CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 59 , Issue 1
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • D. C. Gautam, J. Dutta
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Variation in karyotype of Sitobion rosaeiformis (Das) collected from two different hosts Rosa sp. and Rubus ellipticus has been reported in this paper. Surprisingly, the populations of this aphid species collected during rainy season on two different hosts possess 2n=18, whereas a population collected in summer on the former host shows 2n=14. These findings suggest that the host plant and the season possibly affect the genome size in aphids.
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  • Salimuddin, B. Ramesh
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 7-15
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Detailed somatic karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA estimations in 10 varieties of lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) revealed significant intervarietal variation for chromatin and nuclear DNA contents. The lentil karyotypes were symmetric with preponderance of metacentric chromosomes. Secondary constrictions, located very near to centromere, were observed in one pair of chromosomes each in only 2 varieties, while in the remaining varieties they were not detectable. Correlation analysis revealed a positive linear relationship of 2C DNA amount with total chromosome volume and nuclear area while DNA density has negative relationship with nuclear area. The results indicate that quantitative DNA changes associated with evolution of varieties have affected all chromosomes within the complements but not to the same magnitude.
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  • Lidia Poggio, C. A. Naranjo, A. de la Vega, Nora Frayssinet
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 17-23
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The karyotypes and chromosome pairing of three populations (Argentina, Hungary and Libya) and two cultivars (Budakalasie-Hungary- and Hrubicki-Poland-) of Coriandrum sativum L (Umbelliferae) (2n=22) were studied. Slight differences were found between the karyotype formulae as well as the total chromosome length and volume among several of the plants investigated. A microsatellite in the short arm of a st chromosome (the largest one) and a maximum number of two nucleoli per cell were observed in the five populations. The results show the existence of polymorphism for C-banding pattern. Chromosome pairing studies showed important inter-population differences in the frequency of closed bivalents and chiasmata.
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  • E. J. Greizerstein, Lidia Poggio
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 25-30
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The karyotypes and total DNA content of four species of grain amaranths (A. caudatus 2n=32, A. cruentus 2n=34, A. hypochondriacus 2n=32 and A. mantegazzianus 2n=32) werc studied. The results indicate that these kind of studies allow the differenciation of grain species of Amaranthus. There are differences in the karyotype formulae and asymmetry indexes A1 and A2. One pair of chromosomes with a satellite is present in the four species. The Ag-Nor staining reveals a maximum of two nucleoli per cell in mitotic interphase and one nucleolus in young meiocites. A. mantegazzianus (2C=1.46±0.015pg) and A. caudatus (2C=1.35±0.013pg) have significant differences in DNA content between them, and with the other two species, while A. cruentus (2C=1.26±0.013pg) and A. hypochondriacus (2C=1.26±0.018pg) do no differ significantly. The species with higher DNA content (A. mantegazzianus and A. caudatus) have C+ bands in most of the chromosomes, and the species with lower DNA content show C+ blocks only in few chromosomes. The results suggest that the differences in DNA content among species could be attributed, at least in part, to differences in heterochromatin content.
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  • P. B. Khare
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 31-34
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    An aneuploid of Adiantum capillus-veneris was isolated following gamma irradiation for the first time. Morphologically no variation was noticed but the plant was found to be cytologically highly irregular. The spectrum of anormalism included various association of chromosomes at diakinesis, lagging univalents at anaphase, appearance of micronuclei at telophase II, and variant shape and size of spores.
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  • Masahiro Hizume, Hiroto Araki
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 35-42
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Six cytotypes of the Scilla scilloides complex with genome constitutions of AA, BB, AB, ABB, ABBB and AABB were investigated on chromosomal location of rRNA genes by in situ hybridization. The AA, BB and AB plants had two heavy signals indicating location of rRNA genes at secondary constriction of all nucleolar chromosomes (a2 in the genome A and b1 in the genome B). In the ABB, ABBB and AABB plants the b1 chromosomes had heavy signals at secondary constriction and the a2 chromosomes had small signals on their short arms. The AABB plants collected in Okinawa had heavy signals at both a, and b, chromosomes. The heavy signals partially diffused around the nucleoli and small signals condensed in the nucleoplasm. These results suggest that the absence of secondary constriction of the a2 chromosomes in the AABB plant might be caused by deletion of most of rRNA genes. Chromosomes of the genome A were detected by genomic in situ hybridization using a probe of total DNA of Korean AA plant and this result suggests that the genomes A and B are differentiated from each other at DNA level as well as cytogenetical level.
