Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 21 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Cyto-histological investigation of pollen degeneration in anthers of male-sterile plants
    Hirosuke Fukasawa
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 97-106
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Microspore development in male-sterile anthers proceeds normally until about germ-pore formation, but degeneration occurs during the period of mitosis.
    2) Abortive pollen grains in the cytoplasmic male-sterile anthers were classified in five grades during six years; the majority possessed one nucleus or none and a few had two or three nuclei. No change was observed in successive generations.
    3) Artificially sterile anthers induced by the darkness treatment produced almost similar pollen degeneration to that found in cytoplasmic male-sterile anthers.
    4) Histological investigation of sterile anthers revealed that tapetum abnormalities such as hypertrophy or periplasmodium did not occur. Malformed anthers composed of three loculi were occasionally observed.
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  • Relation between chromosome aberrations and X-ray dose or wave length in a diploid wheat
    Seiji Matsumura
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 107-113
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • I. Karyotype of Japanese Eupatorium
    Yukio Huziwara
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 114-123
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1. The chromosome numbers of 6 species and 1 variety of Eupatorium are here reported for the first time.
    2. The basic chromosome number for the Japanese Eupatorium is ten.
    3. Intraspecific polyploidy was found in E. japonicum.
    4. The karyotype formulae are as follows:
    E. variabile
    E. hakonense
    E. lindleyanum
    E. laciniatum
    E. laciniatum var. dissectum
    E. japonicum 3x+1
    E. japonicum 4x
    E. japonicum 5x
    E. stoecadosumum
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  • A. T. Ganesan
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 124-134
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    A comparative study was made of the nucleus of the yeast cell of fermenting cultures in preparations made by using different fixatives and different stains. The results suggest that the bodies identified as chromosomes by Subramaniam and coworkers may be fixation artefacts or complex cytoplasmic inclusions. Endopolyploidy or any other complex cytological phenomena could not be detected. There was no difference between the nuclei of aerobically and anaerobically growing cultures, or between young and old cultures.
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  • Minoru Fujita, Kanji Mizuguchi
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 135-145
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    Experiments and theory on electric stimulation were made in Nitella. The following two points were made clear by experiments.
    1) The relation between threshold voltage strength and its duration can be represented by Weiss's experimental formula. Rheobase is about 50mV and chronaxie is about 0.5 sec. Condenser discharge current stimulation was also made. The relation between initial voltage and its time constant can be represented by Hoorweg's formula.
    2) By application of a rectangular subthreshold stimulus, change in the threshold rises slowly and then decays gradually.
    For comparison, experiments were made with an isolated single muscle fiber of toad. The results are the same in general as the results with Nitella, with the exception of the time scale.
    The experimental results were explained by supposing that the accumulation of a certain quantity of ion is the necessary and sufficient condition for excitation. In order to known the aspect of accumulation of ion, differential equations which state the movement and reaction of ion in the protoplasm were made from a physical point of view. The solution of the equation made it possible to calculate change in the threshold on the assumption that it corresponds to a concentration difference of ions in a definite place in the protoplasm. Strength-duration relation was also deduced on the same ground. Good correspondences were seen between the calculated results and experimental ones.
    We wish to thank Mr. T. Iijima for his assistance in the mathematical phases of thess problems.
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  • Tuguo Tateoka
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 146-152
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    The remarkable resemblance in spikes and spikelets between Brachypodium sylvaticum and Agropyron yezoense is pointed out. The comparison of chromosomes between the species of Brachypodium and those of other genera of Hordeeae suggests that this resemblance is due to convergent evolution.
    I wish to express my cordial thanks to Dr. J. Ohwi who kindly examined the manuscript of the present paper. Thanks are also due to Dr. E. Potztal and Dr. Y. Takenaka for their kindness during the course of the present investigations.
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  • VI. Competition between autotetraploids and their diploid prototypes in Nicotiana Tabacum L
    Kan-Ichi Sakai
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 153-156
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    Diploid and autotetraploid Nicotiana Tabacum were compared with regard to competitive ability. It has been found that mere doubling of homologous chromosomes decreases the competitive ability of tobacco plants, a fact quite comparable to the finding in barley. A brief discussion is given on the different behaviour of auto- and allopolyploidy in related species with regard to competitive ability.
