CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 53 , Issue 1
Showing 1-29 articles out of 29 articles from the selected issue
  • M. N. Narkhede, J. G. Bhowal
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 1-5
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomes 1A, 1B, 6B and 5D have been found to be satellited in all the four bread wheat varieties studied. These chromosomes have been found to be quite differentiated from one another in length and morphology. Chromosome 6B was unique amongst them in having a tertiary constriction in its long arm. Chromosome 5D was also quite distinct in having a satellite at right angle curve at MI.
    The four varieties Cadet, Sonora 64, Red Bobs and S-615 have shown considerable variation in length and some in morphology of the chromosomes at MI and AII. In general, Cadet has been found to have the longest chromosomes and Sonora 64 the smallest. The varieties Red Bobs and S-615 come intermediate between them.
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  • Marcela Adriana Ciccioli
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 7-17
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In Calomys musculinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae) the meiosis was studied. Diffuse stage was described with conventional and special techniques, and its chronological location was certainty determined through histological sections.
    Analysing the distribution and frequency of chiasmata a process of terminalisation was detected from diplotene up to metaphase I. Studying separately the decrease of the mean of interstitial chiasmata (ich), the increase of the mean of terminal associations (ta), and the development of the relationship ta/tch (terminal associations/total chiasmata number) between diplotene-diakinesis and between diakinesis-metaphase I, significant differences were founded.
    Sequential events of pairing of the XY pair through the formation of their synaptonemal complex in pachytene at O.M. were analyzed. Data obtained allowed to consider the association between X and Y chromosomes as achiasmatic.
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  • Christine Kreutz-Jeanmaire, Jean Dexheimer, Joëlle Gerard
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 19-32
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Toutes les associations mycorhiziennes à vesicules et arbuscules étudiées par les auteurs présentent une organisation ultrastructurale identique, mais dans un cas, ils ont observé des hyphes intercellulaires organisés en pseudoréseau de Hartig.
    Les cellules de l'hôte infectées par l'endophyte sont caractérisées par une augmentation très importante du volume cytoplasmique et le développement d'une grande surface plasmalemmique autour de l'arbuscule. Ce plasmalemme néoformé présente des propriétés plasmalemmiques typiques, mais leur association en fait une membrane possédant des propriétés différentes du plasmalemme périphérique de la même cellule ou du plasmalemme d'une cellule non infectée.
    Diverses activités enzymatiques (ATPase, NDPases, phosphatases acides et alcalines) ont été localisées au niveau ultrastructural. Les auteurs proposent un modèle de fonctionnement de ce type de mycorhize.
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  • L. Sankari Ammal, K. V. Bhavanandan
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 33-36
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytological and morphological studies in a natural diploid hybrid of Egenolfia have been carried out. The hybrid showed irregular meiosis with the formation of bivalents and univalents at metaphase I and micronuclei at telophase I and II and in the tetrads. The hybrid showed close resemblance with two diploid species of Egenolfia, E. appendiculata and E. asplenifolia which showed normal bivalent formation during meiosis. It is suggested that E. appendiculata and E. asplenifolia would be the putative parents of the present hybrid taxon. The high percentage of bivalent formation (82.8%) in the hybrid is suggestive of the persistence of sufficient chromosomal homologies in the parents which facilitate appreciable chromosomal pairing in the hybrid derivative.
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  • M. K. Khosla
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 37-44
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    F1 interspecific hybrids were produced both ways by crossing O. viride and O. suave species. A detailed comparative cytomorphological studies of these F1 hybrids and their parents have been made. The hybrids are intermediate in their vegetative characters as compared to their parents and are highly sterile. Their detailed meiotic studies have shown that there exists a colse homology between one of the two genomes present in each of the species. The genomes of O. viride are classified as A'+C and of O. suave as C'+D, and that of F1 hybrids as A'+C+C'+D.
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  • D. Colombera, T. Nishikawa, F. Tagliaferri
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 45-51
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomes of 13 enterogonid ascidians from the Pacific coasts of Japan were studied. The haploid number 20 was reported for Aplidium yamazii, A. multiplicatum, A. pliciferum and A. sagamiense; n=15 for Diplosoma mitsukurii; n=14 for Ciona intestinalis and C. savignyi; n=17 for Perophora japonica; n=11 for Ascidia sydneiensis samea and A. sydneiensis divisa; n=9 for Ascidia ahodori and A. rhabdophora; and n=8 for A. zara. The unique chromosome number found in A. sydneiensis among Ascidiidae was discussed briefly, in relation to the peculiar mantle musculature in this species. A new technique was employed for chromosome preparations of the ascidians, which allows one to examine the tissues kept in the Carnoy fixative solution 3:1 followed by 50% acetic orcein for a month.
