CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 68 , Issue 2
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • Gislaine Cristina Roma, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias, Enrico De Beni A ...
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 101-114
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Little cicadas are homopteran insect pests of sugarcane plantations. As these insects suck out the sap from the leaf parenchyma, they inoculate a toxic saliva that damages the plant vessels, thus promoting the loss of glucose by the affected plant. The morphological and histological analyses of the salivary glands of the little cicada Mahanarva posticata, revealed that these glands are formed by 2 portions: one portion comprises a group of acini and has been denominated as the principal gland; the second portion is filamentous in nature and has been denominated as the accessory gland; it is formed by very long and fine filaments. The acinous portion of the gland can be subdivided into 2 lobes: an anterior lobe formed by 3 lobules (I, II, III), and a posterior lobe formed by lobule IV and the excretory duct. Histologically, the salivary glands showed that the filaments are empty sutructures composed by several internal channels with secretion granules being observed in the cytoplasm of the cells of the secretory filaments. Lobules I and II of the principal gland are characterized by being highly basophilic and for accumulating a large amount of secretion in both the cytoplasm of the cells and inside secretion vesicles. Histochemically, we verified that the secretion produced by these glands is lipidic and protein in nature, with the production of polysaccharides being very low. The differences in stain and appearance of the different regions of the salivary gland lead us to believe that the final glandular product is lipoproteic in nature.
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  • Geeta Sharma, R. N. Gohil
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 115-119
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    An accession of A. roylei Stearn, a diploid species with 2n=16, growing in Northwest Himalayas, was studied for reduction division in male track. Multivalent associations involving 3 to 16 chromosomes were observed in cells at diplotene and metaphase-I. Although anaphasic segregations were mostly normal, the pollen stainability was very low. Propagation by bulbs ensures the survival and maintenance of such a complex heterozygosity in this species.
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  • L. Manandhar, S. R. Sakya
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 121-126
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Chromosome number and karyomorphology of some species of the genus Desmodium Desv. and its related taxa, viz. D. concinnum DC. var. retusum (D. Don) H. Ohashi, D. heterocarpon (L.) DC. var. heterocarpon, D. laxiflorum DC., D. microphyllum (Thunb.) DC., D. podocarpum subsp. oxyphyllum var. mandschuricum Maxim., D. podocarpum DC. subsp. podocarpum and D. triflorum (L.) DC., Butea minor Buch.-Ham. ex Baker, Crotalaria cytisoides Roxb. ex DC. and Piptanthus nepalensis (Hook.) D. Don collected from different climatic regions of Nepal were observed. The basic numbers of chromosomes in Desmodium species was 11. It was recorded to be 9 in B. minor and P. nepalensis, and 8 in C. cytisoides. The chromosomes of the genus Desmodium were mostly medium and small in length throughout except in D. podocarpum. In D. podocarpum, B. minor, C. cytisoides and P. nepalensis chromosomes were large and medium.
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  • R. K. Gautam, G. S. Sethi, P. Plaha
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 127-132
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to know the superiority of triticale×wheat derivatives for phosphorus efficiency and to correlate this attribute with specific rye chromosome(s). Twenty three true-breeding hexaploid triticale (AABBRR)×bread wheat (AABBDD) derivatives were evaluated in normal phosphorus (+P) and P-deficient (−P) environments. On the basis of P-stress susceptibility index (PSSI), 6 derivatives were found P-efficient, 9 intermediate and 8 inefficient. To know the association of P-stress tolerance with specific rye chromosome in the derivatives under study, these were crossed with ‘RL 5’–a genomically normal wheat, ‘CPAN 1922’ (having 1RS.1BL wheat-rye translocation) and 3 established wheat-rye substitution lines, viz. RL 4: 1R (1D), RL 22: 6R (6D) and RL 83: 7R (7D). Different meiotic stages of the resulting F1s were analysed. The number of bivalents/univalents and the presence of known resistance genes served as the basis to establish the nature of rye chromatin transfer. 6R (6D) substitution was inferred in 9 derivatives and 1RS.1BL translocation in 6 derivatives. In 1 derivative, RL 143-1, 6R (6D) substitution coupled with 1RS.1BL translocation was observed. One derivative, RL 110-2, had 1R (1D) substitution. A comparison of the nature of rye chromatin transfer and PSSI values in the studied derivatives revealed that 6R and 1RS rye chromosomes are associated with increased P-efficiency in the derivatives studied.