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  • Gonpachiro Yasuzumi, Ichiro Wakisaka
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 157-164
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    A comparative study of the submicroscopic structure of kino-cilia in the oviduct and stereo-cilia in the epididymis of the albino rat has been made by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The kino-cilia are composed of a pair of central fibrils surrounded by 9 peripheral fibrils which are enveloped by a thin membrane. The basal corpuscles are elongated bodies of cilia implanted vertically in the narrow zone of cytoplasma below the surface of the cell. They have a core of a less density and an outer shell of a higher density. From the midportion of basal corpuscle a knoblike process with a periodic structure projects towards the adjacent body.
    The microvilli crowded together between the kino-cilia are the protoplasmic processess enclosed by a membrane. They are devoid of internal fibrous structure. The stereo-cilia are of the same structure as the microvilli. But the former is often swollen and longer than the latter.

    Mit dem Electronenmikroskop wurden vergleichende Beobachatungen über die submikrosopische Strucktur der Kinocilien im Eileiter und der Stereocilien in den Nebenhoden von Ratten durch Schnittpräparate gemacht. Die Kinocilien bestehen aus einem Paar zentraler Fibrillen und aus 9 peripheren Fibrillen, welche von einer dünnen Membran umhüllt sind. Die Basalkörperchen sind die verlängerten Körperchen der Cilien, welche in die schmale Zytoplasmaschicht unter die Zelloberfläche eingepflanzt erscheinen. Die Basalkörperchen haben ein Zentrum mit kleiner Massendichte und eine dichtere Schale. Von der Mittelpartie der Basalkörperchen spricht ein knotenartiger Fortsatz vor zum benachbarten Körperchen.
    Die zwischen den Kinocilien gruppierten Mikrovilli sind mit einer Membran umgebene protoplasmische Fortsätze. Sie bestehen nicht aus Fibrillen. Die Stereocilien haben die gleiche Struktur wie die Mikrovilli, jedoch sind sie angeschwollen and länger als die letzteren:

    Une étudé comparative de la structure submicroscopique des kinocils de l'oviducte, des stéréocils de 1'épididyme et des queues de spermazoides du rat albinos a été fait au microscope électronique sur des coups minces.
    Chaque cil vibratil est constitué par une paire de fibrilles centrales entourées de 9 fibrilles périphériques enveloppées d'une fine membrane. Cet appareil s'inserre sur un double systèm de corpuscules basaux localisés dans la couche supperficielle du cytoplasme apical. Le corpuscule supérieur, ovoids et implanté perendiculairement à la surface cellulaire montre une structure plus dense en surface qu'au centre. Le corpusculc supérieur est relié à l'inférieur par un pont renflé en bouton, dans lequel on reconnait une structure périodique. A la base des cils vibratils il existe des microvilli. Ce sont des prolongements protoplasmiques entourés d'une membrane; ils n'ont pas de de structure périodique.
    Les stéréocils ont une structure analogue aux microvilli, mais ils sont beaucoup plus longs et généralment plus gonflés.
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  • VII. Backcross progenies of the interspecific hybrids of Oryza
    T. Morinaga, E. Fukushima
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 165-178
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Marcus A. Hairston
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 179-182
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Takaichi Yanai, Tetsuro Iga
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 183-187
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    The occurrence of binucleated epithelial cells in the mid-intestine was observed in forty species of heteropterous insects in relation to the morphology of the mid-intestine. The structural types of the mid-intestine were considered in these species, with additinal data from thirty-one species previously studied.
    Based upon the number of segments and the arrangement of caeca, the mid-intestine was classified morphologically into six types; they are Scotinophara, Acanthocoris, Hydrometra, Pirates, Diplonychus and Lygus types. The sixth type, called the Lygus type, was found in the present study.
    In the Scotinophara type, the mid-intestine contains exclusively, or at least mainly, the binucleated epithelial cells, while in the Diplonychus type binucleated epithelial cells are lacking or very rarely found in the mid-intestine. In four other types, the frequency in occurrence of binucleated epithelial cells in the mid-intestine varies from species to species.
    Out of seventy-one species under consideration, twenty species showed the frequency of binucleated epithelial cells at 100 per cent, whereas in forty-four forms it was found as more than 81 per cent.
    In closing this paper, the writers wish to express their cordial thanks to Drs. S. Makino and K. Takewaki for the revision of the manuscript with continued interest and to Dr. T. Ishihara, Matsuyama Agricultural College, for the collection and identification of insects.
