CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 56 , Issue 3
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Alice K. Vari, J. G. Bhowal
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 315-318
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two multiple interchange trisomics one involving all the fifteen chromosomes and other at least seven chromosomes were isolated in the progeny of two tertiary interchange trisomics of pearl millet (Penninsetum americanum (2n=14)). The study of chromosome association of diakinesis in these multiple interchanges showed varying frequencies and type of multivalent formations followed by abnormalities in later stages of meiosis. Secondary association of bivalents was quite frequent in one of the interchange. Aneuploidy together with translocation as the probable cause of further chromosome interchanges has been discussed on the light of the present investigation.
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  • M. A. Hamoud, Y. A. Hassan, W. Nagl, E. E. Selim
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 319-325
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seven cultivars of Oryza sativa, being grown in Egypt, have been cytologically investigated with the aid of Giemsa C-banding technique. These cultivars are Sabene, IR 28, Reiho, Giza 159, Giza 171, Giza 172 and Giza 175. All these cultivars have karotypes that constructed from five meta-, five submeta- and two subtelo-centric chromosome pairs. The lowest value for total genome size; 23.4μm; was recorded in Giza 172 and the highest; 37.4μm; was recorded in Reiho. The other cultivars showed genomes that ranged between 28.6 and 30.1μm, except IR 28 which exhibited genome size of 35.5μm. The results also showed that the genome of O. sativa is considerably rich in heterochromatin with variation in C-banding pattern among the different cultivars. The frequency of telomeric and interstatial bands was very high in the subtelocentric type of chromosomes which exhibited no centromeric bands. On the other hand, interstatial bands were recorded in high numbers in the longest meta- and submeta-centric chromosomes which frequently exhibited centrometric bands.
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  • R. V. Gaonkar, S. G. Torne
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 327-331
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Polyploidy was induced in A. conyzoides plants with 0.25% aqueous colchicine solution. Autotetraploid plants were dwarf, with more number of branches. Leaves were smaller and thicker. Increase in the size of stomata and pollen grain was observed. Pollen and seed sterility also increased. Expected number of quadrivalents were never observed. Meiotic studies confirmed the induction of polyploidy in the plant.
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  • Jai Rup Singh, Dharambir K. Sandhu
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 333-341
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Genotoxicity of a widely used agricultural fungicide, Agrizim (carbendazim 50% w.p.), was assessed through chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays using in vitro human chromosomes in the presence and absence of exogenous metabolic activation. It induced, both with and without S9 fraction, dose and duration related statistically significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations but only its highest concentration increased the frequency of SCEs. The higher concentrations of Agrizim also caused other cytotoxic effects.
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  • Guadalupe Palomino, Ricardo Vázquez
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 343-351
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of four Mexican species of Crotalaria are reported. A new cytotype for C. spectabilis (2n=16) was found, characterized by the presence of two metacentric chromosomes with a satellite. C. longirostrata and C. pumila had similar karyotypes 2n=32. C. incana two difierent cytotypes were observed for the Mexican populations: the first, 8m+6sm with satellites in two pairs of submetacentric chromosomes and the second with an additional pair of metacentrics with double constrictions. Differences between the meiotic behavior of the two cytotypes are reported and the chiasmata frequency and recombination index are given. A spontaneous formation of subchromatic bridges in AI in the four populations of C. incana was found, these being the first records for the genus Crotalaria.
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  • I. Genus Barleria L
    G. Valsala Devi, P. M. Mathew
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 353-357
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytology of eight species of Barleria from South India is reported. All the species have n=20 and 2n=40. Meiosis was fairly normal in all except one species (B. courtallica) in which IV, III, II and Is were consistently noticed. Somatic chromosomes were large sized, and the karyotypes were fairly symmetrical and unspecialised (2B) in all except B. acwninata (3B).
    All the known species are tetraploids based on x=10. Meiotic behaviour in all the present species except B. courtallica was suggestive of their alloploid nature, while B. courtallica auto-tetraploid.
    Cytological evidence is shown to support separation of Barleria (large sized chromosomes) from Bentham and Hooker's Justicieae as done by Lindau and Bremekamp. Further, the delinking of Barleria (x=10, large chromosomes and trinucleate pollen) and Lepidagathis, (x=11, small chromosomes, and binucleate pollen) from Lindau's same tribal fold and their placement in different tribes proposed by Bremekamp is pointed out to be appropriate.
