CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 59 , Issue 2
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • Ahmed E. Yaseen, H. A. Hassan, I. S. Kawashti
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 143-147
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomes from the bone marrow and gonads of Chalcides ocellatus and Chalcides sepsoides were studied from several male and female animals. The two species have the same diploid chromosome number of 2n=28. Karyotypic data were presented from the two species which characterized by 11 macrochromosome and 3 microchromosome pairs. In Chalcides ocellatus, the karyotype consists of 9 metacentric, 2 subtelocentric and 3 microchromosome pairs, while the karyotype in Chalcides sepsoides consists of 7 metacentric, 3 subtelocentric, one acrocentric and 3 microchromosome pairs. No differences were observed in the sex chromosomes of both sexes in the two species.
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  • Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa, Tamotsu Kawazu, Hidenori Takahashi, Kuninori Suzuk ...
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 149-158
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The behaviors of Golgi apparatus in Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Cyanidium caldarium forma A were examined as one aspect of the minimum ultrastructural characteristics of eukaryote by using a serial thin-section electron microscopic technique after rapid-freeze fixation. C. merolae cells did not contain a typical Golgi apparatus or cell wall, while C. caldarium forma A cells contained a cell wall and at least one Golgi apparatus in the cytoplasm. In C. caldarium strain forma A, some vesicles of the golgi apparatus were close to the cell wall during its formation. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus may be intimately related to the formation of the cell wall and may evolve with its formation.
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  • Leena Kapoor, D. C. Gautam
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 159-164
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the karyotypes of ten species of aphids from Himachal Pradesh (Northwestern Himalayas), India, including new chromosome records for two species, have been reported. The chromosomes of other five aphid species collected from different host plants from this region were also re-investigated.
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  • Haiyan Na, Katsuhiko Kondo
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 165-173
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Asarum asperum and A. hexalobum showed the common chromosome number of 2n=24 and quite similar karyotypes to each other. The two species displayed DAPI-positive and negative bands unstable in appearance and CMA-bands stable in appearance in the mitoticmetaphase chromosome complement. Thus, the present CMA-banding approach showed them to be separate species: Asarum asperum was characterized by only four CMA-bands; two positioned at the centromeric region of the 15th and the 16th homologous chromosomes and the other two positioned at the interstitial region of the short arm of the 23rd and the 24th homologous chromosomes. The latter CMA-bands performed either equal combination of two small-sized CMA-bands or unequal combination of small-sized and large-sized CMA-bands, which were depended on population. Asarum hexalobum was characterized by eight CMA-bands; six positioned at the centromeric region of the 11th and the 12th, the 15th and the 16th, and the 19th and the 20th homologous chromosomes and two positioned at the interstitial region of the short arm of the 23rd and the 24th homologous chromosomes.
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  • I. C. Martins-Santos, H. F. Julio-Jr, S. J. Santos
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 175-181
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosomal characteristics of two species belonging to the genus Serrasalmus (S. spilopleura and S. marginatus) from the Paraná basin were studied. The two species showed the same diploid chromosome number 2n=60. However, they showed peculiarities in karyotypic structure that permit their identification, indicating that pericentric inversions were present and were probably the most frequent chromosomal alterations that occurred during the evolution of this genus.
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  • Motomichi Sasaki, Chizuko Nishida-Umehara, Kimiyuki Tsuchiya
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 183-185
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    G-banded partial karyotypes were compared among eight species of owls from six genera, in order to supplement our previous report (Rebholz et al. 1993). A general feature of highly conservative nature of banding pattern homology was recognized in the eight species here concerned, without evidence of intra-arm inversions or deletions, but with some derivations from the putative ancestral karyotype involving two Robertsonian translocations, three pericentric inversions and some additional sub- or paracentromeric G-bands.