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  • Ayman A. Farghaly
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 133-139
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The mutagenic effect of a common analgesic drug, paracetamol (PC) was evaluated in vivo using sister chromatid exchange in mouse bone marrow and chromosomal aberration analysis in both somatic and germ cells. For chromosomal aberration analysis PC was administrated orally by gavage as a single and repeated doses (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg b.wt.). PC induced a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in bone-marrow and spermatocytes which was dose and time dependent.
    Single oral treatment with PC also induced a dose dependent increase in SCE's frequency in mouse bone marrow cells. Such frequency was found to be statistically significant at the doses 400, 800 mg/kg b.wt. The present study indicates that PC was genotoxic in vivo in somatic and germ cells of mice.
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  • Sonali Sengupta, Animesh K. Datta
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 141-145
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Persistent presence of secondary association of chromosomes (82.09% cells; range: 61.11–100.00%) was observed in diakinesis and metaphase I cells of normal and 21 mutant (M2, M3 generations) plant types of Sesamum indicum L. Secondary polyploidy has been attributed as the possible cause of secondary association of chromosomes and the basic chromosome number in the species has been suggested to be x=8 with probable allopolyploid origin. In few mutant plant types, frequent formation of 8 group classes seems to have been affected.
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  • Onildes Maria Taschetto, Maria Suely Pagliarini
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 147-152
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Somatic chromosome numbers were determined in 10 populations of Pfaffia glomerata, also known as “Brazilian ginseng”, collected from different regions of Brazil and Argentina. Nine populations showed 2n=34 and one 2n=32, 33. Although chromosomes were very small, a pair of satellited chromosomes per karyotype was reported in almost all the populations. Chromosomes were predominantly metacentric and submetacentric. Meristematic interphase nuclei showed areticulate chromatin structure. Prophase chromosomes had deeply stained proximal blocks of condensed chromatin. This is the first cytological report including chromosome counting for the genus Pfaffia, a genus of the Amaranthaceae family with several species of economic importance due to their high content of ecdysteroid glycosides. The latter is a substance similar to that found in the genus Panax, “the Korean ginseng”, widely used as medicine.
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  • Mohamed F. Abdel Samad, Othman E. Othman, Hassan A. I. Ramadan
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 153-157
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The frequency levels of spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were studied in 4 breeds of goats reared in Egypt namely, Zaraibi, Damascus, Baladi and Sahrawi. Blood samples from 21 animals belonging to these 4 breeds were collected and the lymphocytes were cultured in presence of bromodeoxyuridine. Slides were stained using Hoechst 33258 plus Giemsa technique. Thirty cells in second division were analyzed for each animal and the frequency of SCEs was recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. The frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (mean±SD) were 5.36±0.66, 7.95±0.77, 5.72±0.79 and 6.11±0.27 in Zaraibi, Damascus, Baladi and Sahrawi, respectively. Statistical analysis between these 4 breeds showed that the Damascus breed has a significantly high level of SCEs (p<0.001) over the other 3 breeds. Also, a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was recorded between Zaraibi and Sahrawi breeds.
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  • Rubens Pazza, Horácio Ferreira Júlio Jr.
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 159-163
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Cytogenetical studies on Hoplias malabaricus, intensive in the last few years, have determined that it does not represent only 1 species, as it is classified, but a complex of species with 7 cytotypes , some of them living in a sympatric condition with no hybrids. In this study, for the first time, 3 cytotypes were found in sympatry and sintopy in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Cyytotaxonomy and geographical aspects are discussed.