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  • B. P. Singh
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 359-365
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Genetical and cytological investigations in the genus Luffa have been carried out in between a New-world species of L. operculata and an Old-world species of L. hermaphrodita. Interspecific hybridization brings out certain features of great relevance for tracing inter-relationship between these species. The F1 plants of L. hermaphrodita × L. operculata were fertile and monoecious. The results obtained in this investigation confirmed the double recessive nature of the hermaphrodite sex-form possesed by L. hermaphrodita. At meiosis bivalent, mulltivalents and univalents have been observed in a few PMCs of the F1 plants. The fruit shape was clearly found to be determined by a single incompletely dominant gene. In both directions the fruits in F1 generation were intermediate to the parent as also confirmed from the 1:2:1 ratio.
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  • P. China Pullaiah, P. S. R. L. Narasinga Rao, V. Padmaja
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 367-371
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    During a Wageningen workshop (1987) on multivalent orientation much current diversity in the interpretation of microscopic observations was taken note of. Particularly with reference to linear chain multivalents descriptive terms were commended. The phrase ‘linear configuration’ is preferred to linear orientation. Linear chains of three may have two syntelic centromeres, one at either end, and a mid-member described variously as amphitelic, late, ineffective or even actually inactivated. Thus the present report describes chain trivalent behaviour at metaphase I in pollen mother cells of Petunia axillaris (Lam.) B. S. P. and subordinates interpretation. The stable configurations are tentatively termed alternate orientation, adjacent orientation and linear configuration with or without centromere amphitely.
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  • Syamasri Palit, Asis Kumar Ghosh, Archana Sharma, Geeta Talukder
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 373-377
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The interaction between cobaltous chloride and calcium chloride was observed using as endpoints mitotic index and frequency of chromosomal abonrmalities. The two salts were administered orally to laboratory-bred male mice in vivo singly or one followed by the other or both simultaneously. Chromosomes were studied from bone marrow preparations after 24 hr. In all cases, the administration of CaCl2 two hours before CoCl2 protected against the clastogenic effects of the latter to a significant extent. Simultaneous feeding of the two salts reduced the damage by CoCl2 only when CaCl2 was given in a higher concentration. The reduction of clastogenicity of cationic cobalt by calcium has been attribited to the competition between the two ions. This report of the use of Ca2+ in reducing the clastogenicity of Co2+ is a new one.
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  • C. B. Panigrahi, S. C. Patnaik
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 379-387
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Intraspecific variation in chromosome number has been studied in the same or different clones of 5 species of Indian aphids collected from same or different host plants. Diploid numbers of 2n=8 and 17 for Coloradoa rufomaculata, 2n=8 and 10 for Rhopalosiphum maidis and 2n=8 and 9 for Brevcoryne brassicae, Toxoptera aurantii and Aphis citricola have been recorded. Mechanisms like fragmentation and fusion are considered to be responsible for such variation. A possible correlation between chromosomal variation and host specificity has been presumed.
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  • Q. Hoda, S. Bose, S. P. Sinha
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 389-397
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Administration of vitamin C, either concurrently or as pre-and post-treatment to the pesticide exposure, was very much helpful in minimising mitoinhibition and clastogeny induced by two organophosphorus pesticides, Malathion and Rogor. The concurrent treatment with vitamin C was more effective than the two other modes of its supplementation.
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  • M. T. Sreekumari, P. M. Mathew
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 399-402
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Detailed karyomorphology of two morphologically distinct varieties of diploid taro (Colocasia esculenta) was studied. The karyotypes of the two morphotypes were found to be different in gross karyomorphology. The magnitude of difference between the karyotypes of these two morphotypes was striking and it appears to be more than what can be accounted for by mere structural changes of chromosomes of one type leading to the other. A taxonomic separation of the two morphotypes may be worth consideration.
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  • Kakoli Kar, Sumitra Sen
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 403-408
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Detailed analysis of chromosomes was undertaken in Lathyrus sativus, Pisum sativum, Crotalaria juncea, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Dolichos lablab, Phaseolus mungo, P. vulgaris, and Glycine max of Leguminosae with the aid of improved methods in both root and embryonic cell. Data on mitosis in tissues of embryo is hitherto unrecorded. The present investigation has demonstrated that with the technique devised, tissues of the embryo can be successfully utilized for chromosome analysis in this family. However, for the comparative study of the chromosome complements choice of similar organ is essential.