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  • S. S. Bir, Manju Sahni, C. P. Singh
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 53-57
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    As a result of chromosomal analysis of various populations of five species of genus Sporobolus it has been found that (i) morphologically distinct tetraploid (n=12) and hexaploid (n=18) cytotypes for S. diander and diploid (n=9) and tetraploid (n=18) cytotypes for S. marginatus exist in nature, (ii) cytomixis leading to aneuploid numbers characterises S. helvolus and (iii) abnormal meiosis results in reduced pollen fertility in S. indicus.
    All the five species are polyploids. On the basis of cumulative world wide data 83% of the species of genus Sporobolus are polyploids and intraspecific cytotypes exist in a large number of species. This calls for taxonomic revision of the genus in the light of cytomorphological evidence.
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  • D. Subramanian, M. Munian
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 59-66
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytotaxonomical studies pertaining to 21 species of South Indian Araceae have been made. First record of chromosome number has been made in Scindapsus aureus, Arisaema wightianum, Alocasia macrorrhiza var. variegata, Cryptocoryne retrospiralis and Syngonium albolineatum. Chromosome numbers determined in the present study range from 2n=14 to 2n=68. Karyotypes in the family also show differences in absolute chromosome size indicating changes in nuclear DNA in evolution and mostly acentric chromosomes showing a derived feature.
    As evidenced by the present investigation, it is concluded that both aneuploidy and euploidy play important role in the origin and evolution of the species studied.
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  • Species from the Plains
    D. Subramanian
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 67-72
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosome number of 18 species coming under 6 genera of Cyperaceae from South India has been studied. Chromosome numbers determined in the present study range from 2n=16 to 2n=96.
    Chromosome numbers determined in the present study and those reported previously in the family reveal the presence of a continuous series of basic numbers between n=8 to n=48. The primary basic number of the family may be n=8 and from this other basic numbers should have originated by means of aneuploidy and euploidy. Along with these karyotype alterations of chromosomes also play important role in evolution.
    Karyotypes in the family also show differences in absolute chromosome size indicating changes in nuclear DNA in evolution.
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  • Daniel Corach, Nestor O. Bianchi, Lidia Vidal-Riaja
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 73-79
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The main DNA characteristics of the South American cricetid rodents Calomys musculinus and C. laucha were investigated and compared. The two DNAs were found similar in CsCl buoyant density and Tm values. Reassociation kinetics analysis showed three repetitive and one single copy DNA components in both species. Interspecific differences in the repetition frequency of Intermediate I component and in the complexity of the Slow component were revealed by the later approach. Relevant to the species difference was the finding of a high melting fraction in the DNA of C. musculinus. This fraction isolable by chromatographic thermal elution procedures was found to be enriched in highly repetitive DNA sequences. For each DNA specific electrophoretic patterns were obtained after Alu I digestions.
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  • O. P. Sharma, N. K. Tripathi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 81-86
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present paper reports female heterogamety in two fish species collected from Jammu water bodies. A diploid chromosome count of 2n=52 in male and 2n=51 in female of Lepidocephalichthys guntea (Cobitidae) has been recorded with ZZ male and ZO female sexchromosome make up. In case of Trichogaster fasciatus (Belontiidae) 2n=48 has been observed in both the sexes, the male being homogametic (ZZ) and the female being heterogametic (ZW).
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  • D. Subramanian
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 87-92
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    16 taxa coming under 10 families occurring in the Mangroove forests of Tamilnadu, have been studied cytologically, of which first record of chromosome number has been made in lanceolate leaf type of Sesuvium portulacastrum, Rhizophora candelaria, Ceriops roxburghiana, Bruguiera conjugata, Avicennia marina, Suaeda maritima, S. monoica, Arthrocnemum fruticosum, Aegiceros corniculatus and Ilysanthes tenuifolia.
    n=18 may be the common primary basic number of the vegetation and from this the basic numbers 8, 9, 11, 12 and 15 should have arisen by decrease of chromosome numbers and the basic numbers n=19, 20, 22 should have originated by increase of chromosome numbers.
    Smaller size of chromosomes and mostly chromosomes with submedian and subterminal constrictions are the other advanced cytological characters of the mangroove vegetations studied.
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  • Tomosaburo Yabuno
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 93-96
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Echinochloa obtusiflora Stapf is an annual diploid species (2n=2x=18) distributed in Northern Nigeria, East Cameroun and the Sudan. This species is characterized by the markedly obtuse apexes of spikelets and lower glumes.
    A cormous diploid strain was collected in Kitale, Kenya and has been treated as E. pyramidalis.
    These two diploids were partially self-incompatible, and intersterile. Their F1 hybrid was cormous perennial like the Kenyan diploid strain, and the spikelets and lower glumes were shortly cuspidated at the tips like those of the Kenyan strain. The F1 hybrid consistently formed 9 bivalents at MI, indicating that E. obtusiflora and the Kenyan diploid strain are the carriers of the same genome. Cytologically the Kenyan diploid strain can be recognized as a related taxon of E. obtusiflora.