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  • Margarete Magalhães de Souza, Telma N. Santana Pereira, Leandro ...
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 165-171
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    It was described karyotypes of 6 species (2n=18) collected in Rio de Janeiro, P. alata, P. edmundoi, P. malacophylla, P. mucronata, P. galbana, P. quadrangularis. To do that young root tips were either obtained from seedling or adult plants. The arm ratio for each chromosome (r), total haploid chromatin length (THC), and asymmetry index (TF%) were calculated. Some differences as THC, TF%, position of the centromere, and number, type and position of satellites were observed among the species studied. The species showed metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, except P. galbana that showed only metacentric chromosomes. P. malacophylla revealed the smallest THC (14.67 μm) while P. quadrangularis revealed the largest (33.58 μm). The karyotypes varied in relation to other specimens studied and this result, allied to chromosome segregation studies, suggests the existence of intraspecific karyotypic variation in Passiflora species.
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  • Shinichi Miyamura
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 173-176
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Fate of the eyespots during the fertilization of ulvalean alga Enteromorpha compressa was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). FE-SEM enabled the visualization of the eyespot of biflagellate male and female gamete. The smaller male gamete has 1 protruded smaller eyespot and the larger female gamete has larger one on a posterior position of the cell. The cell membrane over the eyespot region is relatively smooth compared to other part of the cell body and exhibits hexagonal arranged lipid globules. Since the size of cell body and the eyespot is slightly different between male and female gamete, the author could follow the fate of the eyespots during the fertilization. In most of the mating pairs, larger female gamete has always fused along the same side as the eyespot, while smaller male gamete along the side away from its eyespot. As fusion proceeds, the gamete pair is transformed into the quadriflagellate planozygote, in which the eyespots are positioned side by side on the region of cell fusion. These observations indicated that the opposite positioning of the eyespot relative to the cell fusion site in male and female gametes is important for the proper arrangement of the eyespots in the planozygote.
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  • Luciano Ferreira, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Edson Luis Mais ...
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 177-181
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Doxorubicin (DXR) is a potent antitumor drug used worldwide against many forms of human cancer. However, in addition to intercalating into the DNA molecule, this drug generates free radicals that induces chromosome aberrations. Fruits of Salanum melongena are rich in flavonoids. Since several flavonoids have been reported to be efficient antioxidants by scavenging oxygen radicals, the objective of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effect of a standardized extract of Solanum melongena on Wistar rat cells treated with DXR in vivo. The animals were treated by gavage with the extract at 50% of the LD50 (3 g/kg determined for mice) for 10 consecutive days (group 1) and during 1 day (a single dose, group 2), and submitted to euthanasia 24 h after DXR injection (10 mg/kg body weight) for micronucleus assay (MN) and chromosome preparations. Control groups received a single dose of DXR or S. melongena extract. In both treatments where the animals were treated with the extract and with the DXR simultaneously, rat bone marrow cells developed significantly fewer MN and chromosomal aberrations than those treated with DXR alone.
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  • K. Vidhya, A. K. Fazlullah Khan
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 183-190
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Four crosses were effected between the 3 available species of Pennisetum with x=7 as the basic chromosome number [P. glaucum (Cumbu/Pearl millet), P. purpureum (Napier grass) and P. schweinfurthii] viz., (1) P. glaucum×P. schweinfurthii, (2) P. schweinfurthii×P. glaucum, (3) P. schweinfurthii×P. purpureum, (4) P. purpureum×P. schweinfurthii. Of these crosses, the third cross, P. schweinfurthii×P. purpureum gave rise to 1 hybrid with 2n=28. In the light of the earlier reports from the cross P. glaucum×P. schweinfurthii, it is suggested that in the present case, an unreduced gamete of P. schweinfurthii might have combined with a normal gamete of P. purpureum to give rise to the 2n=28 hybrid. It is also suggested that the genomic constitution of the hybrid may be A′BBB and the 14 bivalents observed may be due to pairing of 7 chromosomes of the B genomic complement and the other 7 bivalents may be due to intergenomic residual homology.
