防衛的悲観主義者（DP者）は，方略的楽観主義者（SO者）に比べて自尊心が低く不安が高い一方で，パフォーマンス前の準備を入念に行い，その結果SO者と同程度に高いパフォーマンスを示すとされている。一般に高い不安や低い自尊心は準備およびパフォーマンスを阻害するにもかかわらず，DP者が課題の事前準備に取り組むことができる理由はいまだ明らかになっていない。本研究では，その理由としてDP者には潜在的自尊心の高さがあると考え，DP者の顕在的自尊心と潜在的自尊心に着目した検討を行った。研究1では，質問紙調査によって認知的方略による顕在的自尊心の差異を検討した。また研究2では，Name Letter Taskを用いて潜在的自尊心の差異を検討した。研究1, 2の結果，DP者はSO者に比べて顕在的自尊心は低いものの，潜在的自尊心はSO者と同程度に高いことが示された。
Group socialization theory is the theory focusing on effect of peers on personality development. The theory asserts that the processes of assimilation and differentiation within peer groups have a crucial effect on personality development. However, the degree to which personality development is affected by such assimilation and differentiation is neglected, since many existing researches manipulate assimilation and differentiation through experimental methods. In order to test the impact of peers on personality development, a scale was developed to assess within-group assimilation and differentiation in the context of extracurricular activities. Analyses partially supported the reliability and validity of the scale.
Annual changes in the development of multi-dimensional empathy in junior high school students were examined through assessments conducted at three time points. The longitudinal data were analyzed using estimates of missing data, and a repeated measures design test using the Full Information Maximum Likelihood method. Differences in mean values at the three time points and correlations among the assessment points were examined. Results indicated that Personal Distress and Empathic Concern were the highest in the first grade, followed by that in the third and second grades, respectively. Perspective-Taking was the highest in the third grade, followed by that in the second and first grades, respectively. Fantasy decreased in the second grade as compared to that in the first grade, and it increased in the third grade as compared to that in the first grade. It is concluded that the developmental trajectory of multi-dimensional empathy in early adolescence differs for the different aspects of empathy.
This study aimed to demonstrate experimentally that other-oriented motivation increases the amount of work. We reproduced a scene in which college students participate in part-time work in the laboratory and examined whether other-oriented motivation would lead to an increase in the amount of work in part-time jobs outside the specified time using Bayesian estimation. Findings revealed that participants with conditions that evoked other-oriented motivation would engage in more overtime part-time work than would participants in the control condition. It was suggested that other-oriented motivation increases the amount of work.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transient exercise on the mood in people with sensory sensitivity. The participants were 23 university students. They were randomly assigned into two groups and were required to participate in a rope-jumping exercise for 10 min. The results showed that the relaxed mood of participants with low sensory thresholds significantly decreased and was lower than that of participants with standard sensory thresholds, and their pleasurable mood was stabilized. These results suggest that people need to select adequately intense exercises or alternative interventions depending on their level of sensitivity.
We developed the Japanese version of the Vividness of Odor Imagery Questionnaire (VOIQ). Responding to a survey, 556 participants completed the VOIQ and the Japanese version of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ). Factor analysis verified the one-factor structure and demonstrated it to be sufficiently reliable (Cronbach's α=.80). The validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed by middle correlations of the total score between VVIQ and VOIQ. The results indicated the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
This study investigates how many university students who do not desire a steady romantic relationship become involved in a steady relationship or want to have a romantic relationship in 1 year. A total of 96 students who did not desire a steady romantic relationship at Time 1 were asked about the status of their romantic relationship at Time 2. Those who had the highest score for “the influence of past romantic relationships” were identified, and 29 were found to desire a romantic relationship. The reasons for entering into or desiring a romantic relationship were categorized into seven groups.
The purpose of this paper was to examine a process model in which friendship contingent self-esteem was related to satisfaction through social achievement goals and friendship in junior high school students. Junior high school students (n=772) completed the questionnaire. A path analysis revealed that friendship contingent self-esteem was related to satisfaction through social achievement goals and friendship. The results suggest that friendship contingent self-esteem had positive and negative effects on the satisfaction process.