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  • Karyotypic analysis of species and races of Asiatic cottons based on chromatin content
    M. N. Gennur, S. N. Kadapa, A. F. Habib, J. V. Goud
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 97-105
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotypic analysis of Gossypium herbaceum (races persicum and wightianum) and G. arboreum (race indicum and bengalense) with two races in each species has been made on the basis of smallest, largest and absolute chromosome length. It is concluded that at species level G. herbaceum is primitive to G. arobreum and at racial level parsicum is primitive to wightianum in G. herbaceum and indicum is primitive to bengalense in G. arboreum
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  • Karyotypic analysis of species and races of Asiatic cottons based on nucleolar chromosomes and symmetry of karyotype
    M. N. Gennur, A. F. Habib, S. N. Kadapa, J. V. Goud
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 107-114
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotypic analysis of Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum has been made taking the parameters like number of chromosomes having secondary constriction and satellite, position of centromere i. e. number of median, submedian and subterminal chromosomes, F%, TF%, relative length of individual chromosomes and relative length of shortest chromosome. It is concluded that at species level G. herbaceum is primitive to G. arboreum and at racial level persicum is primitive to wightianum in G. herbaceum, and indicum is primitive to bengalense in G. arboreum.
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  • M. R. Vijayaraghavan, Nidhi Gautam, Usha Bhat
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 115-122
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In Linum usitatissimum, the endothelium stains well for nucleic acids and histones. In endosperm, the staining intensity for histones, DNA and RNA increases during embryogeny. The basal and terminal cells of the two-celled proembryo are equally stained for DNA, nucleolar RNA and histones. The terminal cell is stained deeply with Pyronin Y. The embryonal cells stain intensely for these macromolecules than the suspensor cells. In a dry seed the staining intensity of histones and nucleic acids is low but after germination it increases in the shoot apex and leaf primordia.
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  • Major Singh, V. K. Khanna
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 123-130
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • R. Vitturi, E. Catalano
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 131-138
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The haploid number of chromosomes n=12+h and the diploid values 2n=25 in males, and 2n=26 in females, have been determined for three geographically separated populations of Theodoxus meridionalis (Neritidae). A male XO sex-determining mechanism has been observed for this species.
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  • M. Venkateswarlu, M. V. Rajam, K. Subhash
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 139-145
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Mutagenic studies have been made after single and combined treatments of gamma rays, ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) and hydroxylamine (HA) in Catharanthus roseus of pink flowered form (PFF). The present observations in meiotic system disclosed various types of chromosomal alterations such as different association of chromosomes at diakinesis, unequal disjunction at anaphase I, unoriented chromosomes at metaphase I and II, fragments, bridges with or without laggards, and micronuclei at telophase II. Besides, tetrad abnormalities like monads, dyads, triads and polyads were observed. Similar types of meiotic anomalies were also recorded in mutants like sterile (in which flower modified into vegetative structures), variegated, non-branching and dissected flower. The abnormal phenotype of the above mutants may be attributed to chromosomal alterations. The combination treatments proved to be much effective than individual treatments.
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  • V. Dose response, production of micronuclei in root tip meristem
    M. Z. Haque, M. B. E. Godward
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 147-152
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The sensitivity of two species and two cultivars of Lactuca to gamma irradiation, administered to the dry seeds and estimated by scoring of micronuclei, showed marked differences in sensitivity, the most sensitive being L. serriola and the least sensitive being cultivar Tom of L. sativa.
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  • Hidehiro Hoshiba
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 153-156
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The karyotype of a stingless bee, Melipona favosa was analysed. The number of chromosomes was n=9, consisted of 6 metacentric, 2 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosomes.
    The basic chromosome number of the genus Melipona seems to be n=9. No chromosome common between the genus Melipona and Apis was morphologically found in the present study.
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  • N. Lakshmi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 157-161
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotype and meiotic studies have been made on an Indian clone of Tulbaghia violacea Harv. The chromosome number was observed to be 2n=12. The karyotype is symmetrical with 6 metacentric and 6 submetacentric chromosomes. Two pairs of secondarily constricted chromosomes could be located in Indian clones. Spontaneous chromosome breakage and inversion heterozygosity indicate that evolution in the species is probably by chromosomal repatterning.
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  • G. Santhakumari, J. Stephen
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 163-168
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Antimitotic effect of holothurin, a water soluble saponin isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria vagabunda, was assessed by Allium test supplemented by autoradiography. Endoreduplication, chromosome clumping, positive and/or negative pycnosis of nuclei, nuclear polymorphism and chromatin extrusion through cytoplasmic buds were the common cytological abnormalities induced by holothurin. Inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis was observed and this may be the molecular mechanism behind the above abnormalities. In all these features holothurin appears to be similar to Adriamycin, currently used in Cancer Chemotherapy.
