CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 73 , Issue 1
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Masoud Sheidai, Zeynab Mohammadzadeh
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Cytogenetic analysis of 12 populations of 10 Amaranthus L. species and varieties revealed the presence of 2n=32 and 34 chromosome number in them. The species studied showed a normal meiosis forming manly bivalents in metaphase of meiosis I. A post pachytene diffuse stage occurred in all the species possibly as a means of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions. ANOVA test revealed significant differences in relative cytogenetic characteristics including chiasma frequency and distribution as well as chromosome pairing among the studied species, indicating their genomic differences. Grouping of the species based on cytogenetic data almost agrees with the clustering of Amaranthus species based on morphological and protein data.
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  • Sarala K., Rao R. V. S., Murthy T. G. K., Satyavani J. V. R.
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 9-13
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Micropropagation could be a useful option to multiply important seeds sterile genetic stocks in crop plants. Nineteen exotic germplasm lines belonging to Nicotiana tabacum, five wild Nicotiana species and two species hybrids that did not flower and/or set seed were micropropagated in vitro through direct organogenesis using leaf explants. The plantlets thus generated were transferred to pots after hardening. All the transferred plants in germplasm accessions viz., T16, T22, T23, T26, T27, T28, T29, T30/HG, BRK 1, BRK 2, BRK 3, KRK 1, KRK 6, KRK-8, K34, K35 (T35), K36, K37 and K40 found to be male sterile. Inter subgeneric hybrid of N. gossei×N. glauca produced sterile flowers. N. sylvestris, and N. tomentosiformis plants flowered and produced seed, while N. arentsii, N. benavidesii and N. bonariensis plants did not flower. Thus direct organogenesis found to be useful for the in vitro multiplication of rare genotypes in genus Nicotiana. One among the twenty clones of N. excelsior×N. plumbaginifolia hybrid transferred was found to be fertile and set seed. The progeny of fertile hybrid were all fertile. Fertility restoration in N. excelsior-plumbaginifolia hybrid found to be due to chromosome loss and doubling in one of the hybrid cell under tissue culture and its regeneration. Though the chromosomal change observed in the study is useful one, it suggested that care necessary to avoid such changes in other cases.
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  • Karima Mahmoud, Jozef Curlei, Vladimir Parkanyi, Peter Chrenek
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 15-19
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The present study was conducted to determine whether the chromosomal aberrations accompanied by production of transgenic rabbit could transmit through generations or abnormal cells are apparently eliminated through offspring. Two lines of transgenic and non-transgenic offspring (F4 generation), each from the same litters were produced by breeding transgenic females with non-transgenic male (line I) and transgenic females with transgenic male (line II). Altogether 5 transgenic and 3 non-transgenic rabbits from line I and 5 transgenic and 2 non-transgenic rabbits from line II, of about 9 months old were analyzed. Transgenic rabbits were produced in F0 generation by microinjection of mWAP-hFVIII gene construct into male pronucleus of fertilized eggs from superovulated New Zealand white or Californian rabbits. Samples from bone marrow cells were collected from transgenic and non-transgenic rabbits for chromosomal analysis. The results indicated that, the frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities increased significantly (p<0.01) in the fourth generations of transgenic rabbits expressing recombinant human clotting Factor VIII in their mammary gland. Both numerical aberrations as polyploidy and structural aberrations as fragments, deletion, centromeric attenuations and chromatid gaps were recorded. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations in transgenic F4 offspring was 2.61% for numerical and 3.37% for structural ones. Polyploidy and fragments were more frequent types of aberrations that were reported in bone marrow cells of all examined rabbits. It is concluded that, chromosomal abnormalities were transmitted to the fourth generation of transgenic rabbit offspring by low percentage. So, it will be necessary to use cytogenetic analysis for eliminating any animal with chromosomal aberrations and this will help in selecting the optimal lines for dissemination.
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  • Neiva Izabel Pierozzi, Renata Moro Baroni, Romeu Benatti
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 21-31
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Cytological investigations of the microsporogenesis in male-sterile (MS) ramie (Boehmeria nivea var. ‘Miyasaki’) and its offspring were carried out. Fourteen bivalents were observed at the totality of the analyzed diakinesis and metaphase I cells. A low percentage of laggard and sticky chromosomes was seen in anaphase I and II. In MS plants, however, a degenerative process started at the tetrad stage. Callose became thicker in comparison to male-fertile (MF) plants and could not be disrupted. The four microspores enclosed by callose were smaller and connected to each other, probably due to incomplete cytokinesis. The amorphous and shriveled remnant structures presented distinct size and cytoplasmic content. At the same time, a degenerative process took place in young male buds which fell down before anthesis. Cytomictic channels were also observed between PMCs in one or more meiotic stages from pachytene to telophase II in all plants examined and pollen grains with different cytoplasmic content observed in MF plants were interpreted as consequence of cytomixis. Male sterility in ramie appears to be controlled by a recessive gene instead of cytoplasmic factors due to the fact that crossing male-sterile (as female parental) with male-fertile produced MS and MF plants. Ramie male sterility may be a valuable tool to be explored in breeding programs for fiber and/or forage purposes since asexual reproduction assures the maintenance of MS genotypes in the field.
