CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 34 , Issue 3
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • III. D. aristatum (Poir) C. E. Hubb.×D. caricosum (Linn.) A. Camus
    R. D'Cruz, P. S. Reddy
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 353-359
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Five hybrids were obtained from the reciprocal crosses between the diploid biotypes of D. aristatum and D. caricosum. Two of them were tetraploids and were derived when D. aristatum was used as the female parent, and three were diploids where D. caricosum was the female parent. The hybrids were intermediate in regard to their morphological characters as compared to their parents. Meiosis was regular in the parents and the diploid hybrids. Tetraploids had slightly irregular meiotic behaviour and formed some univalents and multivalents at metaphase I. Based on the cytological studies, it has been concluded that the genomes of D. aristatum and D. caricosum possessed very close degree of homology. Modified genome formulae have been proposed for some of the species of the genus Dichanthium.
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  • Yasushi Takenouchi
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 360-368
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosomes of Listroderes costirostris Schönherr obtained from Kurashiki City, Okayama Prefecture, Japan, were studied in both oogonial and oocyte-maturation divisions in squash and sectioned slides, respectively. Oogonial chromosome-numbers varied between 28 and 41+ in 1967, and between 27 and 30, and 28 and 31 in 1968. The commonest number encountered was 30. Three metaphase plates of the single equational maturation division showed 28, 29, and 30 unpaired chromosomes. One oocyte metaphase plate was tripartite and “a rudimentary reduction division” was often observed. It is, therefore, concluded that L. costirostris is a parthenogenetic polyploid in Kurashiki City. A karyotype analysis revealed a probable base number of ten, and hence strongly suggests triploidy.
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  • V. Polyploidy in the larval Malpighian tubules
    Maria Luiza Silveira Mello, Catarina Satie Takahashi
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 369-374
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In the course of the larval stages, the Malpighian tubules of Melipona quadrifasciata go through a process of endopolyploidy.
    There are two DNA replications in the lst larval instar, one in the second and another in the early 4th instar. After this stage the cells are at least 32n.
    During all this process, the enlargement of nuclear volume always follows the increase in DNA contents, except in the 4th larval instar.
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  • Tomás P. Pessacq
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 375-381
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The results of morphological investigations on nucleolus-associated chromatin or central nervous system neurons of new-born and adult specimens of Gallus domesticus are described. Various morphological arrangements of neuronal nucleolus-associated chromatin, related to different degrees of development of the nucleolus are classified into four different types.
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  • Investigations on the role of chromosomal aberrations and polyploidy in evolution of varieties in Tabernaemontana divaricata
    Satendra S. Raghuvanshi, A. K. S. Chauhan
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 382-393
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Investigations on evolution of double variety (var. 4) from single (var. 1) of Tabernaemontana divaricata lead to the discovery of 2 more varieties (vars. 2 and 3), which provided intergrading series between the two well known varieties. Var. 1 is diploid with highly disturbed meiosis; var. 2 is diploid translocation heterozygote and differs from var. 1 in its flower shape; var. 3 is single flowered triploid; var. 4 is double flowered triploid and resembles var. 3 in morphology and karyotype. The pollen sterility shows direct correlation with univalents frequency in all the varieties except in var. 2 where it appears to be the outcome of translocation heterozygosity. Further work on this aspect is underway. Karyosomatic studies revealed similar chromosome types in all the varieties indicating thereby that chromosomal repatterning on intensive scale was not involved in varietal differentiation. It is suggested that var. 2 arose from var. 1 by mutation which effected flower and leaf shape. The var. 3 arose from var. 2 or 1 by simple change in level of ploidy and var. 3 gave rise to var. 4 by mutation for double flowering. Explanation of gynaecium instability in var. 4 has been suggested.
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  • Yong Hoi Sen
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 394-398
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • I. On the observations in active testes of Poceilocerus pictus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) treated with apholate
    S. C. Saxena, Vikram Aditya
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 399-404
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The mature male grasshoppers (P. pictus) were injected 0.1 mg/insect of apholate in glass distilled water. Histopathological studies reveal no change after 12 hours treatment in testes. Spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids show pycnotic nuclei, fragmentation of chromatin and vacuolization after 15 days of treatment. 24 and 30 days after treatment only cellular debris of the germ cells remained. The zone of transformation seems to have increased in length in earlier stages of treatment. Connective tissue cells and mature sperms show no histological damage.
