Approach commitment has a buffer effect on the detrimental effects of avoidance commitment. In this study, we examined whether this buffer effect occurs in both long-distance dating relationships (LDDR) and geographically proximal dating relationships (GCDR). There were 46 participants who were in LDDR and 112 who were in GCDR. Result revealed no difference in the buffer effect on relationship satisfaction between LDDR and GCDR. In contrast, the buffer effect on relationship constraint was different between LDDR and GCDR, and it did not occur in LDDR. These results suggested the process that maintains relationship quality was different between LDDR and GCDR.
This study examined the effect of personality similarities on interpersonal attraction, focusing on the characteristic personality traits of persons evaluated by study participants. A total of 373 university students evaluated the attractiveness of four “stimulus persons,” described as scoring highly on each of the Big Five traits. For high-extraversion and high-agreeableness stimulus persons, the greater their similarity in characteristic personality traits to the evaluating participant, the higher the interpersonal attraction was rated. These results suggest that similarities in characteristic personality traits play an important role in the similarity effect in personality.
This study examined the relationships between self-evaluated possession of character strengths and disaster preparedness actions from the viewpoint of positive psychology’s character strengths research. An internet survey of 500 adults between the ages of 20 and 69 was conducted, and the relationships between the subjective possession of 24 character strengths and the degree of implementation of disaster preparedness actions (including individual, household, and community actions) were analyzed. The results showed positive correlation coefficients between all character strengths and disaster preparedness actions. In particular, the character strength of leadership was strongly related to disaster preparedness actions. The reproducibility of these findings should be examined in future studies.
This paper proposes that self-deprecating presentations displaying a lack of ability and low performance are intended to obtain others’ positive evaluations. Although previous research has suggested that people fearing negative evaluations actively engage in self-deprecating presentations, the reasons for this have not been clarified. The considerations in this study were as follows. It was assumed that others’ positive evaluations carry the risk of over expectation, which could lead to the fear of negative evaluations for not meeting these expectations. Therefore, people make self-deprecating presentations to avoid eventual negative evaluations.
The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure the self-image instability of early adolescents. The subjects were 937 students (272 fifth and sixth graders and 665 junior high school students) who responded to a self-report questionnaire twice, one month apart. Factor analysis revealed that the self-image instability scale includes three subscales: positive changes, negative changes, and neutral instabilities. The scale demonstrated good correlations with test–retest and existing scales. Negative self-image changes and neutral instabilities had positive correlation with stress responses, while positive changes had small negative correlations with stress responses.
This study examined the test–retest reliability of the Japanese version of the Grit Scale. The Grit Scale was administered twice at two-month intervals to university and professional training school students. The correlation coefficients of each subscale of Grit between the two time points were r=.75 (consistency of interest) and r=.69 (persistence of effort; ps<.01), respectively. The correlation coefficient of the aggregate score of the Grit Scale between the two time points was also significant (r=.77, p<.01). These results indicate that the Japanese version of the Grit Scale has a certain level of test–retest reliability.
We developed the Japanese version of the Game Engagement Questionnaire (GEQ). In the survey, 600 participants completed the GEQ, the Buzz-perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ) and the Dissociative Experience Scale-II (DES-II). Factor analysis verified the four-factor structure (absorption, immersion, flow, and presence) and demonstrated it to be an acceptable reliability (Cronbach’s α=.74–.86). The validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed by significant correlations of the total score between each subscale of the GEQ and the BAQ, or each subscale of the GEQ and the DES-II. The results indicated the acceptable validity and reliability of the questionnaire.