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  • Masoud Sheidai, Mahrooz Dezfolian
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 33-39
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    A cytogenetic and morphometric study was performed on 5 M4 tetraploid cotton cultivars (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The chromosome pairing and chiasma frequency as well as meiotic abnormalities were compared among the genotypes studied. Meiotic abnormalities including cytomixis, formation of laggard chromosome and stickiness may be responsible for the reduction in pollen fertility and abnormal pollen grain formation in cotton cultivars studied. The cultivars studied differed significantly in their cytogenetic and morpho-agronomic characteristics indicating their genomic differences, which may be used in cotton breeding.
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  • Yoshikazu Hoshi, Masahiro Mori, Hideyuki Matoba, Norikazu Tagashira, T ...
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 41-48
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    To resolve the discrepancy among previous karyotype descriptions, chromosome comparative study between two closely related cucumber cultivars, C. sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski and cv. Monastyrski, was performed by chromosome preparation technique with enzymatic maceration, and fluorescent banding method with chromomycin A3 (CMA) and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Heterochromatic band polymorphisms were detected in chromosomes 2, 3, 5 and 7, whereas no chromosomal polymorphism was found in chromosomes 1, 4 and 6. In cv. Borszczagowski chromosome 2, CMA+DAPI+ heterochromatic band at terminal region of the long arm was smaller than that of cv. Monastyrski. Chromosome 3 of cv. Monastyrski was characterized by CMA+DAPI+ bands on the terminal regions of both arms, whereas that of cv. Borszczagowski displayed only on the terminal region of long arm. Distinct CMA+DAPI+ band located at terminal region of the long arm in cv. Borszczagowski was larger than that of cv. Monastyrski. In chromosome 7, terminal CMA+DAPI+ band at the short arm was only observed in cv. Monastyrski. This result suggested that inconsistency of karyotypes among previous reports was due to chromosomal polymorphism.
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  • Yaling Wang, Zican He, Shouzhou Zhang
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 49-52
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    An analysis of the karyotype and meiotic behavior of Magnolia championii Benth. is presented. Its chromosome number is confirmed to be 2n=2x=38. The ratio of the longest chromosome to the shortest chromosome is 2.31 and the karyotype is categorized to be 2B type. The index of karyotype asymmetry is about 56.47%, which is similar to other Magnolias. The meiosis process is normal except for one or two univalent pairs caused by the advanced disjunction of few bivalents. Single chromatid bridges and double chromatid bridges are observed at meiotic metaphase I in pollen mother cells and microspore tetrads. The low ratio of the abnormality, as shown in the research, does not constitute the main cause of the aborted pollen grains.
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  • Ana Aparecida Bandini Rossi, Wellington Ronildo Clarindo, Carlos Rober ...
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 53-60
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Psychotria ipecacuanha, ipecac, is a perennial, medicinal herb that grows in clusters in the understory of humid and shady areas of the Brazilian Atlantic and Amazon forests. Cytogenetic studies performed in this species have reported 2n=22 chromosomes, with limited karyotypic information. The present study was conducted in order to apply cytogenetic and flow cytometric tools in samples of ten ipecac populations, five from the Atlantic and five from the Amazon forest, with the purpose of characterizing their karyotype and measuring their 2C DNA content. The flow cytometry analyses evidenced two groups with distinct DNA amounts: MOZ population with 2C=1.24 pg and GUA, TVI, TLM, VRB, RAP, MAN, RVE, BBU and PRA populations with 2C=2.05 pg. Metaphasic chromosomes obtained from root apical meristems of GUA, TLM and TVI showed a karyotype consisting of 11 chromosome pairs, 4 metacentric (4, 5, 8 and 9) and 7 submetacentric (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 11), with lengths varying from 3.97 to 2.53 μm. The secondary constriction was identified in the long arm of chromosome 6. Cytogenetic characterization also reveled that each chromosome pair 2–3; 4–5; 6–7; 8–9 and 10–11 is cytogenetically similar, with regard to total length, short and long arm size, and chromosomic class, suggesting that this species might be a tetraploid plant.
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  • Alongkoad Tanomtong, Sumpars Khunsook, Puntivar Keawmad, Pornnarong Si ...
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 61-70
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    As an endangered species in Thailand, wild animal species of the jungle cat (Felis chaus) was selected for karyological study. Blood samples were taken from 2 males and 2 females. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution staining technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that 2n (diploid) of jungle cat was 38, and the fundamental number (NF) was 72 in the male and female. There are 6 autosome types: A type had 6 large submetacentric chromosomes, B type had 8 large acrocentric chromosomes, C type had 4 large metacentric chromosomes, D type had 8 small submetacentric chromosomes, E type had 6 small metacentric chromosomes and F type had 4 small telocentric chromosomes. A pair of the short arm of chromosome E1 (chromosome pairs 14) showed a clearly observable satellite chromosomes. The X chromosome was medium submetacentric chromosome and the Y chromosome was the smallest submetacentric chromosome. From the G-banding and high-resolution staining technique, the number of bands and locations in the jungle cat was 167 and 183 respectively, and each chromosome pair could be clearly differentiated. We found that chromosomes B1, B2, D1, D4, E3, F2 and X chromosome patterns were according to the domestic cat (Felis catus) chromosomes. Chromosomes A1, A2, A3, B3, B4, C1, C2, D2, E1, E2, F1 and Y-chromosome are similar to those of the domestic cat. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the jungle cat and domestic cat. The karyotype formula for the male and female jungle cat is as follows: 2n(38) = L4m + L6sm + L8a + S6m + S8sm + S4t + sex chromosomes.
