Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 12 , Issue 2-3
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Jun-ichi Morita
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 135-162
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Two types of Chironomus (chiefly Chiromomus dorsalis Meigen, and as reference Chironomus sp.) were examined by the usual acetocarmine method and also under acid-vapour treatment.
    2) The longitudinal threads in the chromosome ought not to be regarded as chromatic interfaces between vacuoles as Metz and his coworkers insist upon. They ought to be regarded as continuous chromonema (single or multiple), with chromatic granules on it.
    3) The synapsed chromosome consists of two cylinders twisting, as has already been recognized by many authors. The mode of twisting of two partners has been scrutinized in chromosomes I and IV. It has been demonstrated that a synapsed chromosome is like a rope where two partners twist around each other to right or to left, changing often the direction and the amplitude of twisting.
    4) The shape of the transverse section of the synapsed chromosome, is usually circular and often becomes elliptical but never tape-shaped.
    5) Constrictions of chromosome are explained by the lateral pressure produced by the tortion of the chromosome and by two other factors.
    6) Cross striations appear sometimes to be a spiral state, but they are explained always as discs.
    7) Cross striations are produced by the coalescing of the chromomere of the same rank. The older the chromomere is the more advanced is the degree of the coalescing.
    8) Images produced by the vapour treatment of the acetic acid correspond well. if the acid is not concentrated. to the imagines of acetocarmine preparations.
    9) Images of carmine preparaiton correspond well to the natural images in their gross appearance, although many cross striations or a part of the cross striation is not natural in their finer details. This is clearly shown by the acid-vapour treatment under the microscope (as, for example, when chromomeres coalesce transversely or sometimes longitudinally). The artefacts of this sort may not prevent the argument of the gene loci as done by many authors of the genetic line.
    10) With acid vapour treatment, cross striations become sometimes heterogeneous i.e. they become in one part distinct and in another part indistinct. Two cross striations unite sometimes completely to one cross striation.
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  • Yoshimaro Yamashina
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 163-169
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • New types of SAT-chromosomes in Nothoscordum and Nerine
    D. Satô
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 170-178
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Nucleoli are organized at the primary constriction in Scilla sibirica and S. slbirica var. alba. This new type of SAT-chromosome was observed in Disporopsis arisanensis and Nerine undulata.
    2) SAT-chromosome in Lycoris squanmigera (2n=27=6L+3St+18S) has a satellite at the proximal end and its stalk coincides with the primary constriction. While SAT-chromosome with a subterminal constriction of L. sanguinea has a satellite at the proximal end and then the relation between these SAT-chromosomes is not so simple.
    3) Nothoscordum fragrans (2n=19=13Lt+2S) has thirteen long and six short chromosomes and each two of the latter chromosomes seem to be derived from fragmentation of one long chromosome at the kinetochore. Consequently six short chromosomes has terminal kinetochores four of which have an appearance of a satellite by bearing on the nucleolus condensation at that region. The short chromosome with a terminal kinetochore was found also in Allium condensatum (2n=17=11L+2M+2St+2S). These two chromosomes also have an origin in the fragmentation of one long chromosome, judging from a karyotype of A. obligonum (2n=16=12L+2M+2St).
    4) Nerine undulata (2n=22=2L+11M+1Ms+1Ss+7S) has two SAT-chromosomes, that is, one medium chromosome with a secondary constriction at the distal arm and one short chromosome with an extremely lengthened primary constriction. The relation between nucleoli and SAT-chromosomes was carefully traced in the primary pollen grain division, and a certain chromosome was found attached to nucleolus besides SAT-chromosomes and had relation to the nucleolus condensation in the case of combination of no SAT-chromosomes.
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  • Cytological studies on D. virilis, Pt. III
    Sajiro Makino
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 179-186
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    The ganglia of old larvae of Drosophila virilis reared under favourable conditions contain many somatic cells in the process of mitotic division. Through the treatment of the larvae under unfavourable culture conditions, the process of the mitotic division in ganglion cells is suppressed, and as a consequence most of these cells remain in the resting stage for longer time than in the normal mitosis. This condition leads to the production of bivalent chromosomes in some ganglion cells, which were produced due to the synaptic pairing of homologous chromosomes, being six in number (n), instead of 12, the 2n number. The prolongation of the resting stage would permit in the nucleus the homologous chromosomes to become intimately associated in pairs. The evidence presented implies that mitosis becomes convertible by a retardation of the division process into meiosis.
