CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 41 , Issue 1
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • R. S. Utkhede, H. K. Jain
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 1-4
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A comparative estimate of ribonucleic acid in the root-tip cells of different species has been made by the autoradiographic technique. It was found that no correlation exists between the turn-over of RNA and temperature sensitivity of chromosomes in the different wheat species. It has, however, been found that the addition of the B genome in the polyploid species has made a greater contribution to the capacity of the cells to synthesize RNA compared to the addition of the D genome.
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  • II. Smilacaceae, Liliaceae and Trilliaceae
    P. N. Mehra, S. K. Sachdeva
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 5-22
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytological observations on 17 W. Himalayan taxa belonging to Smilacaceae, Liliaceae and Trilliaceae are presented. Four species have been investigated for the first time. These are Smilax elegans (n=16), S. parvifolia (n=16), Lilium polyphyllum (2n=24) and Gagea persica (n=24). New chromosome number has been recorded in Gagea lutea (n=48). Detailed karyotype analysis has been made in Smilacina purpurea (2n=36), Eremurus himalaicus (n=7), Lilium cordifolium (2n=24), L. polyphyllum (2n=24), Fritillaria roylei (2n=24), Kniphofia uvaria (2n=12), Trillium govanianum (2n=20) and Paris polyphylla (2n=20).
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  • III. Alliaceae
    P. N. Mehra, S. K. Sachdeva
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 23-30
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Five W. Himalayan species of the genus Allium have been studied. Two species, A. blandum (2n=32) and A. consanguineum (2n=16) have been investigated for the first time. A. stracheyi was found to possess 2n=16. In the somatic complement of A. victorialis the individual chromosomes of most of the pairs were found to be unequal varying greatly in length and arm ratio which is suggestive either of unequal translocations or hybrid nature of the taxon. The presence of only one pair of subterminal chromosomes in the complement of the tetraploid species A. blandum suggests its origin either from different parental sources or chromosomal repatterning which seems more probable.
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  • IV. Several families
    P. N. Mehra, S. K. Sachdeva
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 31-53
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Thirty six taxa of Monocots from W. Himalayan region have been studied. Six species have been investigated for the first time. These are Hypoxis aurea (2n=54), Iris duthieii (2n=22), Dioscorea glabra (n=20), Juncus membranaceus (n=60), Eriocaulon sieboldianum (n=9) and Roscoea procera (n=13). New chromosome numbers have been documented for another ten species, namely, Iris aurea (2n=34), I. nepalensis (2n=28), I. spuria (n=20), Juncus inflexus (n=40), J. lampo-carpus (n=40), Aneilema divergens (n=30), Tinantia fugax (n=33), Roscoea alpina (2n=42), Cautleya spicata (n=13) and Hedychium spicatum (n=26). Base number x=13 has been suggested for the genus Cautleya. B-chromosomes have been encountered in Tradescantia canaliculata. Detailed karyotype analysis has been made in Hymenocallis littoralis (2n=46), Narcissus poeticus (2n=21), N. incomparabilis (2n=21), Zephyranthes carinata (2n=48), Z. candida (2n=38), Hypoxis aurea (2n=54), Iris aurea (2n=34), I. duthieii (2n=22), I. kumaonensis (2n=24) and I. nepalensis (2n=28).
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  • P. N. Mehra, S. K. Sachdeva
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 55-61
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The cytology of nine W. Himalayan species belonging to three genera Arisaema, Sauromatum and Typhonium has been studied. There is considerable variation in chromosome size in the genus Arisaema. Diploid taxon of A. concinnum (2n=28) has been found to occur in the Kumaon hills. Bowden had earlier reported this species to be tetraploid with 2n=56. A. curvatum was found to possess 2n=28. Malik had earlier observed 2n=26 in this species. Previously only the diploid form of A. jacquemontii was known to occur (Malik 1961). Present investigations have revealed the existence of tetraploids based on x=13 in the Simla hills. Sauromatum venosum has 2n=26 and possesses a symmetrical karyotype. The base number x=13 is suggested for the genus.