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  • A. Hang
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 187-193
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    An acrotrisomic plant was isolated in the progeny of the primary trisomic for chromosome 4. It was designated as acrotrisomic 4L4S. Five marker stocks were crossed as male to the acrotrisomic 4L4S. The F2 segregation in the trisomic tests showed that the gene i, previously located in the distal part of the long arm, segregated in a disomic ratio, indicating that i is located on the missing segment of the long arm. The genes lk5, gs1 and yh in the short arm also segregated in a disomic ratio, indicating their locations should be in the deficient part of the short arm of chromosome 4. The gene f10 on the short arm showed a trisomic ratio, indicating that this gene is located on the remaining proximal segment of the short arm. Acrosomic trisomic analysis provide, a valuable approach for physical localization of genes on barley chromosomes.
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  • Gene action duplicity
    C. Nirmala, M. L. H. Kaul
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 195-201
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two track male meiosis is exhibited by a γ-ray induced monogenic recessive male sterile mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L). Whereas the ms gene causes cytomixis and meiotic arrest in one third of the PMCs, in the remaining PMCs, the meiosis is highly abnormal; the main meiotic anomalies being dys-synapsis, incipient MI plate formation, irregular Al and All disjunctions and unequal sized dyad, tetrad and polyad production. All the microspores formed degenerate and the mutant is completely male sterile. Since only 34% PMCs exhibit cytomixis and meiotic arrest, it is intriguing how and why do the remaining 66% PMCs escape cytomixis and continue meiosis abnormally.
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  • Sodmergen, Fengli Guo, Tsuneyoshi Kuroiwa
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 203-209
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    When seeds of rice imbibed water were incubated under a continuous light in air at 28°C, the coleoptiles began to grow from 24hr and the tips of which became green from 48 hr after imbibition. An examination on behavior of plastids and their nuclei (nucleoids) by light and fluourescence microscopy showed that proplastids in a part of the tip cells of the coleoptiles differentiated into chloroplasts at 60 hr after imbibition with a very unique organization pattern of the chioroplast nuclei (cp-nuclei). The term “unique” means that unlike the case in leaf chioroplast, in which numerous cp-nuclei scatter into the entire regions of the chloroplast envelop, the multiplied chloroplast DNA (cp-DNA) in coleoptile forms just 1 to 3 giant cp-nuclei throughout the chloroplast differentiation. This unique behavior of cp-nuclei has not been reported in tissues of plants and could have direct relations with the functions of chloroplasts.
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  • Gianna Carvalheira, Marcelo Guerra
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 211-217
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromatin organization of tapetal cells of some Phaseolus species was analysed with Giemsa staining. They presented endoreduplication cycles which may result in large endochromocentres or more or less condensed chromatid bundles, visualized as polytene chromosomes, properly. P. coccineus and P. vulgaris showed the best developed polytenics, whereas P. acutifolius, P. lunatus, P. microcarpus and P. peduncularis, showed endochromocentres eventually associated with small chromatid bundles. The tetraploid hybrid P. acutifolius×P. vulgaris showed tapetal nuclei with the characteristics of both parents. The ability to bundling the sister chromatids was intrinsic to each species and was similar to that previously reported in embryo suspensor cells. The polytene chromosome morphology and the change from dispersed state to a more condensed one suggest the occurrence of a coiling cycle which seemed to advance in the endoprophase more often and deeper in P. coccineus and P. vulgaris than in the remainder species.
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  • J. M. Reina, O. de Paz, G. Pérez-Suarez, J. Navlet
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 219-223
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Standard and G-band karyotypes of six Myotis species from Spain are described. All of species have karyotypes essentially identical to ones previously reported from other regions. Only the banding pattern of M. blythii, M. nattereri and M. capaccinii showed a slight difference on the chromosomes 9, 13, 14 and 15. In these autosomes could be observed another dark band. These differences can be produced due to several methodological modifications, to the extension grade of the chromosomes or to geographic variation. The G-band of M. bechsteinii and M. capaccinii is reported for the first time and shows the absence of any identifiable chromosomal differences between these species and M. nigricans from North America.
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  • T. Ohta, R. Itou, Y. Takahashi, S. Kawano, T. Kuroiwa
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 225-230
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    During mating in Physarum polycephalum, centrioles are lost from both the cytoplasm and the mitotic poles. We studied the timing of the loss of this organelle using immunofluorescence microscopy. Structural loss was complete after the 2nd plasmodial mitosis and occurred in a non-synchronous manner within individually developing cells. After mating, the number of centriolres in some cells increased to 4, indicating that two pairs of centrioles had fused. The number of centrioles did not increase after the 1st plasmodial mitosis, suggesting that although centrioles do exist in some plasmodia during the early stage, they are not replicated and do not function as mitotic poles. Most of the remaining centrioles retained a connection with the cell nucleus.