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  • IV. On the sex chromosomes of some species of beetles (Coleoptera)
    J. J. Asana, S. Makino, H. Niiyama
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 187-205
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    The chromosomes of seven Indian forms of beetles (Coleoptera) were investigated in their male germ cells, with special reference to the morphology of the sex chromosomes. The material studied and the results of observations are summarized in the table given below.
    In every case studied the sex chromosomes segregate reductionally in the primary spermatocyte division.
    The multiple chromosome which involves the unpaired X chromosome was found in three species of Buprestidae. The rod-shaped X chromosome is associated with a particular rod-shaped autosome (a little longer than the X) in the form of an end-to-end attachment, forming a V-shaped multiple, as known in some acridian species. The attachment is permanent for the species and no variation was found among the individuals.
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  • Naomasa Shimotomai, Yukio Huziwara
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 206-218
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    (1) Es warden die Arten der Gattungen, Aster, Gymnaster, Kalimeris, und Heteropappus unter Subtribus Asterinae aus Japan zytologisch untersucht.
    (2) Es wurden die Chromosomenzahlen gefunden: 2n=18, 19, 36, 54, 63, 63-66, 68, 72, 144. Die Chromosomenzahlen 19, 63, 63-66 und 68 kommen nur bei den Pflanzen, die als keine Art, sondern als Varietäten angenommen worden sind, vor. Die anderen Chromosomenzahlen sind Vielfache von 9, der Grundzahl bei den Gattungen.
    (3) Die Chromosomen in den Wurzelspitzen wurden mit Chloralhydratlösung behandelt. Auf diesem Wege wurde die Morphologie der Chromosomen der Arten mit der Chromosomenzahl 18 (2n) und auch die der anderen Arten genauer erkannt.
    (4) Bei den meisten Arten mit 18 (2n) Chromosomen gibt es innerhalb eines Chromosomensatzes, der aus 9 Chromosomen besteht, ein Chromosom mit zwei Einschnürungen.
    (5) Die Beobachtungen über die Morphologie der Chromosomen haben ergeben, daß die tetraploiden Arten, die untersucht wurden, keine zwei Chromosomensätze von derselben Morphologie haben. Also müssen sie allotetraploid sein.
    (6) Kalimeris incisa var. yomena, in westlichen Gegenden Japans weit verbreitet, hat 63 Chromosomen in zygotischer Phase und ist als ein in der Natur entstandener Bastard zwischen Kalimeris indica und K. incisa aufzufassen. K. pinnatifida var. dentata hat 63-66 (2n) Chromosomen, ist auch als ein Bastard anzunehmen.
    Zum Schluß möchten die Verfasser der Japanischen Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Zytologie für ihre finanzielle Unterstützung dieser Arbeit ihren besten Dank aussprechen.
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  • VI. The meiosis, its relation to mitosis
    Yoshinari Kuwada
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 219-245
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • IV. Polar lobe formation and cleavage of the eggs of Ilyanassa obsoleta Say
    K. Dan, J. C. Dan
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 246-261
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Linear stretching and shrinkage of the surface of Ilyanassa eggs as viewed from the side (perpendicular to the egg and spindle axes) was studied by the method of attaching kaolin particles.
    2) During the second maturation division with its accompanying form change, the animal pole region (animal furrow region) follows a continuous course of shrinkage, and after the cell regains a spherical form, it remains shrunken. The region of the spindle pole (polar region) sometimes shrinks and sometimes stays unchanged, which is more characteristic of the vegetal area; that is, this region is transitional in nature. In both cases, a temporary stretching can be seen in connection with the lobe formation. Around the constriction between the main cell body and the polar lobe, the temporary stretching is more marked, and in the spherical stage following division, the surface returns to the initial state with no shrinkage. In the surface of the lobe, the temporary stretching is much increased, and the surface remains stretched, even after the cell acquires a spherical shape.