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  • Leonard J. Sciorra, Roberta Maier, Sally Thompson, Berwind N. Kaufmann
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 63-73
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Phytohemagglutinin stimulated human small lymphocyte cultures exposed to a final milliliter media concentration of 50 and 100μg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) dissolved in a 1:4 (v/v) solution of Tween 80/absolute ethanol, displayed an uncoiling of the chromatids in a percentage of VelbanR arrested metaphase cells. These uncoiled chromosomes revealed areas of condensed staining knots along the lengths of the chromatids, with the larger chromosomes displaying a much greater degree of uncoiling than those of the smaller groups. In chromosomes with severe uncoiling, the centromere region revealed two highly condensed areas on each chromatid, giving a characteristic box formation. In some of these chromosomes, the chromatids seemed to have two strands parallel to each other, with condensed areas lying side by side along each of these strands. A remarkable degree of consistency existed in the average number of knots seen on the chromosomes of each chromosome group karyotyped in the different cells examined, with each chromosome group having a characteristic average number of knots/chromosome. There was also a high degree of correlation between the number of knots counted on sister chromatids on one chromosome, and the number of knots seen in the chromatids of homologous chromosome.
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  • Alain Delcourt, Guy Deysson
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 75-84
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Les effets morphologiques et cytologiques exercés par la Trifluraline ont été étudiés à l'aide du test Allium. Sous l'action de l'herbicide, les racines ne s'allongent plus tandis que des tuméfactions apparaissent à l'extrémité; l'activité mitotique diminue et le déroulement de la mitose des cellules méristématiques est perturbé; l'inhibition des fibres fusoriales donne naissance à des stathmocinèses, à des hémicinèses et à des cellules polyploÏdes. Chaque action se manifeste à partir d'une concentration seuil bien définie qui peut être abaissée si le milieu de culture expérimental est renouvelé chaque jour.
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  • Yong Hoi-Sen, S. S. Dhaliwal
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 85-89
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Aparajita Fouzdar, S. L. Tandon
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 91-104
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present communication deals with morphological and cytogenetical analysis of five species of Pisum (P. sativum, P. arvense, P. elatius, P. abyssinicum and P. jomardii). Differences in morphological characters were found to be statistically significant indicating thereby considerable interspecific variations. Metroglyph analysis showed a close relationship between P. sativum and P. arvense and between P. jomardii and P. abyssinicum. Pisum elatius occupied an intermediate position between the two groups. On the basis of intermediate position of P. elatius, and its closer association with the F1 hybrid of P. sativum×P. arvense, and some of its cytological features, a probable hybrid origin for this species is suggested.
    Interspecific hybridization in various combinations was attempeted in the species of Pisum. Two crosses, P. sativum (_??_)×P. arvense (_??_) and P. arvense (_??_)×P. elatius (_??_) were successful. The cytomorphological studies and the good fertility of the F1 hybrids suggest a close relationship between the parental species.
    All the five species of Pisum showed 2n=14 chromosomes. Karyotype study revealed that P. abyssinicum possesses a completely symmetrical karyotype whereas P. jomardii has an asymmetrical karyotype. Pisum sativum, P. arvense, P. elatius and the two artificially obtained interspecific hybrids showed karyotypes which are basically symmetrical but tending towards asymmetry. The general trend of karyotype evolution in the Pisum species seems to be towards asymmetry.
    All the species showed regular pairing of chromosomes during meiosis. However, a lower percentage of cells in some species exhibited chromatin bridges and laggards at anaphase I or anaphase II or at both. In the two interspecific hybrids univalents and multivalents along with the bivalents have been observed. The probable reasons for their occurrence have been discussed. Pollen fertility in the five species as well as the two interspecific hybrids was reasonably high. Cytomixis was observed in one of the interspecific hybrids (Pisum sativum T. 163×P. arvense I.C. 13961).
    Based on the results of present investigation and the previous reports, seven has been suggested as the basic chromosome number for Pisum.
    The significance of various factors including karyotype alteration, chiasma frequency and hybridization in the evolution of Pisum has been discussed.
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  • Phaseolus vulgaris L
    Amal K. Biswas, N. K. Bhattacharyya
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 105-110
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seedlings of three cultivated varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris L. e.g., Premier, Prince and Climbing have been treated with aqueous solution of colchicine.
    Polyploid plants were obtained in all the three varieties and treatment with 0.25% colchicine solution produced maximum number of polyploids. In the tetraploids, deformed, thick and dark green leaves, stunted growth, delayed flowering, changes in size of stomata and pollen grains and reduced fertility have been observed and discussed with reference to previous observations.
