CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 25 , Issue 1
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • R. W. Lighty, R. L. Plaisted
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 1-7
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • IV. Structure of Trachelomonas sp.
    Katsumi Ueda
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 8-16
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The submicroscopic structures of the cells of Trachelomonas were studied.
    Each chromonema in the nucleus consists of at least eight threads of about 15mμ in thickness.
    Chloroplasts are formed from many thin lamellae of about 7mμ thickness four of which are, in most parts of the chloroplasts, grouped into one layer of 40-50mμ thickness.
    The endoplasmic reticulum is composed of many thin discs stacked one on another.
    The so called contractile vacuole is composed of many small vacuoles.
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  • P. N. Mehra, S. S. Bir
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 17-27
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Asplenium cheilosorum Kunze is a triploid obligate apogamous fern growing in Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalayas and Ceylon. The cytological details of apogamy are worked out. In 16-celled sporangium the meiotic chromosome number is 2n=3x=108. Premeiotic mitosis fails in the archesporial cells at 8-celled stage, resulting in the formation of only 8 mother cells, each showing 108 ‘auto-bivalents’ at meiosis and producing 32 viable spores with zygoid chromosome number. Quite often double pre-meiotic divisions fail leading to the formation of four giant mother cells with 216 auto-bivalents at meiosis. Some of these 4 or 8 mother cells undergo irregular cytokinesis, consequent on irregular lobing and cleavage of the nucleus, as a result of which unequal cells are formed which show variable number of autobivalents. It is concluded on the basis of pairing phenomenon in 16-celled sporangia that the species is a hybrid between two parents with diverse genomic constitution.
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  • Sharda Desai
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 28-35
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Chromosome numbers have been determined for the first time for 10 species belonging to 8 genera of the two families, Rutaceae and Simarubaceae.
    2. The process of meiosis has been studied in detail in the pollen mother cells of these plants and the irregularities during meiosis noted.
    3. Formation of univalents and trivalents is observed in Ptelea and in Evodia glocii.
    4. Polyploidy is observed in Xanthoxylum and aneuploid changes in Evodia danielli.
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  • Takashi Ito
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 36-42
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Kinetic theories of immobilization due to antigen-antibody reaction were developed, and experimental results were presented to verify them.
    2. Immobilization by single antigen-antibody reaction occurred according to schema (1). The reaction mechanism involving an intermediate complex was applicable to the antigen-antibody reaction in Paramecium.
    3. Judging from this, it may be said that A and B antigens are quite different in molecular configurations.
    4. The nature of immobilization was revealed by an analysis of the A+B∼a+b reaction. Thus it was concluded that schema (9) was valid, and the receptor for immobilization exhibited a somewhat amplifying mechanism.
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  • V. Chrysanthemum Yoshinaganthum (2n=36)
    Ryuso Tanaka
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 43-58
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Ch. Yoshinaganthum (2n=36) is endemic to the region of the River of Naka, Shikoku. This report is on the results of a comparative study on external morphology and karyotypes of samples from its geographical range of distribution. Approximately 300 clones were studied.
    2. Typical form (type A) of Ch. Yoshinaganthum grew in the region of up-stream. In the region of down-stream several forms with some characteristics of Ch. indicum (2n=36) were found, and they were classified into two types (B and C). The two types were the segregations of natural hybrids between type A and Ch. indicum.
    3. Type A was an autotetraploid, and it might have originated from the diploid species Ch. Makinoi (2n=18).
    4. Karyotypes of type B were found to differ from those of type A in a pair of chromosomes which had secondary constrictions, in a pair of the smallest chromosomes of the complement, and in two pairs of chromosomes characterized by translocated satellites.
    5. Karyotypes of type C were found to differ from those of type A in two pairs of chromosomes characterized by translocated satellites. Type C has the most stable chromosome complement among the three types.
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  • Satoru Murakami, Rikizo Ueda
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 59-68
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. The fine structures of mature plastids present in normal green and variegated tissues in Liriope platyphylla Wang et Tang form. variegata Hort. were comaparatively studied by means of electron microscope.
    2. Green and albicated plastids were covered with definite membrane, but were considerably different from each other in their submicroscopic structure.
