Platelets adhere to many, but not all, non-platelet surfaces including artificial surfaces, collagen, and subendothelium. Many different methods have been used to study platelet adhesion. But, many questions concerning mechanisms of platelet adhesion remain unanswered. In this study, the glass bead column method, the method of collagen-sepharose assessment of platelet adhesiveness to collagen fibers, and the method for the measurement of platelet adhesiveness to the subendothelium using the flow chamber system according to Baumgartner were used. Morphology of adherent platelets and their adhesiveness were investigated and compared with normal controls and blood treated with platelet inhibitors or antineoplastic agents by these various methods. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), Dilazep. (DZP), or the combination of ASA and DZP, as platelet inhibitors and Daunorubicin (DNR) or Doxorubicin (DXR)as antineoplastic agents were used. By the glass bead column method, platelet retention rate was reduced in these treated bloods at high concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that adherent platelets of these treated bloods on the glass surfaces had no remarkable changes as compared with controls; however, the number of aggregates was reduced. By the method of adhesiveness to collagen-sepharose, the effect of these platelet inhibitors or antineoplastic agents was not significiant. No change in morphology of adherent platelets of these bloods treated with collagen fibers was seen as compared with controls. By Baumgartner's method, by SEM, adherent platelets of the bloods treated with platelet inhibitors at the subendothelium had extended pseudpods and were spread out as much as normal controls. But, platelet thrombus formations were significantly reduced. Antineoplastic agents inhibited spreading out of adherent platelets at the subendothelial surface, and DNR S-2also inhibited the extending pseudopods. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), platelets associated with the subendothelial surface had lost most of their granules; those from normal controls were more affected than treated blood. With antineoplastic agents, adherent platelets at the subendothelial surface were observed to retain the *g r anules and the ring of microtubules in the marginal zone, and then to have a swollen aspect. Platelet adhesion to the subendothelium and thrombi were confirmed and quantitated by light microscopical morphometric technique.
A newly modified enzyme focus forming assay (EFFA) has been developed for the titration of dengue viruses (DV). Infectious foci were stained with peroxidase labeled antibody and colorized with Karnovsky's solution. The foci were easy to count by the naked eye and were semipermanently preserved. The EFFA was compared either with conventional plaque assay or with suckling mouse intracerebral inoculation for the sensitivity and for the incubation period. The EFFA was higher in sensitivity and reduced the incubation period more than 2days in DV titration. Therefore the EFFA was useful for the titration especially of non/weakcytopathogenic viruses. The method was also useful for the ultrastructural study of viral replication in electron microscopy. The variables affecting the assay were investigated.
Ovarian epithelial cystic tumors,132 samples of which were classified to 69 mucinous and 63 serous tumors, were observed immunohistologically with 3 monoclonal antibodies; CEA 010, anti-CA 19-9 antibody, and MAM 115D8, respectively, in addition to 20 non-neoplastic ovarian tissues with fallopian tubes. The antigen expression with CEA 010 in the mucinous tumors were observed in 7% of benign,33% of borderline and 65% of malignant ones, respectively. On the contrary, this expression was never detected in the serous tumors as well as non-neoplastic ovarian tissues. Therefore, the application of CEA 010 may be one of the choice for differential diagnosis of the mucinous cystadenocarcinoma from the serous one and for the estimation of malignancy of the mucinous tumors. Anti-CA 19-9 antibody revealed a higher positivity (36% in benign,67% in borderline and 94% in malignant) in the mucinous tumors, but it showed also positive findings (13% in benign,24% in borderline and 32% in malignant) in the serous tumors. MAM 115D8 expressed MAM antigen in most cases of the examined tumors, as well as surface epithelia, lining cells of inclusion cysts and fallopian tubal cells in nonneoplastic ovarian tissues. In general, staining patterns of the expression were apically cytoplasmic and homologous in normal and benignly tumorous tissues, but they were diffusely intracytoplasmic and heterologous in the malignant one.
Since January,1979, we examined all pregnant women visiting our hospital on antierythrocyte unexpected antibodies in order to detect haemolytic disorder in the newborn (HDN) as early as possible. Among the 4,748 pregnant women examined, antibodies could be found in 147 cases (3.1%). Anti-Le antibodies were found to be the most frequent, and anti-E formed the majority of anti-Rh antibodies detected. Blood transfusion seemed to play a great role in the production of anti-E in our examined women. Among the seven Rh (E) incompatible pregnant cases at our hospital, two were so severe as to need exchange transfusion therapy. Therefore, trials were made; i. e. Rh (E)-negative red blood cell preparations were transfused into the same-blood-type women under forty years of age requiring blood transfusion. We had to prepare 6.9 units of Rh (E)-negative red blood cell preparations per day. The amount was within the capacity of our transfusion unit. Therefore, Rh (E)-negative red blood cell preparations should be used for blood transfusion into Rh (E) -negative women under forty years of age who may experience future pregnancy. Moreover, not only anti-Rh (D) immunoglobulin preparations, but anti-Rh (E) preparations should be developed, particularly in Japan.
Here reported is on SLE patient (30 y. o. female) whose disease was stable under the administration of a small dose of prednisolone (10mg/day) or even without it, that no clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of high activity of her SLE at all from 8 months before she got pregnant through 3 months after her delivery. Nevertheless, she got eclampsia fits at the 35th week of her pregnancy requiring a Caesarean section in order to save both maternal and fetal lives. This SLE case has taught us that pregnancy concomitant with SLE might be accompanied by any troubles related to the pregnancy at any time, even if SLE was sufficiently treated to be inactive. So, we have to care such pregnant cases as those accompanied by SLE with closest attentions.
This study compared the pathogenesis of dengue virus type 2 (DV-2), a mouse-adapted strain and two wild type strains, following intracerebral (i. c. ) or intraperitoneal (i. p. )inoculation in ICR and C3H/He suckling mice. There were no significant differences in the mortality rates and viral growth of a mouse-adapted strain between ICR and C3H/He suckling mice by either i. c. or i. p. inoculation. Suckling mice infected by i. p. inoculation with a mouse-adapted strain resulted in fatal infection, while those infected with wild type strains did not. Wild type strains replicated moderately in the brains of suckling mice by i. c. inoculation. Various passage lines of wild type strains showed different mortality rates and viral growth as compared to those of parent strains. The wild type strains in suckling mouse brain passage showed more striking lesions in the infected brain than those of parent strains. Specific DV-2 antigen was revealed by the immunofluorescent stains in cells of the infected brains.