The present study investigated the relationship between forgiveness and the cultural values of the Japanese. Multiple regression analysis indicated that dispositional unforgiveness of self/situation was negatively related to independent self-construal and positively related to interdependent self-construal. The results show that the value of forgiveness of self/situation is low in the Japanese worldview. In the relationships between the religious faith scale and the sub-dimensions of dispositional forgiveness, forgiveness of others was positively related only to the item “religion has harmful effects”. Discussion of the results reveals how cultural and religious beliefs about forgiveness are different in Japan compared to Western countries.
This study examined causal relationships between adjustment and cognitions of importance for the domains of school life by using a cross-lagged effect model. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 338 junior high school students twice (Time 1, from June to July in 2006; Time 2, from February to March in 2007). The results showed that the cognitions of importance for each domain of school life at Time 2 were influenced not only by the cognitions of importance but also by the adjustment to the domains at Time 1. On the other hand, the adjustment to each domain at Time 2 was affected only by the adjustment to the domain at Time 1.
Academic contingency of self-worth (ACSW) refers to the degree to which one’s sense of self-worth is based on academic achievement. Past research on this subject focused on the joint influence of ACSW and achievement (such as success and failure) on affective and motivational outcomes. However, the cumulative effects of past achievement have not been taken into consideration. This study examined how the interaction between ACSW and perceived cumulative achievement influenced motivation. The participants were 226 junior high school students. The results showed that when the self-report of cumulative achievement was high, ACSW enhanced the motivation.
This study investigated individual differences in the influence of anxiety on memory after acute stress. Students were assigned to a stress condition (n=26) or a control condition (n=26). After completing an anxiety scale, the participants were exposed to either a stressor or a non-stressful task. Then they learned neutral, positive, and negative word lists of 10 words each, followed by a 15 min filler task and then a recall test. The results showed that recall performance for positive words was enhanced in the stress condition, but only for the high anxiety group. There was a different pattern of memory bias for the high anxiety group between the stress and control conditions.
Using a behavioral genetic approach, we examined the association between Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and IQ in terms of underlying genetic and environmental etiological overlap. Using the TCI personality dimensions (4 temperaments and 3 character traits) and IQ data for 199 pairs of adolescent and young adult twins, we found a genetic negative correlation between one of the character traits (self-transcendence) and IQ. In contrast, we did not find significant environmental correlations between any of the personality dimensions and IQ. These results suggest that contributions from the same genetic factor operate on both self-transcendence and IQ.