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  • VI. Chromosome number of Saccharum spontaneum in Japan Islands
    Akira Moriya
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 188-191
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Chromosome numbers of Saccharuma spontaneum from Japan Islands were determined as follows; Japan proper 2n=112, n=56; Amami Oshima Island 2n=104; Okinawa Island 2n=112.
    2) The writer's proposition (1950) that S. spontaneum of Japan Islands may have independent distribution from the neighbouring area was confirmed by the chromosome counting and comparison of other characteristics.
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  • W. Schreil
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 192-193
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • A phase microscopy study of the mitotic process of tumor cells with lobated nuclei in the MTK-IV tumor
    Yuh N. Nakanishi
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 194-199
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    This paper deals with the mitotic process of tumor cells with lobated nuclei of the MTK-IV tumor followed in living condition by phase microscopy, in hanging-drop preparations.
    The succession of mitotic events was followed from interphase to telophase in single cells, with particular attention to the formation of the nuclear lobes and the behavior of the chromosomes. The results from the present investigation supplement the data obtained in the study of the fixed material in showing that the cells with lobated nuclei are able to re-enter mitosis and undergo a perfectly normal division.
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  • Kiyoko Kuroda
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 200-207
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) La vitesse du courant protoplasmique dans le fragment de la cellule internodale de Nitella, lequel est obtenu par la ligature et la coupe, reprend sa valeur normale 15 minutes après l'opération. Ce processus peut être répété plusieurs fois.
    2) La vitesse du courant protoplasmique dans la cellule dont la pression osmotique est déviée loin de sa valeur normale, atteint le maximum 30 minutes après l'opération pour modifier la pression osmotique. Cette valeur maintenue constante. Mais, elle est toujours plus petite que la valeur dans la cellule normale.
    3) La vitesse du courant protoplasmique est la plus grande dans la cellule dont la pression osmotique est normale, c'est-à-dire, 0.26 mol. Elle diminue selon que la pression osmotique devient plus haute ou plus basse que celle qui est normale.
    4) La viscosité du protoplasme, qui est déterminée au moyen du centrifugeur, est basse dans la cellule dont la pression osmotique est basse, et elle ne change pas extrêmement dans la cellule dont la pression osmotique est haute.
    Nous remercions sincèrement M. le professeur N. Kamiya de l'Université d'Osaka, pour son guide et son encouragement continuels au cours de ce travail, ainsi que Madame M. Kamiya pour son aide aimable à la rédaction de ce manuscrit.
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  • K. Keck, O. Hoffmann-Ostenhof
    1956 Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 208-221
    Published: June 30, 1956
    Released: March 19, 2009
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden cytologische Effekte beschrieben, welche durch Einwirkung von Extrakten aus den Zwiebeln von Allium cepa und Allium sativum sowie von Lösungen von Diallyldisulfid, einem Bestandteil der Lauchöle, in den Mitosen des Wurzelspitzenmeristems von Allium cepa verursacht werden.
    Die mit kaltem Wasser gewonnenen Extrakte aus Zwiebeln von Allium cepa bewirken in den Mitosen der Wurzelspitze derselben Pflanzenart in höheren Konzentrationen vor allem Spindelhemmungen und manchmal auch “stickiness”, während die niedrigeren Konzentrationen verschiedene radiomimetische Effekte, darunter vor allem Chromosomenfragmentationen, hervorrufen.
    Auf gleiche Weise erhaltene Extrakte aus Allium sativum zeigen gegen-über den Wurzelspitzenmitosen von Allium cepa weitgehend gleichartige Wirkungen; sie sind aber in den entsprechenden Verdünnungen nicht imstande, in den Wurzelspitzen der Ursprungsart Chromosomenaberrationen hervorzurufen, haben also keine automutagene Wirkung.
    Das als Bestandteil der Lauchöle bekannte Diallyldisulfid induziert in den Wurzelspitzenmitosen von Allium cepa Effekte, welche denjenigen sehr ähnlich sind, die von den Extrakten aus Allium cepa bewirkt werden, woraus geschlos-sen werden kann, daß Substanzen dieses Typus teilweise für die von den Extrakten verursachten Effekte verantwortlich sind. Die Analogien gehen allerdings nicht so weit, daß man Diallyldisulfid als einzig wirksames Agens in den Allium-Extrakten bezeichnen darf.
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