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  • II. On the studies of DNA in active testes of Poicelocerus pictus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) treated with apholate
    S. C. Saxena, Vikram Aditya
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 405-407
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • M. Venkata Reddy, B. V. Ramana Rao
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 408-417
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The cytological effect of two organophosphorous systemic insecticides viz., Dimecron-100 and Rogar-40 with different concentrations were studied on the broad bean plant Vicia faba L. from the point of causing any irregularities in the visible chromosomal structure and behaviour.
    Chromosome and chromatid breaks, dot deletions, fragments and anaphase bridges were noticed in both meta- and anaphase stages of mitosis examined. A maximum of 7.08% of aberrant cells were noticed in 0.1% concentration of Rogar-40 as against 5.97% in the same concentration of Dimecron-100. Dimecron-100 was found to cause less aberrations than Rogar-40.
    In meiosis aberrations like fragments, ring chromosomes, anaphase bridges, laggards and tetraploidy were noticed. A maximum of 9.70% of aberrant cells were occurred in the 0.1% concentration of Rogar-40 as against 4.7% in the same concentration of Dimecron-100. Even in the 0.05% concentration, a mean of 3.39% and 7.18% of cells with aberrations were noticed in the material treated with Dimecron-100 and Rogar-40 respectively.
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  • T. T. Avirachan, P. L. Seetharam, B. N. Chowdaiah
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 418-422
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A comparative study of the karyotypes of six species of oriental anophelines including two vector species belonging to two subgenera has been made. The diploid chromosome number is constant (2n=6) in all the species studied. The ratios in measurements of the three pairs of chromosomes of these species reveal some differences especially of the sex-chromosome pairs.
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  • Jan Zizka
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 423-428
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    39 individuals in three generations of large kindred were studied by chromosomal analysis of cultured leukocytes. Of these 39, 11 are carriers of D/G translocation, two D/G translocation mongols and two mongols of the regular trisomic type. The translocation was carried through three generations which were studied. By some men an abnormally long Y chromosome was observed. The simultaneous occurrence of these chromosomal changes in one kindred is briefly discussed.
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  • P. K. Gupta
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 429-438
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Twenty one taxa belonging to 16 genera and 17 species of the family Compositae found locally in Gorakhpur were cytologically examined. Ecotypes were reported in 2 species. Chromosome races were recorded in 2 other species. Six species were studied for the first time. New chromosome counts were given for 2 other species. Structural heterozygosity was reported in 2 species.
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  • Robert L. Clark, Thomas E. Jensen
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 439-448
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The structure and development of the akinete of a blue-green algae, Cylindrospermum sp., was investigated with the light and electron microscopes. Only the sub-terminal cell which appears to divide immediately before the onset of development becomes an akinete. There is first an elongation and then a rounding out of the sub-terminal cell. The akinete that develops is larger than a vegetative cell, but it has the same cell wall components and the same kinds of inclusions. There are an unusually large number of structured granules and ribosomes present. The akinete, in contrast to the vegetative cell, has a heavy fibrous coat outside the inner investment, and an electron dense substance accumulates within the fibrous coat. The fibrous coat is of medium electron density. The electron dense substance is drawn outward into rays, and the fibrous coat and the inner investment are separated by an electron transparent layer in the mature akinete.
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  • Jürgen Reiss
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 449-453
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Die Wirkung von Coffein, Colchicin, Acenaphthen, Cumarin und 8-Hydroxychinolin auf die Kerne von Thamnidium elegans Link (Phycomycetes) wurde untersucht. Lediglich Coffein (0, 1%) rief nach einer Behandlungszeit von 24 Stunden eine auffallende Veränderung hervor, die sich in Vergrößerung und Auflockerung des Chromatinmaterials äußerte und die einzelnen Chromosomen deutlich erkennen ließ. Die Ursache für diese Erscheinung ist noch unbekannt.

    The influence of caffeine, colchicine, coumarin, acenaphthene and 8-oxyquinoline upon the nuclei of the phycomycete Thamnidium elegans Link was studied. Only pretreatment with caffeine (0, 1%, 24 hr) resulted in significant changes: enlargement and dispersal of the chromatic material. Thus, chromosomes were clearly visible. The cause for this effect of caffeine is still unknown.