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  • Kohzaburo Fujikawa-Yamamoto, Masahiro Sakuma
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 191-198
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The cell-surface glycochains of polyploid Meth-A cells were examined by flow cytometry (FCM). To examine possible changes in the expression of cell-surface oligosaccharides in polyploid cells, the lectin binding of diploid, tetraploid and octaploid Meth-A cells was compared. The tetraploid and octaploid Meth-A cells were established from highly polyploidized diploid and tetraploid cells, respectively. These cells were stained with the following FITC-labeled lectins: wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), concanavalin A (Con A), ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120), ulex europeaus agglutinin I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and dolichos bifluorous agglutinin (DBA), and the fluorescence of the cells was measured by FCM. The lectin binding of tetraploid Meth-A cells was almost the same with that of diploid cells, while the binding of octaploid Meth-A cells was proportional to the deductive area of the cell surface, except in the cases of RCA120 and SBA. It was concluded that the content of cell-surface hydrocarbon chains was maintained during the diploid-tetraploid transition, while it increased in proportional to the cell surface area during the tetraploid-octaploid transition.
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  • N. Sarada Mani, Sudhakar R. Pola
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 199-204
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Three improved varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench SPV 475, CSV 13 and CSV 15 were studied for the regeneration and multiple shoot induction. Explants of young immature inflorescence were cultured on modified Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 2% sucrose, 0.8% agar and 1.5 mg/l 2,4-D for callus initiation. Within 9 to 11 d callus initiation was observed. During third week 2 types of calli were identified, one was white compact, nodular embryogenic callus, while the other was unorganized, non morphogenic and non embryogenic callus. After transferring the callus onto regeneration medium (MS+BAP), somatic embryos were formed, shoot initiation was observed from somatic embryos and was maximum at 1 mg/l BAP (7–17 shoots per culture). For multiple shoot induction different combinations of plant growth regulators (MS+BAP+2,4-D, MS+GA+NAA, MS+BAP+IAA, MS+BAP+GA) along with asparagine and proline (50 mg/l), were used. Among these combinations MS+1 mg/l BAP+1 mg/l IAA gave maximum shoot induction. In this combination about 11–69 shoots were obtained per culture. And subsequent root formation was obtained with half strength MS+1.0 mg/l NAA.
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  • T. Imayama, T. Yabuya
    Type: regular article
    Subject area: [not specified]
    2003 Volume 68 Issue 2 Pages 205-210
    Published: 2003
    Released: October 20, 2003
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The flower colors of 15 cultivars and a line in Japanese garden iris, Iris ensata Thunb. were examined by CIELAB scatter diagram. The cultivars classified as anthocyanin types, malvidin 3RGac5G-petunidin 3RGac5G, malvidin 3RG5G-petunidin 3RG5G and peonidin 3RGac5G showed color distribution from purple to red-purple, while the cultivar and line in peonidin 3RG5G and peonidin 3RG5G-cyanidin 3RG5G types were purplish red to red. This indicates that cyanidin 3RG5G and peonidin 3RG5G are good anthocyanin source for the breeding of red flower color. The anthocyanins of 83 cultivars, 13 lines and 5 wild forms of I. ensata were analyzed by HPLC, and these plants were classified into 17 types of major anthocyanins. Among these, 7 new types, delphinidin 3RGac5G-delphinidin 3RG, delphinidin 3RG-petunidin 3RGac5G, petunidin 3G-delphinidin 3G, petunidin 3RGac, peonidin 3RG5G, cyanidin 3RG5G and malvidin 3RGac5G-peonidin 3RGac5G-petunidin 3RGac5G were detected, and a novel anthocyanin source of red flower, cyanidin 3RG5G was obtained for the first time.
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