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  • Swapan kumar Chattopadhyay, Shakuntala Nandi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 169-173
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Mycotoxin AcT1 produced chromosomal aberrations mainly of clastogen type both in chromatid and chromosome of bone marrow cells of rat. It was capable to produce premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and C-mitosis (anaphase like appearance) effects indicating the toxin to be a potential mutagen.
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  • A. Ganapathi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 175-179
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Cytomorphology of a heptaploid hybrid (2n=7x=84) obtained by crossing Solanum nigrum (2n=6x=72) with pollen of S. villosum (2n=4x=48) was studied. From the cytomorphological studies it is suspected that the heptaploid hybrid has originated from an embryo resulting in fertilization of reduced egg-cell of S. nigrum by non-reduced male gamete of S. villosum. The hybrid exhibits irregular meiosis and 14.38 per cent pollen stainability. It is concluded, on the basis of chromosome pairing behaviour of hybrid, that S. villosum has participated in ancestry of S. nigrum.
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  • In vivo chromosomal aberration bioassay in root meristems of Allium and Hordeum
    I. S. Grover, P. K. Malhi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 181-191
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The genotoxic effects of three organophosphorus pesticides viz. ekatin, fenitrothion, phorate and MNNG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine) employing in vivo chromosomal aberration bioassay in root meristems of Allium and Hordeum have been investigated. Both physiological type aberrations like C-mitosis, despiralization, lagging chromosomes, multipolar cells as well as clastogenic effects like chromosome breaks, ring chromosome, chromatin bridges and micronuclei were induced by these pesticides. The order of radiomimetic potential was found to be phorate>fenitrothion>ekatin. The root meristem of Allium cepa was found to be more sensitive.
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  • VI. Nucleolar organization in genus Tulipa L. (Liliaceae)
    A. K. Koul, Anima Langer, B. A. Wafai
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 193-198
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In tulips secondary constrictions have been reported in very few species and these reports are highly controversial. Diploid, var. chrvsantha and tetraploid, var. stellata of Tulipa clusiana respectively have 8 and 11 NORs per complement which is confirmed by the formation of as many nucleoli in root tip nuclei. The disparity in the reports made so far is on account of the terminal position (in long arm) and minute size of the satellites. They can conveniently be revealed by Feulgen staining.
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  • V. Padmaja
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 199-204
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Anomalus meiotic behaviour was recorded in two plants of P. axillaris (Lam.) B.S.P. (2n=14). Meiotic irregularity was associated with diploid chromosome number in one plant, while in the other, chromosome instability and aneuploidy prevailed. Abnormalities such as persistent stickiness of chromosomes from late diplotene stage onwards, diffused arrangement of chromosomes at first metaphase, multipolar spindle abnormality, extreme variability in size of pollen mother cells and pollen grains, and syncyte formation were recorded. Chromosome stickiness observed in one category was attributed to a recessive gene, the expression of which was influenced by temperature, while variation in chromosome number and multiple meiotic anomalies recorded in the other may be due to spindle abnormalities at premeiotic mitotic cell divisions and at meiosis I.
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  • Kazuaki Shoji, Kyojiro Masuda, Michizo Sugai, Teisaku Kobayashi
    1988 Volume 53 Issue 1 Pages 205-211
    Published: March 25, 1988
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyl tissues of seedlings of cultivated sesame, Sesamum indicum (2n=26). The isolation medium used was CPW inorganic salts solution containing 2.0% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.4% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% potassium dextran sulfate and 0.7 M mannitol at pH 5.7 with 2hr reciprocal shaking at 25°C.
    The 95%. of freshly isolated protoplasts were regenerated the cell wall within 72hr and began to divide in modified MS medium containing 5g/l agar, 2g/l casein hydrolysate, 20g/l sucrose, 109g/l mannitol, 0.3mg/l NAA and 3.0 mg/l BA after 5 days of culture. The some of divided protoplasts developed to colonies of about 1 mm in diameter within 5 weeks of culture in 1% of plating efficiency.
    Relative DNA content of nucleus of both protoplasts and colonies was determined microspectrophotometrically with DAPI staining. After 24 hr of culture, the most of the nuclei in protoplasts showed to 2C and 4C in their DNA content. From 3 days of culture, various DNA content of nuclei was observed showing nuclear fusion and DNA synthesis. After 5 weeks of culture, the 84.4% of developed colonies indicated the normal diploid level of nuclear DNA content, whereas the 7.4% indicated to be tetraploid nuclear DNA content which may probably caused on nuclear fusion in the protoplasts, remainder 4.2% indicated the abnormal heteroploidal DNA content between 2C and 4C.
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