    Meiotic studies of all the tetraploids have revealed exact doubling but different combinations of uni-, bi-, tri-and quadrivalents have been observed. PMCs with complete set of quadrivalent formation have not been observed. Occurrence of high frequency of bivalents has been discussed. Maximum number of quadrivalents was 4.
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  • B. K. Chaudhuri, S. K. Chaudhuri, S. L. Basak, S. Dana
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 111-121
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Two species of annual chrysanthemum- Chrysanthemum coronarium and C. carinatum were crossed reciprocally and the resulting F1 and F2 generations were studied morphologically and cytologically.
    2. The F1 plants resembled one or the other parent in some characters but were intermediate between the two parents in other characters. Over-or partial dominance of some quantitative traits towards positive directions was noted in F1. The average pollen fertility in F1 generation of C. coronarium×C. carinatum cross was 26.5% (range 19 to 37.9%) and that in the F1 of reciprocal cross was 32.1% (range 23.7 to 47.7%). Seed fertility (i.e.% of fully developed seeds) in all these hybrids was 2.9% on the average (range 0.4 to 11.3%).
    3. The 17 F1 plants had 18 chromosomes. The average frequency of bivalents per cell in F1 was 6.98 (range 2 to 9). In all these plants one or two quadrivalents were noted in few cells, the average frequency per cell was 0.27. Other multivalents ranging from trivalent to decavalent was noted in 10 F1 individuals. All the F1 plants had dicentric bridge with fragment or only fragment in AI and AII in varying number of cells.
    4. A total of 318 F2 plants were studied morphologically. These plants showed segregation in all the studied characters but the segregations did not fit into any ratio. The average pollen and seed fertility in the F2 plants were 50.9% (range 15.2 to 68.2%) and 39.6% (range 1.0 to 86.7%) respectively. The average and range of pollen and seed fertility in F2 plants of 3 crosses were found to vary considerably. A total of 17 plants in F2 were completely seed sterile.
    5. A total of 20 F2 plants were analysed cytologically and all had 2n=18 chromosomes. Three plants had exclusively 9 bivalents. In other plants the average frequency of bivalents per cells was 6.85 with a range from 3 to 9 in a cell. One or two quadrivalents were noted in few cells in 17 F2 plants and the average frequency per cell was 0.36. In all these 17 plants multivalents ranging from trivalent to decavalent was noted in few cells. Dicentric bridges with acentric fragment was noticed in 3 plants out of these 17 individuals.
    6. It has been concluded that these two species are isolated from each other by segregational hybrid sterility and hybrid breakdown type of isolating mechanisms. Inversion has played an important role in chromosome differentiation in these two species of annual chrysanthemum.
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  • J. Syamasundar, M. G. Panchaksharappa
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-130
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The stages in the seed development of Dipcadi montanum are studied using cytochemical staining techniques for DNA, polysaccharides, RNA and proteins. The embryo development conforms to the Chenopodiad type and that of the endosperm follows the Helobial pattern. The zygote nucleus is azur A-positive and the nuclei of the embryo cells in successive developmental stages are also equally azur A positive. However, the nuclei in the cells of the old embryo in the mature seed respond faintly for azur A. The cytoplasm in the zygote and the cells of the embryo during successive developmental stages is PAS-positive. The cells of the cotyledon derived from l tier and partially from l' tier show the accumulation of the starch grains in the mature seed. The suspensor formed by the derivatives of cb possesses rich accumulation of proteins and starch grains in the young proembryo stages. Cytoplasmic RNA and proteins are generally rich in all the cells of the proembryo except in suspensor in which RNA is invariably low and proteins are occassionally rich.
    In the endosperm, the chalazal chamber is metabolically more active than the micropylar chamber. The nuclei per unit area are more in the cytoplasm of the chalazal chamber than in the cytoplasm of the micropylar chamber. The chalazal chamber has higher cytoplasmic RNA, proteins and PAS-positiveness than the micropylar chamber. The nuclei in the chalazal chamber often fuse among themselves to form hypertrophied ones in the maturing seed. These nuclei are densely azur A positive but exhibit distortion in shape.
    The persistent antipodal cells are metabolically very active. They are rich in cytoplasmic polysaccharides, RNA and proteins. Their nuclei are very much enlarged and stain densely with azur A.