    3) During cleavage, the animal pole region (animal furrow region) shows a characteristic initial shrinkage phase which is followed by a stretching of about 250%. After the cleavage, a residual stretching of about 190% is observed. The polar region has no initial shrinkage phase and the maximum stretching is 120 to 150%, with a correspondingly slighter residual stretching. The surface of the constriction starts to stretch with no initial shrinkage phase and attains a maximum of nearly 500%, the greatest expansion in any part of the egg surface. However, the residual stretching is comparatively slight. The surface of the polar lobe exhibits an expansion of a little over 200% with no initial shrinkage. The residual stretching, when compared with the spherical stage before the first cleavage, must be very slight if any exists at all. The cleavage furrow in the vegetal side of the smaller blastomere (vegetal furrow region) behaves much like the animal furrow region, but the initial shrinkage phase is lacking. This is presumably due to the presence of the polar lobe.
    4) A shrinkage of the animal pole region during the second maturation division, which is maintained through the subsequent spherical stage, and a permanent stretching of the surface of the polar lobe during the same period indicate that the surface material of Ilyanassa eggs is shifted from the vegetal side to the animal side during the second maturation division.
    5) In cleavage, the surface of Ilyanassa eggs behaves fundamentally like the surface of sea urchin eggs.
    6) The possibility of the formation of a new surface at the contact area of the blastomeres is discussed.
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  • Goichi Nakajima
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 262-270
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • XVI. Alterations of the nucleolus-chromosome system due to irradiation
    Hajime Matsuura
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 271-288
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    In the present study some observations were made on X-ray induced alterations in the nucleolus-chromosome relationship. The material employed was pollen grains which were derived from X-rayed PMCs. It was shown that (i) alterations in the cellular condition due to irradiation disturb the usual relationship between chromosomes and nucleoli, often so profoundly that every chromosome end may become functional as to the nucleolar organisation, and (ii) by translocations and inversions involving terminal segments, nucleolus-organizing regions come to take intercalary positions, thus giving rise to sat-constrictions in subsequent mitosis.
    The whole of the present study accordingly furnishes evidence for the assumptions previously made by the writer (No. 6 of this series) on various problems concerning this relationship, viz., the concept of “nucleolar chromosomes”, the competition hypothesis of the nucleolar organisation and the origin of sat-chromosomes.
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  • Polybasic forms in Tricyrtis formosana
    Y. Sinotô, D. Satô
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 289-301
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) The difference in external morphological characters (i.e., in flowers, leaves and stoma cells) was clearly observed among dibasic (2b), tribasic (3b) and tetrabasic (4b) plants in Tricyrtis formosana. Besides these eubasics two hypertetrabasics (4b+1Lt and 4b+1S) and one hypotetrabasic (4b-1St) were also described.
    2) The dibasic plant (2n=26 (2b)=1Lt1+1Ln1+2L+lSt+1Sn+20S) has two SAT-chromosomes and two nucleolar chromosomes (of terminal type) and respectively corresponding to two large and two small nucleoli in the telophase. The tribasic (2n=39 (3b)=2Lt1+1Ln1+3L+2St+1Sn+30S) and the tetrabasic (2n=52(4b)=2Lt1+2Ln1+4L+2St+2Sn+40S) plants have also SAT- and nucleolar chromosomes and respectively corresponding to large and small nucleoli in the telophase. Similar conditions were also found in the three heterobasic plants (cf. table 1).
    3) Thirteen bivalents (two long and eleven short pairs) were regularly formed in the first meiotic division of the dibasic plants and very rarely one pair of short chromosomes showed a chromatid bridge. Either a set of thirteen trivalents or that of twelve trivalents, one bivalent and one univalent was frequently observed in the first meiotic division of the tribasic plants (cf. table 2). Various chromosome configurations including many tetravalents and bivalents in the first meiotic divisions of the tetrabasics are shown in table 3. Trivalents with univalents were rarely formed. Univalent chromosomes are distributed at random in the first meiotic division and split longitudinally in the second meiotic division.
    The writers express their thanks to the 4th (Genetics) Special Committee of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research, by a grant from which this work was partly supported.
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  • Basikaryotype analysis in hybrids of T. hirta and T. formosana
    Y. Sinotô, D. Satô
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 302-312
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) One hybrid (2n=26) of Tricyrtis hirta and T. formosana has three short SAT-chromosomes and an amphidibasic plant (2n=52) induced from this hybrid by the colchicine method has six short SAT-chromosomes. Another hybrid (2n=25) of the same parental species has two long and three short SAT-chromosomes and clearly shows absence of one short chromosome. The number of SAT-chromosomes in these plants corresponds to the maximum number of nucleoli at telophase.