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  • C. Nirmala, M. L. H. Kaul
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 43-50
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two male sterile mutants msg5 and msg6 were isolated from the M2 progeny of 4 hr 0.05% EMS and 0.1% DES treated seeds of Pisum sativum varieties Bonneville and Arkel, respectively. Whereas the msg5 gene acts during heterotypic division (at diakinesis) the msg6 acts during homotypic division (at prophase II) of male meiosis. While the msg5 gene arrests male meiosis predominantly at MI diakinesis, the msg6 gene induces anomalies during PII, that lead to abnormal triad and tetrad formations. In their mode and pattern of ms gene action, msg5 and msg6 mutant differ from each other and also with the other meiotic mutants of higher plants and resemble each other in rendering both the mutants fully male sterile but do not disturb the female fertility. In their time, mode and pattern of gene action, both these mutant genes are unique. Do mutations in the “anther specific genes” or in “master genes” or in PB-promoter regions render action of msg5 and msg6 genes unique and specific is not known.
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  • X. XuHan, A. Souvré, J.-P. Roustan, M. Petitprez, J. Fallot
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 51-57
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Configurations of the cortical microtubules (MTs) in carrot (Daucus carota L.) suspension cells were investigated by electron microscopy and immunocytochemical method. In the carrot cell suspensions, some cells followed the regeneration pathway and gave rise to proembryogenic cell masses. They were observed to have a specific configuration of the cortical microtubules, i.e. a dense framework formed by smoothly-curved MT bundles. Other cells were involved in the non-embryogenic differentiation which eventually resulted in cell aging. The non-embryogenic differentiation included cell vacuolation followed by cell enlargement and cell elongation which were associated with the formation of rather loose frameworks of the cortical MTs. The enlarging cell showed more or less straight MT strands and the elongating cell showed parallel-strand-dominated MTs. After several divisions, those differentiated cells entered the post-mitotic phase and the cytoplasm became disorganised. The cortical MTs continued to decrease in number during the cell differentiation and aging processes. Most cortical MT strands were shortened or appeared zigzag in aging cells. In aged cells, the MTs in thin strands or condensed short strands with swollen ends became the majority. Finally, all the MTs disappeared simultaneously with the death of the aged cells. Disorganised random arrays of the cortical MTs including the zigzag strands and shortened strands as well as the swollen ends were concluded to be specific of cell aging. This result showed it possible to use configurations of the cortical MTs as a marker to distinguish the potential of regeneration in cell cultures.
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  • Panuganti N. Rao, A. Nirmala
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 59-63
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    F1 interspecific hybrids (2n=14 and 15) involving Coix aquatica Roxb. (2n=10) as female were obtained from crosses with 2 cytological races of C. gigantea Koen. (2n=18 and 20). The large C. aquatica chromosomes could be distinguished from the small C. gigantea chromosomes in the F1 hybrids. Formation of 5 heteromorphic bivalents suggests strong homologies between the chromosomes of the two species which indicates that the C. gigantea genome has 2 sets of 5 chromosomes each, one of which is homologous to the C. aquatica genome. Occurrence of association of 3 chromosomes (2 C. gigantea on either side of C. aquatica) and intragenomic bivalents in C. gigantea suggest that the second genome is partially homologous to the first one and to that of C. aquatica. Formation of associations of 3 and a bridge and a fragment at anaphase I suggest that the two genomes are differentiated by at least one translocation and one inversion. In the open pollinated (backcross) progenies, plants with parental and F1 chromosome associations were also recovered apart from hybrids with varying number of C. gigantea and C. aquatica chromosomes.
