DNA damage was assessed in 50 subjects using the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay and included 35 (18 males, 17 females) hypertensive individuals and 15 (7 males, 8 females) normotensives of the same age, sex and socio-economic status. Patients (32–62 years) had average systolic blood pressure >156 mmHg, diastolic pressure >98 mmHg, pulse and arterial pressure of >56 and >116 mmHg, respectively. Average BMI was 25.18 kg/m2, 54% were overweight, 16.45% obese and waist hip ratio (WHR) >0.95. Chi-square test revealed that controls matched patients except for blood pressure values. Multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that DNA damage significantly associated with systolic (p<0.05), diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) and mean arterial pressure (p<0.05). Mann–Whitney U-test revealed that 80.54% cells with tails and mean DNA migration length of 50.01±1.01 μm were significantly higher (p<0.001) in patients compared to controls (27.21%; 20.33±0.74 μm). These differences between male and female patients/controls were, however, non-significant. The differences for drug-usage and WHR were non-significant while BMI and blood pressure values revealed significant DNA damage differences. The physiological state of hypertension probably has the potential to cause genetic damage as assessed in the present study by the SCGE assay since DNA migration length and percent cells with tails were highly significant (p=0.001) as compared to values in normo-tensive, healthy controls.
Regardless of rich biodiversity, cytogenetic work on African Heteroptera is meagre. This paper reports meiotic behaviour of chromosomes in 3 species of Heteroptera from Ethiopia for the first time. Paracritheus trimaculatus and Eurydema pulchrum, both belonging to Pentatomidae, possess 2n=14=12A+XY while Cletus punctulatus belonging to Coreidae possesses 2n=18=14A+2m+X1X20. Certain characteristics are common in the 2 species of Pentatomidae such as fusion of the X and Y to form a heteropycnotic body at diffuse stage, and their behaviour at diakinesis and metaphase II. The 2 species, however, differ in chiasma frequency, the pattern of chromosomes at metaphase I and the degree of association between X and Y in the pseudobivalent at metaphase II. In Cletus punctulatus, the 2 sex chromosomes, X1 and X2, remain fused throughout meiosis except for a brief period during metaphase I. The fused X chromosomes precedes the autosomes during anaphase II. The Chiasma frequency is seen to be higher.
The present study comprises a description of mitotic chromosomes and the distribution of AT-rich DNA in the complements of 9 species of flesh flies of the genus Boettcherisca, B. koimani, B. karnyi, B. nepalensis, B. invaria, B. septentrionalis, B. peregrina, B. timorensis, B. nathani and B. javanica. All the species have 12 chromosomes in their diploid complement with 5 pairs of meta/submetacentric autosomes and a pair of small dot-like sex chromosomes-XX in the females and XY in the males. Staining with fluorochrome DAPI/AMD reveals distinct fluorochrome bright areas on centromeric regions of some chromosomes of each species. However, the distributions of AT-rich heterochromatic areas do not follow any regular pattern among the 9 species.
Induced mutations have contributed significantly to plant improvement and Gamma irradiation is one of the physical mutagens which is widely used for mutation breeding, food sterilization and medicinal healing. In the present study, in vitro mutagenesis techniques were applied to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation at 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy doses on physiological and morphological changes in Sesamum indicum L. Radiation induced mutagenic studies have been undertaken using cytological details. Selection and evaluation of the mutant lines was carried out and results on radiation-induced mutagenesis were reviewed. Mutagenic effectiveness increased with the increase in the dose/treatment. Intermediate treatments in general were found to be more efficient in causing less biological damage and inducing maximum amount of mutations. The main aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different doses of gamma rays in inbred line (IC413205) of Sesame at the chromosome level and to evaluate the effect of these gamma ray exposures on Sesame variety IC413205. The result of this study elucidated that gamma irradiation altered the genetic make up of Sesame variety IC413205.
Cytotoxic evaluation of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) seed pulp extract on Allium cepa root tip cells was carried out. The annatto dye was extracted using different solvents viz. alkaline water, ethyl alcohol and chloroform : alcohol mixture (1 : 3). Crude extract evaporated and dry residual powder recovered. The powder was dissolved in water at different concentrations (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) and was used to treat onion root tips for 12 h and the mitotic behaviour was recorded. The results were compared with a synthetic dye orange red at 2 concentrations (0.05 and 0.1%). Annatto extracts treated cells showed normal mitotic behaviour whereas orange red (0.1% w/v) showed complete arrest of cell division. The synthetic dye at low concentration (0.05% w/v) showed diverse forms of mitotic abnormalities like single or double nuclear lesions, single, double or multiple bridges, metaphase clumping, tropokinensis and chromosome fragments. Cyototoxicity test system based on A. cepa root tips has proved that annatto dye is significantly less toxic compared to its synthetic alternative, orange red.
Wild relatives of bread wheat are potential sources of valuable genetic materials for wheat improvement. Genomic relationship and cross-ability between plant species can be deduced from chromosomal structure, size and behavior during meiotic division. In this study, the meiotic behavior of 21 wheat genotypes possessing the 3 ploidy levels of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid and belonging to 3 wild, cultivated and synthetic growing statuses was investigated. The results indicated that the average number of ring bivalents at metaphase I ranged from 60 to 100% in the studied genotypes with the lowest rate belonging to the diploid wild relative wheat species. Four meiotic abnormalities including (1) precocious chromosome migration to the poles at metaphase I, (2) laggard chromosomes at anaphase I and telophase I, (3) chromosome stickiness and chromosome bridge at anaphase I and (4) formation of micronuclei at telophase I and in the tetrad cells were found in the studied genotypes. The highest meiotic abnormalities were found in synthetic wheat accessions. The average value of the meiotic index for the studied wheat genotypes was above 99%, revealing their normal meiotic behavior.