    2) The basikaryotype analysis in the 26-chromosome hybrid clearly showed partial homology in three short and one long chromosomes and these partially homologous chromosomes were sometimes remained as univalents which were six in maximum number (cf. table 1). Small inversions of long and short chromosomes were analyzed by the presence of chromatid bridges.
    3) The basikaryotype analysis in the 25-chromosome hybrid clearly showed absence of one partially homologous chromosome found in the 26-chromosome hybrid. Univalent chromosomes varied from one to five in the former hybrid (cf. table 4). Chromatid bridges and fragments were also observed and longitudinal split of the univalent chromosomes was rarely observed in the first meiotic anaphase.
    4) The hypothesis of pairing block has been advanced to explain the pairing of partially homologous chromosomes.
    5) Differential amphiplasty (disappearance of satellites) and mobilization of the nucleolar chromosomes of terminal type were described.
    The present work was aided by a grant from the Japan Society for the Advancement of Cytology, to which the writers wish to express their best thanks.
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  • I. Somatische Chromosomenzahlen einiger Arten
    Tomonori Itô
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 313-325
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1) Die somatischen Chromosomenzahlen von 22 Arten der Gattung Arisaema und die von 16 Arten anderer Gattungen wurden bestimmt.
    2) Bei der Gattung Arisaema waren die somatischen Chromosomenzahlen (2n) meistens 28 oder das Vielfache von 28; und unter den somatischen Chromosomenzahlen der weiblichen, männlichen, intersexuellen und asexuellen Pflanzen wurde kein bemerkenswerter Unterschied gefunden.
    3) Bei den hermaphroditen Arten waren die Chromosomenzahlen häufig 2n=30 oder das Vielfache von 30; und die der monözischen Arten waren meistens 2n=26, 28, 32 oder das Vielfache dieser Zahlen.
    Zum Schiuß sei mir gestattet, meinem hochverehrten Lehrer, Herrn Prof. Dr. Y. SINOTÔ, nach dessen wohlwollender Leitung diese Arbeit entstanden ist, an dieser Stelle meinen herzlichsten Dank auszusprechen. Desgleichen bin ich Herrn Dr. T. MIDUNO, der mir bei dieser Arbeit gütigst behilflich war, zu wärmstem Danke verpflichtet. Besonderen Dank schulde ich auch den Herren Prof. Dr. T. NAKAI, und Dr. H. HARA, die mir bei dieser Arbeit auf taxonomischem Gebiet gütigste Leitung gaben.
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  • Kiyoo Hioki
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 326-346
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    In der vorliegenden Untersuchung habe ich das Flimmerepithel bei den 5 ganz frischen menschlichen Trachea, welche im lebendfrischen Zustand aus gesunden Hingerichteten herausgenommen wurden, zytologisch eingehend untersucht. Die wichtigen Ergebnisse werden im folgenden zusammenfassend angegeben.
    1) Das Flimmerepithel der menschlichen Luftröhre besteht aus Flimmerzellen, Becherzellen und Ersatzzellen, welche mehrzeilig angeordnet sind. Die Zahl der Becherzellen ist nach den Stellen verschieden, indem sie mitunter die Flimmerzellen an Zahl überwiegen.
    2) Die Flimmerzellen erstrecken sich in der ganzen Dicke des Epithels und stellen die langen, schmalen Gebilde dar. Der obere Abschnitt der Zelle ist breit, enthält den länglich ovalen, im allgemeinen hellen Kern, der untere Abschnitt ist dagegen in hohem Maße verjüngt und stellt eine faserartige oder strangartige Bildung dar, welche zwischen den Ersatzzellen herabsteigend mit dem zu Basalfüßchen verdickten Ende auf der Basalmembran anheftet.
    3) Die in einer Reihe dicht angeordneten, stäbchenförmigen Basalkörperchen, welche je mit einem langen Flimmerhaare zusammenhängen, täuschen das Vorkommen der Kutikula, doch fehlt diese den Flimmerzellen der menschlichen Trachea. Daß die Schlußleiste in gleicher Höhe der Basalkörperchenreihe zu bemerken ist, erweist das Fehlen des Kutikularsaumes.
