CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 10 , Issue 1-2
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • O. Meurman, Eeva Therman
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-14
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    In the present study the chromosome number of 25 Clematis species, hybrids and horticultural forms is given. One of them was tetraploid, 2n=32, one hexaploid, 2n=48, and the rest diploids with 2n=16.
    The karyotypes of twenty-two of these Clematis forms were analysed more or less in detail, and it was found that the diploid chromosome complements were in every case very uniform. In all of them the following chromosome-types could be distinguished: five pairs of V-formed chromosomes viz. A, B, C, D, and E, the subterminally constricted F pair and the G and H pairs with an almost terminal constriction. The two lastnamed ones being generally provided with a satellite. In the tetraploid C. mandschurica and the hexaploid C. paniculata a corresponding number of different types was present.
    In five plants the satellite chromosomes were heteromorphic, and indication of amphiplasty was observed.
    Ten of the Clematis forms studied were inversion heterozygotes is respect to one or more inversions. In consequence hereof during the reduction divisions chromatid bridges, fragments and other irregularities, as for instance univalents and lagging chromosomes, appeared.
    A special attention was paid to the relation between the structural changes and the fertility of the plant. It could be stated, that in forms with a pronounced structural hybridity the pollen was bad and that these forms therefore could be propagated only asexually. The amount of such chromosomal alterations and the grade of fertility are in Clematis, comparably to that in tulips, in a reversed relationship to each other.
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  • B. R. Seshachar
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 15-17
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Effects of Sound and Electricity on Elasticity
    Henry T. Northen, Robert MacVicar
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 18-22
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Vibrations from tuning forks, direct current of intensities from 0.15 milliamps to 6.00 milliamps, and alternating currents of intensities from 1 to 2 milliamps decrease the elasticity of protoplasm in cells of Spirogyra as evidenced by the observations that centrifugal accelerations displaced the chloroplasts more readily in cells exposed to the above stimulants than in cells which were not so exposed.
    We are deeply grateful to Mr. Jack Gottlieb who was employed on N. Y. A. for aid in obtaining the data.
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  • V. The cytology of Crataeva religiosa Forst
    T. S. Raghavan, K. R. Venkatasubban
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 23-31
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The haploid chromosome number of Crataeva religiosa Forst. is 13. Secondary association of the bivalents has been recorded and the basic number based upon maximum association is seven.
    The behaviour of the nucleolus is described, and two chromosomes are found to be responsible for the organization of the nucleolus in the monoploid complement. From both nucleolar behaviour and the occurrence of secondary pairing it is concluded that the plant is a secondarily balanced allotetraploid.
    It is further suggested that the number seven is likely to be the primary basic number and that the chromosome numbers of the various genera represent different balances of this primary number. From this it is suggested that the Capparidioideae first arose, and then the Cleomoideae, by allopolyploidy.
    In conclusion Dr. T. S. Raghavan has great pleasure in tendering his grateful thanks to Prof. R. R. Gates F. R. S., for the continued interest evinced in the progress of this work and for much useful criticism.
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  • Robert Matthey
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 32-39
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Werner Braun
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 40-43
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Wings of pupae of Ephestia kühniella, which were exposed to heat at the beginning of the mitosis-period, show a decrease in number of cell divisions and a large increase of anaphases 12-24 hours after exposure. This suggests that few, if any, cells enter mitosis after heat-treatment, while the cells already dividing during the time of exposure finish their process of division at a slower rate. 36 hours after exposure to heat the normal division-process sets in again.
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  • Ernst Küster
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 44-50
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) Anthozyanophoren (im Sinne WEBERS) werden für Pulmonaria rubra und P. officinalis beschrieben.
    2) Die Form der Anthozyanophoren wiederholt im wesentlichen die der Zellen.
    3) Die Bildung der Anthozyanophoren wird auf Vakuolenkontraktion, nicht auf Gel- und Soltrennung des Zelisaftes zurückgeführt.
    4) Vakuolenkontraktion spielt sich stets unter Beteiligung des Protoplasmas ab, indem dieses stark quillt oder nach Vakuolisation schwillt. Vorgänge, die ohne Beteiligung des Protoplasmas an der Vakuole sich abspielen, als Vakuolenkontraktion zu bezeichnen, scheint nicht zweckmäßig.
    5) Auch an roten (sauren) Zellen kann bei Pulmonaria Vakuolenkontraktion eintreten.
    6) Nach Vakuolisation des Protoplasmas und Verkleinerung des anthozyanreichen Zellsaftraumes kann Farbstoff von diesem an die sekundär gebildeten farblosen Vakuolen abgegeben werden.
    7) Vakuolenkontraktion scheint für die Korollen der Pulmonaria oder für bestimmte Anteile derselben ein physiologischer Vorgang zu sein-auch sehr junge Blüten zeigen ihn; an bestimmten Anteilen der Krone enthält jede Zelle einen durch Vakuolenkontraktion entstandenen Anthozyankörper.
    8) Neben der physiologischen Vakuolenkontraktion kann sich gleichzeitig in denselben Korollengeweben eine pathologische abspielen-z.B. nach Trauma. Bei dieser sind die Vakuolen meist dunkelviolett oder dunkelblau gefärbt. Die pathologische Kontraktion führt zu erheblich schlankeren, stärker undulierten Formen als die, “physiologische”; eine Abgabe von Farbstoff an die farblose Umgebung tritt zu Lebzeiten der Zelle nach pathologischer Kontraktion nicht ein.
    9) Zellen, deren Vakuolen physiologische Kontraktion erfahren haben, können durch Trauma zu erneuter pathologischer Vakuolenkontraktion gebracht werden; hierbei erfolgt zuerst Farbenumschlag nach violett and blau.