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  • R. Y. Katti, H. S. Giddanavar, Shamala Naik, S. N. Agadi, R. R. Hegde
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 65-72
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The microsporogenesis and the male gametophyte development in the male fertile and male sterile anthers of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (ms Prabhat) were studied using the cytochemical staining technique for polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, RNA and proteins. The pre-meiotic development was identical in the anthers of both the lines. During post-meiotic stages, sterile anthers showed persistent callose and tapetum. Breakdown of microspores occurred at late tetrad stage. Sterile anthers had ascorbic acid storage in the connective, even at mature stage. Male sterility had no effect on the formation of endothecium. It is postulated that the malfunctioning of the tapetum is a cause for the induction of male sterility.
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  • C. S. Miyazawa, P. M. Galetti Jr
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 73-79
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Fishes of the subfamily Characidiinae are almost unknown from the cytogenetic viewpoint. The mitotic chromosomes of Characidium cf lagosantensis, Characidium sp, Characidium pterostictum, and Characidium cf zebra, are here first described. With 2n=50, the major karyotype structure of all species was very homogeneous. Few differences related to chromosome formulae, and AgNOR bearing chromosomes has been detected. A possible ancestral karyotype and some cytotaxonomic considerations on Characidium genus are discussed.
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  • Lucian Gavrila, Agripina Lungeanu, Irina Rebedea, Ligia Ghetea, Valeri ...
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 81-86
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Our cytogenetical investigations performed on root meristems of Allium cepa and human lymphocytes, in which some 1421 metaphase cells have been analysed, using conventional staining methods as well as C- banding with barium hydroxide and staining using SCE (sister chromatid exchange), have indicated that chromosomal aberrations arose with a rate which paralleled the time in which the mutagen acted, both in control and in experimental variants, using activated waters.
    It has been concluded that the activated waters do not exhibit a protective effect and their stimulating actions on seeds germination and plant growth must be performed on other way which has nothing in connection with radioprotection or repair processes.
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  • K. S. Jayarama, L. S. Gowda
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 87-91
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Detailed karyological and meiotic studies have been carried out on the whipscorpion, Thelyphonus sepiaris. This study forms the maiden report for this species from India. The diploid chromosome number is 42, with a karyotype consisting of two metacentric, 16 subtelocentric and 24 telocentric chromosomes. Meiosis is normal and the sex determining mechanism is hitherto unknown. The chromosomes have localized C-bands and are monocentric. The sperm shows a coiled or screw-like nucleus with a funnel-shaped acrosome.
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  • W. W. K. Cheung
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 93-101
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The tropharium (part of germarium) of an ovariole of Euscelidius variegatus Kirschbaum (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) could be broadly divided into three portions, namely T1, T2 and T3 regions. T1 region had many small germ cells having nuclei of irregular outline. T2 region had most of the cells in a syncytial state, having somatic cell nuclei and germ cell nuclei mixed together as a result of mitotic activity and cellular reorganisation. The core region had nuclei very much enlarged and were of irregular outline. T3 region had germ cells differentiated to form prefollicular cells, trophocytes or oocytes. The significance of cells of different regions was discussed in the present paper.
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  • Supriya Gandhi, V. P. Patil
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 103-107
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Meiotic chromosome behaviour in two Clitoria species, C. ternatea and C. biflora confirmed earlier reports of n=8 in C ternatea and n=7 for C. biflora. Chiasma frequency recorded at diplotene/diakinesis and metaphase-I during rainy, winter and summer seasons indicated seasonal effects on chiasma formation and movement. Reduction in chiasma frequency during summer than in rainy season at diplotene in C. ternatea Blue peloric and C. biflora and in all C. ternatea types except Faint blue at metaphase-I suggest influence of environmental factors such as temperature on chiasma formation. However, higher values for bivalents with 2 to 3 chiasmata, mean number of chiasmata during summer season in Faint blue form suggest more random distribution in this type. Minor variations were noted in chiasma movement and terminalization during three seasons.