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  • Alongkoad Tanomtong, Sumpars Khunsook, Puntivar Keawmad, Roungvit Bunj ...
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 71-80
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    A cytogenetic study of the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) in Thailand has been made. Blood sample were taken from 1 male and 1 female. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution staining technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that 2n (diploid) of clouded leopard was 38, and the fundamental number (NF) was 74 in the male and female. There are 6 autosome types: A type had 4 large and 2 medium submetacentric chromosomes, B type had 6 large and 2 medium acrocentric chromosomes, C type had 4 large metacentric chromosomes, D type had 8 small submetacentric chromosomes, E type had 8 small metacentric chromosomes and F type had 2 small telocentric chromosomes. A pair of the short arm of chromosome E1 (chromosome pairs 14) showed a clearly observable satellite chromosomes. The X chromosome was medium submetacentric chromosome and the Y chromosome was the smallest submetacentric chromosome. From the G-banding and high-resolution technique, the number of bands and locations in the clouded leopard was 178 and 222 respectively, and each chromosome pair could be clearly differentiated. We found that chromosomes A1, B3, B4, C1, C2, D1, D4, E1, E3, F1 and X-chromosome patterns were according to the domestic cat (Felis catus) chromosomes. Chromosomes A2, A3, D2, D3, E2 and Y-chromosome are similar to those of the domestic cat. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the clouded leopard and domestic cat. The karyotype formula for the male and female clouded leopard is as follows: 2n(38) = L4m + L4sm + L6a + M2sm + M2a + S8m + S8sm + S2t + sex chromosomes.
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  • Alongkoad Tanomtong, Sumpars Khunsook, Puntivar Keawmad, Krit Pintong
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 81-90
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This is a cytogenetic study of the leopard, Panthera pardus (Carnivora, Felidae). Blood samples were taken from 2 males and 1 female. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte culture in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional staining, G-banding and high-resolution staining technique were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that 2n (diploid) of leopard was 38, and the fundamental number (NF) was 72 in the male and female. There are 6 autosome types: A type had 4 large submetacentric and 2 medium submetacentric chromosomes, B type had 4 large acrocentric and 4 medium acrocentric chromosomes, C type had 2 large metacentric and 2 medium metacentric chromosomes, D type had 8 small submetacentric chromosomes, E type had 6 small metacentric chromosomes and F type had 4 small telocentric chromosomes. A pair of the short arm of chromosome E1 (chromosome pairs 14) showed a clearly observable satellite chromosomes. The X chromosome was small submetacentric chromosome and the Y chromosome was the smallest submetacentric chromosome. From the G-banding and high-resolution staining technique, the number of bands and locations in the leopard was 163 and 191 respectively, and each chromosome pair could be clearly differentiated. We found that chromosomes A1, B3, B4, C1, C2, D1, D3, E1, E2, E3, F1, F2, X and Y chromosome patterns were according to the domestic cat (Felis catus) chromosomes. Chromosomes A2, A3, B1, B2, D2 and D4 are similar to those of the domestic cat. These results show the evolutionary relationship between the leopard and domestic cat. The karyotype formula for the male and female leopard is as follows: 2n(38) = L2m + L4sm + L4a + M2m + M2sm + M4a + S6m + S8sm + S4t + sex chromosomes.
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  • Kyohei Muramoto, Syou Kato, Tomofumi Shitara, Yoshiaki Hara, Hisayoshi ...
    2008 Volume 73 Issue 1 Pages 91-96
    Published: March 30, 2008
    Released: December 15, 2008
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Mature zygotes of the cosmopolitan snow alga Chloromonas nivalis (Chodat) Hoham & Mullet [=Scotiella nivalis (Chodat) Fritsch] collected from Mt. Gassan, Yamagata Prefecture, were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and single-cell sequencing of the large subunit of Rubisco (rbcL) genes. The present SEM demonstrated that Japanese samples have at least two types of flanges on the zygote wall (straight and sigmate). Although these types fell within the morphological variability of C. nivalis as reported previously, at least two types of rbcL (large subunit of Rubisco) gene sequences were detected by using the single-cell sequencing. Although the information of the rbcL genes were limited (340–400 bp), the present phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two Japanese types and C. nivalis originating from North America belong to the lineage composed of Chloromonas snow taxa. Thus, C. nivalis might involve multiple cryptic species of Chloromonas. Further ovservations of other stages of life cycle and more detailed phylogenetic analysis are needed to reveal the correct taxonomic identifications of C. nivalis.
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