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  • D. Chattopadhyay, A. K. Sharma
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 409-417
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Analyses of the structure and behaviour of chromosomes and estimation of 4C nuclear DNA in both male and female plants of Coccinia indica and Trichosanthes dioica were made. In male and female plants of T. dioica had identical chromosome numbers. There was remarkable similarity between sexes in chromosome morphology, number of secondary constrictions and total chromosome length, as well as the amount of 4C DNA. In absence of any detectable chromosomal differences it may be argued that the sex determination in this species is principally controlled at the autosomal level. The karyotypes of male and female individuals were not markedly different in C. indica, except for the sex chromosomes. The total chromosome length was slightly more in male as compared to female plant. There was a corresponding difference in 4C DNA values. The differences in chromosome size between sexes of C. indica reflected additional chromatin rather than differential condensation. The heterochromatic nature of long sex chromosome was also indicated in its staining behaviour. The total chromosome length, average chromosome length and the 4C nuclear DNA values of both males and females of annual T. dioica were comparatively higher than those of the related perennial, C. indica.
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  • Mehmet Topaktas, Eyyüp Rencüzogullag
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 419-424
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In this study, cytogenetic effects of gesagard and igran, which are isomers of each other among herbicides of triazine group, in barley have been studied comparatively. The fact that barley seeds have been treated with 10-2 (1%) g/100cm3 aqueous solution of herbicides, gesa-gard and igran for 12 and 24 hr, has caused to decrease significantly the mitotic index (MI) of root tip cells.
    By the treatment of barley with gesagard for 12 hr, C-metaphase has been obtained. In this group, 63.33% C-metaphase has been observed. On the other hand, C-metaphase has been observed in a small amount in the other groups, in which barley has been treated with gesagard and igran for 24 hr. Besides, gesagard has caused chromosome contraction.
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  • Cui Jianxun, Ren Xiuhai, Yu Qixing
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 425-429
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Forty-two species of Chinese freshwater fishes were examined for their cellular DNA content. The result showed that there is a close correlations between nuclear chromosome number or ploids and DNA content in fish. These observations suggest that the more specialized or evolutionarily advanced species, the less nuclear DNA content the fishes possess. The polyploid evolution, the systematic relationship of the fishes and the variations within species are discussed.
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  • H. S. Balyan, G. Fedak
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 431-436
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Three hybrids involving Elymus canadensis (2n=4x=28) with Hordeum parodii (2n=6x=42), Hordeum jubatum (2n=4x=28) and Elymus trachycaulus (2n=4x=28) were obtained at relative frequencies of 3.8%, 1.5% and 1.4%, respectively of pollinated florets with the aid of embryo rescue.
    The mean chromosome associations in the two tetraploid hybrids involving E. canadensis, E. trachycaulus and H. jubatum were 0.10I+ 13.90II(Xma=26.57) and 15.11I+5.15II+0.81III+ 0.04IV (Xma=8.85) respectively and in the pentaploid hybrid involving E. canadensis and H. parodii the mean chromosome associations were 26.87I+3.75II+0.21III (Xma=4.77). These data suggested that E. canadensis shares two common genomes (S, H) with E. trachycaulus, one common genome (H) with H. jubatum and no common genome with H. parodii.
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  • Tribe Agrostideae, Festuceae and Paniceae
    Kuldeep Kumar Koul, R. N. Gohil
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 437-452
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Meiotic studies have been carried out in 33 species belonging to 3 tribes namely Agrostideae, Festuceae and Paniceae of the family Poaceae. The gametophytic chromosome number in these species range from n=7 to 36. These taxa exist in 33 cytotypes of which 73% are poly-ploids and 27% diploids. Cytology of Calamagrostis stoliczkai and Polypogon viridis has been studied for the first time. New chromosome counts have been recorded in Agrostis munroana, Digitaria cruciata and Phleum himalaicum.
    Two base numbers i.e. x=7 and 9 have been observed in the 33 taxa studied. The taxa belonging to the tribes Agrostideae and Festuceae have the same base number (x=7) while as plants of the tribe Paniceae have base number x=9. While meiosis is normal in all the diploids and 18 polyploid taxa, in 6 polyploid species meiosis is abnormal characterized by the presence of quadrivalents besides bivalents at diplotene and metaphase-I stages indicating towards their segmental allopolyploid nature. In tetraploid Pennisetum orientale associations involving upto five chromosomes are observed which point towards the presence of interchanges superimposed on polyploidy.