    4) Unter den Basalkörperchen der Flimmerzellen bemerkt man immer eine dicke Zone der dichten Anhäufung der stäbchenförmigen Mitochondrien (apikale Mitochondrienanhäufung). Zwischen dieser und der Basalkörperchenreihe ist eine mitochondrienfreie hyaline Zone (hypobasale hyaline Plasmazone) eingeschaltet, welche konstant vorkommt und für das Erhalten des Flimmerapparates unentbehrlich zu sein scheint.
    5) In der hellen Zone zwischen der apikalen Mitochondrienanhäufung und dem Kern, wo der Golgiapparat den Platz findet, sind die langen, fadenartigen Mitochondrien nahezu parallel der Längsachse der Zelle locker angeordnet. Hier zerfallen die Mitochondrien in kleinen Granula mit gleicher Färbbarkeit wie die Mitochondrien selbst, welche zu gewisser Größe heranwachsen können. Die Natur dieser Granula als Prämucin-körnchen konnte ich nicht feststellen.
    6) In den Flimmerzellen dicht unterhalb des Kerns treten manchmal Tropfen von sehr leicht löslicher Fettsubstanz auf; deren Auflösung unterhalb des Kerns eine hellen Zone hervorruft. Unterhalb des Kerns enthalten die Flimmerzellen geringe Mitochondrien. Auf Grund der Mitochondrienbefunde darf man den stark verjüngten basalen Abschnitt der Flimmerzellen vorwiegend als Befestigungvorrichtung der Zelle auffassen.
    7) Der Golgiapparat der Flimmerzellen stellt gewöhnlich einen rundlichen Körper dar, welcher direkt auf dem oberen Pol des Kerns oder davon etwas nach apikalwärts entfernt liegt. Der Golgiapparat wird als Ganzes schwach osmiert, darin zeigen die osmiophilen Stränge eine knäuel- oder netzartige Struktur; sie hüllen den Apparat von außen um, daher ist der Golgiapparat der gewöhnlichen Flimmerzellen allseitig geschlossen.
    8) Die Flimmerzellen gehen in die Becherzellen über, dabei findet man Übergangsformen zwischen den beiden Zellarten, welche auf der freien Oberfläche Flimmerbesatz tragen und im Zytoplasma oberhalb des Kerns die hellen Schleimgranula in wechselnder Menge enthalten. Bei diesen hellen Granula fällt die BAUER'sche Reaktion positiv aus, so kann man die Schleimgranula gleichzeitig mit Golgiapparat rotviolett anfärben. Die Schleimgranula treten zuerst innerhalb des Golgiapparates der Flimmerzellen (Übergangsformen) auf; der Golgiapparat wächst nun heran, die osmiophilen Stränge dehnen parallel der Längsachse der Zelle nach apikalwärts aus
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  • An ovary formation gene located in an autosome, with special reference to its linkage relation
    Kono Yasui
    1942 Volume 12 Issue 2-3 Pages 347-355
    Published: May 30, 1942
    Released: March 19, 2009
    1. The gene concerning the abnormal ovary formation is designated as i (imperfect), its dominant allele as I which concerns the formation of the normal ovary; the gene concerning the non-lobed or entire petal is designated as e (entire), and its dominant allele as E, which concerns the bilobed condition of the petal. These two pairs of the genes are linked together with 1/4 recombination value. The linkage group has its locus in an autosome.
    2. The presence of the gene concerning the removal of the inhibition of the ovary formation in the modified male plant is suggested; and it is located in an autosome.
    3. The possibility of the linkage between the removal gene with Ii Ee alleles is considered.
    4. It is suggested that the Y-chromosome-bearing macrospore in the modfied male plants is not viable, so that there is no egg cell having Y-chromosome, while either kind of microspore having Y- or X-chromosome is viable, as in the case of the true male. Therefore the ratio of the female to the male in the offsprings will be the same as that in the case of the crossing between the normal female and the true male.
    5. The chromosome constitution in the nucleus of the modified male plant does not show any difference from that of the true male plants, as far as the morphological observations are concerned as BELAR maintains. The same thing can be said in regard to the chromosome constitution in the normal and abnormal female plants.
    Here the writer wishes to express her sincere thanks to Prof. K. FUJII for his kind advise in the course of the investigation.
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