    3. The mature chloroplasts in normal green tissues had lamellar structure which differentiated into two elements: grana lamellae and stroma lamellae. The former were combined with the latter and piled up to form a grana stack appearing rod-like as a whole. The grana stacks were arranged at random within a single chloroplast in Liriope.
    4. Albicated plastids in variegated tissues were found to be spherical or ellipsoidal, or sometimes amoeboid. They contained a prolamellar body, a number of osmiophilic granules, large or small vacuoles, and sometimes incomplete lamellae, but none of the typical grana.
    5. Probable role of prolamellar body in lamellar formation was briefly discussed, and it was concluded that the incompleteness or lacking of lamellar system makes the albicated plastids chlorophyll deficient in variegated Liriope.
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  • Some experimental studies in two sublines of the Yoshida sarcoma, with special consideration of the derivation of sublines
    Motomichi Sasaki
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 69-85
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Some experimental and cytological studies were undertaken in the hope of making clear the mechanism of the rise and further development of sublines in the neoplastic cell-population. Use was made of two sublines, C and D, of the Yoshida sarcoma.
    1. The transplantability and life span of tumor-bearing animals differ by rat strains or by tumor sublines. Subline C was wholly non-transplantable to Fischer rats, while subline D showed a transplantability at 80 per cent lethal takes to the same strain of rats.
    2. The two sublines differ in their chromosome pattern. The modal chromosome number showed a shift with an increase in frequency of the stem-cells having the modal number of 39 with the accretion of transfer generations in both sublines.
    The stemline cells of both tumor lines are clearly distinguishable from each other by their specific ideograms: the stem-cells of subline C have three V-shaped chromosomes of outstandingly large size thereby differing from subline D which contains four such V-shaped elements.
    The 4V-type cells rarely occur in subline C, and differ in chromosome constitution from those in subline D. The same situation was found to occur in the 3V-type and 2V-type cells occurring in subline D.
    The 2V-type cells occur in subline C at 215th generation, and possess a definite chromosome constitution forming a stemline of cells.
    3. Double inoculation experiments with the two sublines produced results showing that there occurs co-existence of the two sublines in the same host without any visible damage to the tumor cells. The 4V-type cells of subline D are generally outnumbered by the 3V-type cells of subline C in the mixed cell-population. The results of selection experiments suggest that though the 3V-type cells usually surpass the 4V-type cells in the mixed cell-population the latter cells tend to displace the 3V-type cells under the influence of a certain selective pressure.
    On the basis of the above described experiments and cytological observations, the possible mechanism of the rise and development of tumor sublines were discussed.
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  • III. Effect of homologous antiserum upon Yoshida sarcoma cells in vivo
    Takao Matsumoto
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 86-96
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Effects of the homologous anti-Yoshida-sarcoma-subline-cell-serum upon antigen-cells was investigated in in vivo.
    Intraperitoneal injection of the antiserum, resulted in no elongation of survival time in tumor-bearing rats in a maximum dose. Rats which received 4 to 6 ml of the antiserum on the 1st day of tumor transplantation survived over a relatively longer period than any others. Further, the tumor cells after treatment showed a marked fall in frequency of occurrence of mitosis and in cytoplasmic basophilia with a subsequent breakage of the cytoplasm.
    Use of the neotetrazolium method yielded information that the tumor cells treated with antiserum were unable to utilize the exogeneous succinate, though there occurred an increased ability to utilize exogeneous glucose by tumor cells. Such a neotetrazolium reduction occurred 6 to 12 hours after the injection of antiserum. The gradual return to normal level was attained 3 to 4 days after injection in the case when booster injection was not given.
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  • II. Reciprocal translocation in somatic chromosomes of Chlorophytum heynei, Baker (=C. heyneanum, Wall.)
    K. J. Thomas
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 97-100
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The somatic chromosome number in Chlorophytum heynei, Baker is 2n=14. The spontaneous occurrence of reciprocal translocation between a chromosome of the IV and another of the VII pair, involving the satellite, is reported in a few root tip cells. The cumulative effect of such changes may lead to the formation of new races with altered karyotypes.
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  • Gilbert Turian, Edward C. Cantino
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 101-107
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    By combining a ribonuclease digestion of the basophilic constituents in the persistent nucleolus with a subsequent aceto-orcein staining, the mitotic evolution of chromatin in vegetative cells of Blastocladiella was studied.