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  • Yoshikane Iwatsubo, Naohiro Naruhashi
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 453-457
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two species of Fragaria, F. nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita and F. daltoniana J. Gay were cytologically analyzed. Both were diploid (2n=14) and had similar karyotypes consisting of 4 metacentric pairs, 2 submetacentric pairs, and one subtelocentric pair of SAT-chromosomes. The last pair commonly had the shortest length in complements. Furthermore, one plant of F. daltoniana with a small chromosome was observed and details and origin of the karyotype were also described and discussed.
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  • Jianyu Zheng, Masashi Nakata, Hiroshi Uchiyama, Hiromichi Morikawa, Ry ...
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 459-466
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotypes and C-banding patterns of Phaseolus calcaratus, P. angularis, P. coccineus, P. vulgaris, Vigna sesquipedalis and V. sinensis were studied. Chromosome numbers of all species were counted to be 2n=22, and the karyotypic characteristics, such as total chromosome length, S%, F% and TF% values and C-heterochromatin content (%) were also described. The C-banding patterns of P. calcaratus, P. angularis and V. sesquipedalis are reported here for the first time.
    Based on the results of karyotype formula and C-banding pattern analyses, the six species were grouped into two groups. P. calcaratus, P. angularis, V. sesquipedalis and V. sinensis (group I) that had the same or similar karyotype formulae had centromeric bands on all the chromosomes. On the other hand, P. coccineus and P. vulgaris (group II) that had similar karyotype formulae lacked centromeric bands on some of the chromosomes but had large heterochromatic blocks on the short arms of some chromosomes. We concluded that P. calcaratus and P. angularis should be grouped in Vigna group (not in Phaseolus nor Azukia) as proposed by Verdcourt (1970).
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  • Momoki Hirai, Keiji Terao, Fumiaki Cho, Shigeo Honjo
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 467-471
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In the course of a cytogenetic population survey of the cynomolgus monkeys in the breeding colony of the Tsukuba Primate Center for Medical Science, we found a phenotypically normal male with an XY/XYY mosaic sex-chromosome condition. The mosaic sex-chromosome complement was observed in cultured lymphocytes, kidney cells and spermatogenial cells. However, no such mosaicism was detected in spermatocytes.
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  • Th. Butterfass
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 473-478
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Whereas guard cells of stomata of induced polyploids in the C0 generation show on average more than twice the volume of diploids, the volume is reduced in hemiploids to less than one half when compared with normaploid plants. The shortage cannot be explained as the result of an unspecific disorder of newly induced heteroploids because hemiploids and polyploids show opposite effects. Since the surplus disappears in later generations, both surplus and shortage might be overshoots on the way to new steady states. The chloroplast numbers of mature guard cells do not show such an effect; they therefore do not depend mainly on cell size. Rather, both characters depend on ploidy. Further evidence is discussed. In a double-logarithmic grid, chloroplast numbers and cell volumes in C0 generation are correlated linearly with ploidy, showing different slopes. Since nuclear and chloroplast DNA cooperate in the synthesis of many chloroplast proteins-and most envelope proteins are encoded in the nucleus-the nuclear DNA amount is coupled with the growth and division of plastids. Thus the continuity of plastids may result.
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  • R. N. Singh
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 479-483
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Meiotic chromosome association showed uni- and bivalents and complete lacking of multivalents in C1 generation of autotetraploid D. ajacis. Present observations suggests that genetic factor is responsible for controlling the multivalent formation not chromosome size. Meiotic abnormalities were frequently observed as univalents, laggards, bridges and micronuclei in the induced autotetraploid despite high bivalent frequency in C1 generation. Cytogenetical irregularities affecting pollen as well as seed fertility in the present study.
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  • M. Tomono
    1991 Volume 56 Issue 3 Pages 485-490
    Published: September 25, 1991
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Using a human fetal lung-derived diploid fibroblast, HAIN-55, the effect of oxidizing agents such as vitamin K (VK) and lipid peroxide on cell proliferation was examined. When the cells in G0 period were treated with these oxidizing agents, the proliferation of cells and DNA duplication induced by serum were inhibited. The appearance of competence gene mRNA such as c-fos and c-myc induced in the cells on addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was also suppressed on the treatment with oxidizing agents. All these inhibitions were eliminated by re-addition of SH-protectors such as dithiothleitol. According to the results of these experiments, oxidizing agents appear to block the stream of signal transduction through oxidative modification of SH-groups of some proteins during the process of competence, thereby inhibiting the transition from G0 to G1 and finally to S stage and this would result in a suppression of cell proliferation.
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