自己価値の随伴性（Contingencies of Self-worth）とは，個人が特定の自己の領域をどの程度重要視しているかの指標である。学業領域の自己価値の随伴性が高いと，学業での失敗が自己価値を揺るがす脅威となることが指摘されている。本研究の目的は，学業における自己価値の随伴性が内発的動機づけ低下に及ぼす影響プロセスを明らかにすることであった。両変数を媒介する要因として状態的自尊感情と失敗場面の感情に焦点を当てた。中学2年生125人を対象に場面想定法により検討した結果，自己価値の随伴性が内発的動機づけを低下させるプロセスと，内発的動機づけ低下を緩衝するプロセスの両側面が明らかとなった。すなわち，自己価値の随伴性が状態的自尊感情と無能感を媒介した場合，内発的動機づけを低下させるが，一方で自己価値の随伴性が後悔を媒介した場合には，内発的動機づけ低下が抑制されることが示された。
The purpose of this article is to present results of an ongoing longitudinal qualitative study that aims to chart the dynamics of professional identity construction of Estonian psychology students over the period that embraces their studies of psychology in a bachelor's program and two years after obtaining a bachelor degree. The construction of an identity is discussed from socio-cultural perspective, and in terms of the semiotic mediation approach. To investigate dynamics in intra-psychological level, the dialogical self theory (Hermans, 1995) was applied. The results show how the Self <> Self and Self <> Other dynamics set up differentiation of inherently inconsistent parts of the Self (“being myself” <> “being a psychologist”), and that the entry into professional role entails inter-individually different linkage of the features of personal culture with different aspects of the expected role of psychologist.
This study examined the effects that irrational beliefs had on responses to stressors in junior high school students. Irrational beliefs and responses to stressors were measured in a survey of 520 junior high school students. About three month later, responses to stressors were measured again, along with the occurrence of stressors during the interval. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated an interaction effect of irrational beliefs and stressor scores on post-interval depression-anxiety, and high irrational beliefs led to the expression of more depression-anxiety.
This study compared the influence of depressive rumination and negative rumination on depression. In a longitudinal study with a 4-week interval, undergraduates completed measures of depressive rumination, negative rumination, and depression at Time 1, and measures of depression and stressors during the study at Time 2. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that depressive rumination, but not negative rumination, predicted depression at Time 2, even after controlling both for depression at Time 1 and for stressors. These results indicate that depressive rumination is a useful concept for research and clinical practices involving depression.
Ten participants with high schizotypal personality traits and 10 comparison participants completed a general knowledge task to measure monitoring resolution (i.e., the extent to which confidence judgments distinguished between correct and incorrect responses) and control sensitivity (i.e., the degree to which the control process was dependent on the monitoring process). The results showed that scores for monitoring resolution were significantly lower for participants with high schizotypal personality traits than for the comparison participants. There was no significant difference in scores for control sensitivity between the groups. The results suggest that a deficit in monitoring processes is a risk factor for the emergence of delusions.
This study investigated the construct validity of the Japanese version of the BIS/BAS scales. A dot-probe task was used, which examined the degree of attention to a fear-conditioned stimulus. The results showed that the BIS-points, which measure the degree of behavioral avoidance or inhibition, were positively correlated with the degree of attention to the fear-conditioned stimulus. There also was a significant or a marginally significant negative correlation between the BAS-points, which measure the degree of behavioral approach, and the response time. The results indicate construct validity of the Japanese version of the BIS/BAS scales.
The present study examined the relationship between concern about privacy and apprehension of the word “privacy.” A web-based survey was conducted with 221 Internet users about how the respondents considered the word “privacy” using an open-ended question. The results indicated that respondents mainly considered the word “privacy” as referring to “personal information” or “secret”. A chi-squared test showed that the proportion of respondents who considered privacy as a “personal boundary” was greater among those who were more concerned about privacy. Moreover, the proportion of respondents who considered privacy as “secret” was greater among those who were less concerned about privacy.