    The following sequence of stages was described: a beaded, chromatin ring, succeded by a “prophase-metaphase” chromatic crescent (both around a spherical nucleolus); and then an anaphase-like figure, followed by a “telophase” arrangement (around an elongating and a constricted, spindle-shaped nucleolus, respectively).
    Neither metaphase plates nor individually recognizable chromosomes were observed. The suggestion was made that endomitotic reproduction of the hereditary material in this fungus is normally, but not necessarily, followed by pseudo-amitotic, intranuclear division.
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  • Stanislaw Grzycki
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 108-111
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effect of different fixatives on the location, shape and size of the Golgi structure of the cells of the proximal convoluted tubuli of the kidneys of frogs (Rana temporaria L.) was investigated with immersion refractometry by phase contrast illumination.
    On the strength of those examinations one may say that the location, shape and size of the Golgi vacuoles and of the Golgi rods or canaliculi, which seemed to be empty spaces, distinguish with variations after the application of different fixatives.
    Ten per cent neutral formol, absolute alcohol and Schaffer's alcohol formol are drastic reagents. They cause that the Golgi elements have the appearance of expanded spaces of vacuoles and canaliculi which take up nearly the whole of the supranuclear region of the cells. Using Helly's fluid as fixative leaves the size of the Golgi structure small. In some cells it has the appearance of small vacuoles, smooth or crenated rods and narrow canaliculi. In others its shape is canalicular elongated and forms a delicate network located on the top of the nucleus. This network of the Golgi structure is like a network of the Golgi apparatus, obtained by silver salts method.
    Helly's fluid seems to be most suitable fixative for examination of the empty spaces of the Golgi structure of fixed and unstained cells by refractometric technique in phase contrast microscopy.
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  • Chromosome condition and radiosensitivity of a subline of the Yoshida sarcoma induced by pre-irradiations
    Koichi Kaneta
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 112-118
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosome condition and radiosensitivity was investigated in a subline of the Yoshida sarcoma induced by pre-irradiation. The subline, characterized by increased radiosensitivity, was found to be of mixed diploidhypotetraploid population: it has a modal chromosome number of 37 in earlier generations and 38 in later generations in the diploid region, and of 70 to 73 in the tetraploid region. It was found that the polyploid cells showed a remarkable decrease in frequency during the serial transfers for 4 months without irradiation. There is a possibility that the rise of the subline was induced by frequently repeated heavy X-irradiations with an integral dose of 87, 480r during 94 generations.
    Relationship between the chromosome number and radiosensitivity of the tumor is discussed.
    Addendum: After this paper was completed and ready to send to press, Dr. T. H. Yosida reported in the monthly meeting of the Genetic Society at Sapporo the rise of a tetraploid subline of the Yoshida sarcoma and the gradual decrease of tetraploid cells during serial transfers.
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  • III. Process of the spindle formation
    Syôiti Satô
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 119-131
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Under the electron microscope the developmental process of the spindle has been studied in the meiosis of pollen mother cells in Lilium lancifolium, L. longiflorum and L. speciosum applying the treatment of cadmium chloride solution.
    2. As prophase proceeds to its end, innumerable granules appear and localize at first inside of the nuclear membrane. Then the granules assemble on the surface of the chromosomes, and distribute themselves further evenly in the nuclear cavity at the end of the prophase.
    3. At the interval between the end of diakinesis and the beginning of metaphase, short fine fibrils appear in the nucleus where the granules were previously seated. These fibrils show at first no orientation but later they orientate parallel to the spindle axis. These fibrils make up the unit fibrils of the metaphase spindle.
    4. During this stage the chromosomal fiber develops from the kinetochore of each chromosome towards the pole, binding the unit fibrils of the atractoplasm into a fiber. Therefore, the fact that the chromosomal fiber as well as the unit fibrils of the spindle is nuclear in origin has been confirmed at the submicroscopic level.
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  • Hiraku Takebe
    1960 Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 132-143
    Published: March 25, 1960
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The dosage of beta-rays could be calculated in terms of r units, with the equations being based on the number of ion pairs produced per disintegration.
    Compared with the effect of high intensity X-rays, P32 treatment was about 1/3 or 1/4 less effective in inducing chromosome aberrations. This was observed not only in the case of pollen mitosis, but also in root tip cell division. The decrease of effectiveness might be caused by the low intensity of irradiation.
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