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  • Th. Butterfass
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 231-235
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    As is well known, chloroplast numbers per guard cell of stomata and guard-cell sizes are increased in tetraploids as compared with diploids, and this increase is found to be smaller in tetraploids from nature (“aged” polyploids) than in induced (“young”) tetraploids. This evolutionary reduction did not occur in apomictic tetraploid Hieracium species from nature. Hence, the evolutionary reduction of chloroplast-number increases and probably also of cell-size increases in amphimictic tetraploids is not the result of physiological long-term regulation, which should have occurred in apomictic Hieracium as well, but of selection.-Four pentaploid or hexaploid strains of Hieracium subgenus Pilosella showed chloroplast numbers as if the plants were only about triploid; possible reasons for this are discussed.
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  • L. M. Guan, T. Adachi
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 237-248
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) was studied under normal and high temperature conditions with transmission electron microscopy. The mature embryo sac consisted of a central cell and an egg apparatus that included an egg cell and two synergids. The cytoplasm of the egg apparatus is distributed characteristically in polar side. The fused nucleus of the central cell is located near the egg apparatus. The cytoplasm of the egg and central cell contained abundant mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). In the cytoplasm of the synergids there were massive strands of parallel rER, dictyosomes and vesicles derived from dictyosomes and rER. When exposed to high temperature conditions in summer, the egg apparatus shows various features of degeneration, i.e. the accumulation of osmiophilic deposits in egg cells and synergids, collapsed synergids, incomplete membrane systems and enlarged rER in egg cells. These degeneration phenomena cause functional alterations that disrupt normal fertilization.
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  • Tamotsu Hoshino, Satoru Kawaii, Manami Chida, Junya Mizutani
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 249-251
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two-dimensional analysis of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the etiolated seedling of green pepper was done. Arachidonic acid as an elicitor, cause a temporal elevation of [Ca2+]i in the elicited-region.
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  • Lan Zhuang Chen, Teruo Kozono
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 253-260
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seven facultatively apomictic accessions and three obligately sexual accessions of guineagrass (Panicum maximum) were studied cytologically and quantitatively for clarifying the mechanisms of appearance of aposporous embryo sac initial cell (AESIC) and apomictic embryo sac formation by using ovary length as an index. The observations of AESIC appearance and their development indicates that most of ovules in apomictic accessions contain several AESICs, and the number of AESICs increased as the ovary grew before anthesis. That is, several AESICs in the same ovule did not differentiate synchronously, but instead, they seemed following a continuous course and appeared one by one during the period from after megasporegenesis to the first AESIC-derived embryo sac maturity. It was also found that the higher the frequency of apospory was, the greater the number of AESICs was, and the longer the duration of AESIC appearance should be. This result will produce the information on sampling of the materials used for the apomixis gene isolation program. The type of embryo sacs in same ovules of apomictic plants were also distinguished and discussed.
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  • Kanji Ono, Hirotaka Ohgami, Masayuki Takamiya, Akinori Uchino, Hiroto ...
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 261-268
    Published: June 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two callus lines of CYD-184 and CYD-176 in Scilla scilloides (2n=16, AA) and their regenerated plantlets were investigated to elucidate the relation between chromosomal aberration and morphogenetic capacity. In both callus lines, 25 karyotypes changed structurally and/or numerically were found in addition to the standard diploid karyotype (type S) being identical to that of a donor plant. Structurally changed karyotypes occurred by deletions and/or translocations of chromosomes. All numerically changed karyotypes observed were aneuploids of 2n=15, 17 or 18, but not euploids.
    In regenerated plantlets from both callus lines, nine karyotypes changed structurally and/or numerically were also found in addition to the type S karyotype. Callus cells in this species had relatively high morphogenetic capacity in spite of the high occurrence of chromosomal aberrations under culture in vitro.
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