    The seed coat becomes black in the mature seed.
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  • I. Morphology of vitelline cells of Pricea multae
    K. Ramalingam
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 131-138
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Morphology of living vitellocytes isolated from the vitellaria of the monogenetic trematode Pricea multae was studied under phase contrast. Six different classes of vitellocytes were recognized and a nomenclature was proposed on the basis of morphological characters. It is suggested that the provitellocyte may be the precursor of the other vitellocytes, and the cell types may not represent different stages of development. The observations made on the vitellocytes of starved animals indicate that the cells may have more than one function.
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  • II. Interspecific homology of G-banding patterns
    N. O. Bianchi, Lidia Vidal-Rioja, Martha S. Bianchi
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 139-144
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The presence of shared chromosomes in Akodont rodents was analysed by comparing the distribution of G-bands (such as produced by mild trypsin digestion of chromosomes) in the karyotypes from three species: Akodon molinae, Akodon azarae and Akodon obscures. Results obtained showed that: a) 11 chromosome pairs have the same G-banding patterns in the three species (shared chromosomes), b) 5 pairs showed similar G-band distribution in at least two of the three species (shared chromosomes), c) 7 pairs in A. molinae, 3 pairs in A. azarae and 3 pairs in A. obscurus exhibited banding patterns not shared by the other species (non-shared chromosomes).
    The variability of G-banding patterns in the proximal third of pair 1, X and Y chromosomes suggest that these chromosomes (or chromosome regions) are unstable and prone to undergo evolutionary rearrangements.
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  • Panuganti N. Rao
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 145-152
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In the progenies of autotetraploid (4n=40) Job's tears, aneuploids with 39 and 41 chromosomes occurred in some proportion. Non-recovery of aneuploids having less than 39 or more than 41 chromosomes was attributed to embryo abortion. The 39-chromosome plants regularly formed a trivalent or univalent in a cell and the 41-chromosome plants showed a pentavalent in a proportion of cells. Both aneuploid classes were less fertile than 40-chromosome plants. Much of the sterility in both aneuploids and euploids seemed to be genetic. Open pollinated progenies of 39 and 41-chromosome plants did not show chromosome numbers beyond the 39-41 range and a great majority of these exhibited an euploid number of 40.
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  • The evolution of mitotic spindles in eukaryota: a negation of the breakdown of the nuclear membrane
    Bungo Wada
    1976 Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 153-175
    Published: January 25, 1976
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    This paper is a collective review of the reports (Wada 1935-1974) previously published to corroborate the atractoplasm theory proposed by Fujii (1931) and it also offers a consolidated interpretation of the morphogenesis of mitotic spindles in eukaryota based on comparative studies on protista, metazoa and metaphyta.
    From the results of these investigations the author points out that the common idea of the breakdown of the nuclear membrane as one step in the spindle formation in higher plant and animal cells is a gross error. The reasons and the complications by which this error had been overlooked for nearly a century are explained and discussed from various viewpoints, such as the imperfection of observation techniques, the nature of the research material, considerations of evolution relationships, and gene information on the morphogenesis of mitotic spindles in eukaryota.
    The author makes clear that many unsolved problems and controversial interpretations of mitosis described in current cytology books are mostly attributed to the misinterpretation of the nuclear membrane in mitosis. He has given answers to these problems.
    The morphological independence of mitotic spindles from the cytoplasm, and the transfiguration of metabolic nuclei into karyokinetic ones can be expressed as follows:
    The metabolic (resting) nucleus, spherical in form composed of 1) chromonemata, 2) nucleoli, 3) nuclear sap (dispersed globular proteins), and 4) nuclear membrane.
    The karyokinetic nucleus (metaphase spindle), spindle-shaped in form composed of 1) chromosomes, 2) kinetochore fibers, 3) atractoplasm (arranged fibrous proteins), and 4) nuclear membrane (a strained state due to enlargement of nuclear volume in the case of higher plant and animal cells).
    The morphological continuity of mitotic figures and the cause and effect relations among them are explained in detail from prophase nucleus through metaphase spindle to the appearance of daughter nuclei in telophase, including chromosome movement in anaphase. The biological significance of the spindle-form of karyo-kinetic nuclei for the mechanism of mitosis is explained.
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