TELIN, a newly developed catalytic blocker of telomerase, was assessed for its antiproliferative activity against human tumor cells in in vitro cell culture assay. TELIN suppressed cell proliferations of several blood tumor cells with telomere shortening and the appearance of apoptotic small cells, but did not affect hTERT mRNA expression, suggesting that TELIN catalytically inhibited telomerase activity within the cells. TELIN also suppressed cell proliferation of adherent tumor cells, whereas it did not affect the growth of normal fibroblasts. Delivery efficiency of TELIN was significantly different between several delivery carriers, and β-cyclodextrin was found to be a suitable carrier.
Three orchid species, namely Dendrobium moschatum Sw., D. aphyllum Roxb. and D. aggregatum Roxb, were investigated by classical cytogenetics and CMA fluorescent banding methods. Dendrobium moschatum was found to possess 2n=40 chromosomes whereas, 2n=38 chromosomes found in D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum. The centromeric formula was 34 m+6 sm in D. moschatum, 38 m in D. aphyllum and 32 m+6 sm in D. aggregatum. No gradual decrease of chromosomal length was observed in these species indicated as primitive type. The total length of 2n chromosome complements in D. moschatum was 55.74 μm and 59.94 μm in D. aphyllum. Total length was remarkably less in D. aggregatum (44.15 μm). A pair of bright CMA bands was found in the interphase nuclei of these 3 species. In metaphase stage, 6 CMA bands were found in D. moschatum. The number of CMA bands was 4 and 10 in D. aphyllum and D. aggregatum, respectively. The percentage of CMA banded region in D. aphyllum was 4.76% while it was about double in D. moschatum (11.33%) and 3 times in D. aggregatum (15.38%). The CMA karyotypic features suggested that number, distribution and location of CMA bands were found to be species-specific.
Vacuoles function in endocytosis, storage and digestion of metabolites in eukaryotic cells. They are inherited by the daughter cells. However, the mechanisms of vacuole inheritance are poorly understood because the cells contain multiple vacuoles that behave randomly. Cyanidioschyzon merolae cell has a minimum set of organelles. The vacuoles were equally inherited by the daughter cells by binding to dividing mitochondria. The binding was mediated by VIG1. However, the role of the binding in the vacuoles inheritance was poorly understood. We examined it by inhibiting the binding cytochemically. The vacuoles, which were not bound to mitochondria, were not equally inherited by the daughter cells. As the results, vacuole-less daughter cells were generated. These results suggested that the binding contributed the equal inheritance of vacuoles and ensured the permanence of vacuoles in daughter cells.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been shown to stimulate transcellular migration of MM1 rat ascites hepatoma cells through transient activation of the Rho/ROCK pathway. Here we report that LPA also induces transient inactivation of Cdc42 and Rac1, both of which are required for transmigration of MM1 cells. Cdc42-induced shape change is a required step for LPA-induced MM1 cell migration. We provide evidence that MM1 cells transmigrate the mesothelial cell monolayer through activation of not only previously reported Rho/ROCK pathway but also Rac/WAVE2 and Cdc42/N-WASP pathways.
Haptophytes are abundant phytoplankton that possess 4 membrane-bound chloroplasts. These chloroplasts originated from a red alga that was taken up by a eukaryotic host cell. No previous work has reported on the protein targeting of haptophytes, except for computational analyses. We isolated the two genes encoding chloroplast proteins AtpC1 and FtsZ from Pavlova pinguis and analyzed their molecular structure. These proteins had a bipartite sequence at the N-terminus, which consisted of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal sequence followed by a chloroplast transit peptide. To demonstrate the functionality of the ER signal sequences and the chloroplast targeting sequences in vivo, we fused the predicted ER signal sequence, chloroplast transit peptide, and bipartite sequence of AtpC1 and FtsZ individually to the N-terminus of green fluorescent protein (sGFP). This was then introduced into cultured tobacco cells. Microscopic observation revealed that the predicted ER signal sequences of AtpC1 and FtsZ had the ability to localize to the ER, and the following amino acids worked as a chloroplast transit peptide in the tobacco cells. We concluded that the AtpC1 and FtsZ of P. pinguis have a bipartite sequence at the N-terminus and a molecular structure in common with other independently established secondarily endosymbiotic algae.
Chara altaica A. Braun (Charales, Charophyceae), a monoecious species of the section Desvauxia, was newly found in Japan and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as gene sequence analysis of the large subunit of Rubisco (rbcL). Our first SEM observations of C. altaica oospores revealed that small papillae were scattered on the fossa wall, an SEM oospore wall ornamentation that is essentially different from that of the monoecious species C. (sect. Desvauxia) evoluta T. F. Allen. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that C. altaica and 10 European samples of the dioecious species C. (sect. Desvauxia) canescens Desvaux & Loiseleur-Deslongchamps formed a robust monophyletic group, in which the rbcL gene sequence from C. altaica is identical to those from 4 parthenogenetic samples, but different from 6 other bisexual and parthenogenetic samples of C. canescens.