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  • Y. Sun, S. Q. Cheng, G. H. Liang
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 109-114
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Autotetraploid plants of S. versicolor (Anderss.) (2n=10) were induced by colchicine treatment. Seedling treatment with 0.01% colchicine solution for 6hr led to 8.3% tetraploid plant induction, and seed germination with 0.01% colchicine solution for 5 days led to 6.6% tetraploid plant induction. These were considered the most effective and convenient induction methods. Tetraploid S. versicolor plants grew more vigorously, were taller, and had a longer vegetative growth period and larger glumes and seeds compared to their diploid counterparts. Thousand-seed weight was 11.3g for tetraploids and 7.8g for diploids, indicating a 44.8% increase for the former. Cytological observations of meiotic configurations revealed that the unequal distribution of chromosomes of tetraploid S. versicolor plants was one of the major reasons causing partial sterility of the plants.
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  • Katsuhiko Kondo, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Ryuso Tanaka
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 115-120
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosome complement of Cypripedium segawai at somatic metaphase carried numerous C-bands and various CMA-negative bands at the interstitial region and positive and deep bands of the Hoechst 33258 and quinacrine mustard (QM) double-staining at the positions where were of the C-bands and the CMA-negative bands. The chromosome complement of Cypripedium japonicum at somatic metaphase exhibited no C-band and a few CMA-positive, bright bands and dots in certain chromosomes and positive but faint bands of the Hoechst 33258 and QM double-staining at the distal region. Chromosome differentiation of C. segawai and C. japonicum could be different from each other.
    This paper is constributed from Laboratory of Plant Chromosome and Gene Stock, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima University (Contribution Number 27).
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  • A. V. Kini, A. Seetharam, S. S. Joshi
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 121-124
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The histological and developmental features of anther were studied in the cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and compared with its normal counterpart. The anther development in CMS line was more or less similar to that in the normal fertile line till the formation of microspore tetrads. At this stage a significant visual abnormality in the development of CMS anther was noticed in the form of abnormal enlargement of tapetal cells. Apart from the marked hypertrophy of the tapetal cells some of the radial walls of the cells were partly degenerated forming a coenocytic structure and the nuclei aggregated in the invaded region. The results from the present study has provided further supportive evidence in CMS anthers that the malfunctioning of tapetum is the predominant cause for the abortive process but the abnormality may take many forms and operate at different times.
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  • A. Hang, T. Tsuchiya, P. C. Stanwood, E. E. Roos
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 125-133
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seeds of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Vona were stored at various temperatures (-196°C, -18°C, 5°C, 21°C, and 32°C), moisture contents (6%, 8%, and 15% m.c.) and storage periods (0, 1, 7, 30, 90, 180, 360, 540, and 720 days). Mitosis in root tip cells were examined for chromosome aberrations. Aberrations increased with increased storage time at high temperatures (21°C and 32°C) and high moisture contents (8% and 15% m.c.). Most of the aberrations were chromatid fragment(s) and bridge(s). Lagging chromosomes or combinations of bridge(s) and fragment(s) were also observed. Seeds stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) or at low temperatures (-18°C and 5°C), even at high moisture contents (8% or 15% m.c.), for up to two years showed no difference in chromosome aberrations from the control.
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  • Sachihiro Matsunaga, Masahiro Hizume, Shigeyuki Kawano, Tsuneyoshi Kur ...
    1994 Volume 59 Issue 1 Pages 135-141
    Published: March 25, 1994
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Melandrium album, a dioecious plant, has two sex chromosomes (X and Y). The haploid genome size of M. album was determined to be 4700 Mbp based on the amount of DNA in sperm nuclei in pollen by fluorimetry using a video-intensified microscope photon counting system (VIMPCS) after propidium iodide and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. This value is about 33 times as much as that of Arabidopsis thaliana. The DNA content of each mitotic chromosome was also determined by VIMPCS. The size of the Y chromosome was 860 Mbp, which was 1.4 times as much as that of the X chromosome. Moreover, we visualized biotin-labeled 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene (large rRNA gene) probe and 5S rRNA gene probe in mitotic chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Both of the rRNA genes were located on four pairs of autosomes, respectively. The sex chromosomes exhibited neither large rRNA genes nor 5S rRNA genes.
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