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  • M. Osman Khidir
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 454-460
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. A structure tentatively designated as “nuclear body” was observed in microsporocytes of some collections of Carthamus baeticus and C. turkestanicus as well as their intra- and interspecific hybrids. These are hexaploid species with 2n=64.
    2. No more than one nuclear body was detected per a P.M.C.
    3. The body was absent in the diploid species, allotetraploid species and their hybrids.
    4. The nuclear body was not found in mitotic divisions in root tipss and thus appears to be related specifically to the meiotic divisions.
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  • Vera Traykovich
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 461-474
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    It was presented a correlative study in the modification of BHK 21 cells, during its inoculation in hamsters, and after restoration the tissue cultures from tumors.
    The original BHK 21 culture was composed of spindle-shaped, epithelialshaped cells and gigantic macrophage with diameter about 25-75μ, having chromosomal aneuploidy with modal value of 43 (hypoploid zone). The 500 BHK 21 cells grafted in hamsters produced in 100% of animals metastasizing polymorphoys sarcoma with scarce bizzare macrophage and the tumors appeared after approx. 23 days by intradermal grafts and for approx. 29 days by subcutaneous. The tumor had fast growth, 4-6 days after grafting and the animals lived with tumors about 60-90 days. The intradermal testing of cell density for possible tumor producing has a significant threshold to that of subcutaneous mode.
    There was obtained by the restoration of the tissue cultures from the tumors: a) the BHK 21/TSC culture from the subcutaneous grafted tumors, composed of fibroblasts, which disappeared in the 7th passage by degeneration; and b) the new established BHK 21/TID cell line, originated from the intradermal grafted tumor. After the 50th passage, the TID line has definitely acquired uniformity, having epithelial-shaped cells and gigantic, monstruous macrophage, of diameter 75-350μ and more, aneuplody and modal value of 87 chromosomes (hypotetraploid zone).
    The difference obtained in the type of culture between the original BHK 21 cells and its derivatives: the TSC and TID cultures was the consequence of selective passage of the cells within the susceptible animals.
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  • A. Sudharsan Raj, L. Seethaiah
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 475-483
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Three varieties of grape viz., Alamwick, Gros colman and Selection 7 were studied with the intention of determining chromosome number as well as cytological abnormalities. The somatic chromosome number was found to be 38 in all the 3 varieties. The length of chromosomes varied in between 2.163 and 0.786 microns. Chromosomes could be classified as median and submedian. A pair of sat-chromosomes were observed in all the 3 varieties.
    A maximum of 1.18 chiasma frequency per bivalent was noticed in Selection 7. In all the 3 varieties 3 bivalents were associated with nucleolus. Occurrence of lagging bivalents and binucleolar condition are the only abnormalities noticed in these studies. Meiotic index was cent per cent in all the varieties. Pollen fertility varied from 91.11% to 83.47%. Slight variation was noticed in pollen diameter. Since all the 3 varieties are cytologically stable, it is recommended that all these varieties can be used in breeding programme without any hindrance for grape improvement.
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  • II. New interpretations on behavior of the centriole-aster system
    Bungo Wada
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 484-495
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Shuetu Suzuki, Rihachi Iizuka
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 496-502
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Ryuso Tanaka
    1969 Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 503-510
    Published: September 25, 1969
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present paper deals with a comparative study on the distribution of labelled DNA between the chromosomes of Chrysanthemum lineare and those of Ch. nipponicum, which have a large difference in chromosome size, in the number of DNA replicating points and in DNA content. A comparison of the distribution pattern of the labelled DNA was made in the chromosomes of the F1 hybrid of Ch. lineare×Ch. nipponicum during successive three mitotic division after H3-thymidine treatment.
    Both the chromosomes of Ch. lineare and those of Ch. nipponicum had labelled DNA in both sister chromatids at the first mitotic metaphase, in one of sister chromatids at the second mitotic metaphase, and, at the third mitotic metaphase, only in one of the sister chromatids of either one of the sister chromosomes which were formed from the sister chromatids of chromosomes of the previous mitosis.
    The distribution pattern of labelled DNA in dividing chromosomes indicates that the chromosomes of both species are characterized by the same semiconservative dividing process of their DNA at the level of the chromatid. It is presumed that the chromosomes of Ch. lineare are composed of more replication units than the chromosomes of Ch. nipponicum (cf. Tanaka 1966). A reduction in the number of DNA replication units might have occurred in the chromosomes of Ch. nipponicum during the evolution of this species.
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