaviors, as well as aspirations. American narratives emphasized a nice job and a happy life with family. A “going with the flow” pattern, “mountain climbing” pattern and “happy ending” pattern were found to be dominant in Japan, China and the U.S., respectively. It is suggested that these culture-specific patterns are similar to the features of cultural texts prevailing in each society. Future research is needed to explore how these scripts emerge and how they influence people's behavior in reality.
This study investigated effects of distraction in problem solving situations. University undergraduates (N=258) were instructed to remember their recent experience of being depressed about academic achievement, and then they completed a questionnaire which measured their concentration on distraction, positive mood, problem solving behavior, negative rumination, and knowledge of effective activity. The results of path analysis indicated that concentration on distraction enhanced problem solving by facilitating positive mood. Knowledge of effective activity enhanced problem solving, while negative rumination impaired problem solving because it negatively affected concentration on distraction.
The Experiences Questionnaire measures decentering, the state of observing thoughts and feelings as temporary events in the mind. This study developed the Japanese version of the Experiences Questionnaire (JEQ). The fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis (n=297) suggested an acceptable fit to a model consistent with the original. The correlations (n=411) between the J-EQ and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire- II, the Affective Control Scale, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Cognitive Control Scale showed adequate construct validity. Internal consistency (n=411) and test–retest correlations of factors (n=54) indicated good reliability of the J–EQ. The J–EQ can be used to examine the influence of decentering on psychopathology.
This study examined narcissistic self-esteem regulation based on the relationship between narcissism and contingency of self-worth among Japanese adolescents. The results of correlation analysis indicated that the grandiose facet of narcissism was positively related to emphasis on appearance, competition, and family support, and negatively related to approval from others. The hypersensitive facet of narcissism was positively related to all dimensions of contingency of self-worth except appearance. The results for grandiose narcissism generally support the (extended) agency model. The necessity of investigating cultural differences in future studies was discussed.