    10) Die durch Trauma bedingte pathologische Kontraktion erfolgt einseitig; d.h. derart, daß an der wundnahen Seite der Rand der Vakuole seine normale Lage behält, und nur an der wundfernen der Abstand zwischen jener und der Membran sich vergrößert.
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  • Chromosome number of Carex species
    Nobunori Tanaka
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 51-58
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The chromosome numbers of 32 species and 3 varieties of the genus Carex have been reported. Five haploid numbers, 6, 8, 12, 13 and 17 are newly added to the series of known chromosome numbers of this genus, hence we have the total of 33 different haploid chromosome numbers, namely, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, every number of 23-43, 54 and 56.
    The karyotypes of Carex siderosticta, C. lasiolepis, C. oxyandra and C. Reinii have been determined as follows, 1Lt+3L+2S, 3L+5S, 1 Lt+2L+4M+2S, 2L+7M+4S, respectively.
    In 3 species aneuploid chromosome numbers have been found, i.e. in Carex gibba 2n=34 and 36, in C. breviculmis n=34 and 2n=64 and in C. conica 2n=34, 35 and 38. The ployploid relation has also been found in a single species, C. siderosticta, and also in the subsection Mitratae.
    From the fact that artificial species hybrids have been obtained in 19 combinations (37.3% of all crosses actually made) of 13 species, it is suggested that natural hybridization may often occur and it must have a relation to the considerable extent to the origin of aneuploidy which is too complex to interpret satisfactorily in this genus.
    Here the writer wishes to record his cordial thanks to Prof. Y. Sinotô under whose direction the work has been carried out. Thanks are also due to Dr. S. Akiyama, Dr. H. Hara, Dr. F. Maekawa who kindly identified most of the plants used, and to Dr. Ohwi who had interest in the present work.
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  • S. W. Mensinkai
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 59-72
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Four species of Gladiolus and one variety have been cytologically examined. The chromosome numbers of these species have been confirmed and of G. dracocephalus determined for the first time as 2n=80.
    The behaviour of prochromosomes in G. tristis (2n=30) and G. primulinus (2n=60) has been fully examined. It is shown that the mitotic cycle in species with prochromosomes is essentially the same as in species with large chromosomes.
    The nucleolus regularly persists to metaphase and sometimes until interphase. This is regarded as supporting the interpretation that the nucleolus, consisting of lipoids (fats), may partly act as a fuel substance.
    The spindle appears to be compound in structure.
    Cytomixis has been described in the genus for the first time.
    The basic number is shown to be 10, not 15 as previously reported.
    The causes and effects of vegetative reproduction in the genus are briefly discussed.
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  • T. Sugiura
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 73-76
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • H. W. Howard
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 77-87
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Autotetraploid kale forms from 2 to 5 quadrivalents per cell at diakinesis, with a mean of 4 per nucleus.
    2. Only 57% of the second metaphase plates contained 18, the balanced number of chromosomes.
    3. The seed fertility of autotetraploid kale is about 35% of that found in the diploid.
    4. Secondary associations of chromosomes were examined in the diploid and in the tetraploid.
    (a) A high frequency of associations of three chromosomes was found in the diploid. This was, not found by Catcheside (1937). This difference between the two sets of material appears to be a real one and is either genetical or environmental.
    (b) At second metaphase in the tetraploid, there are very many different types of plates containing different numbers of associations of 4, 3, and 2 chromosomes. This is to be expected from the fact that if the haploid set can be represented as AA BB CC D E F, then the diploid set in the tetraploid is AAAA BBBB CCCC DD EE FF.
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  • On the progenies of pentaploid Avena hybrids
    Ichizo Nishiyama
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 88-100
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    (1) Pentaploid hybrids between tetraploid and hexaploid Avena species are completely or highly sterile. This sterility is clearly due to the gametic abortion which is caused by the abnormal maturation divisions.
    (2) The cytological observation was extensively made on selfed (F2-F4) and back-crossed progenies (BF1-BF5). Their chromosome number changes in a very wide range, 2n=42-67. Also the chromosome configuration is usually quite variable in the same plant, and varies even more from plant to plant, but there were obtained hyperhexaploids possessing 22II, 24II and 25II in the back-crossed offspring and also an octoploid plant with 28II in the F4 progeny. The offspring with 22II bred true, but the others did not, because some chromosomes occasionally or often failed to pair at meiosis. Besides, the author get two constant types, one is the euhexaploid plant (n=21), and the remaining is the unexpected diploid plant (n=7) as reported in his previous paper (NISHIYAMA 1933).
    (3) Hybrid progenies showed a wide variation in their fertility and plant-vigour. It is especially mentioned that hexaploid derivatives with 21II and hyperhexaploids with 22II are highly fertile, but those with 24II and 25II are low or semi- sterile. All of these hyper-hexaploids show the semi-dwarf habit.
    In conclusion, I have great pleasure in recording my gratitude to Professor H. KIHARA for much helpful criticism and guidance.
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  • Experimentally produced eu- and hyperhexaploid aberrants in oats
    Ichizo Nishiyama
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 101-104
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Henry T. Northen
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 105-112
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Uneven pressure and hypertonic sucrose solutions decrease the structural viscosity of protoplasm in cells of Spirogyra as evidenced by the fact that an acceleration which would not displace the chloroplasts in most cells of control filaments would displace the chloroplasts in most cells of filaments which had been stimulated by uneven pressure or hypertonic sucrose solutions. Presumably the decrease in structual viscosity results from the separation of the proteins from the protoplasmic network and their concomitant change from a chain to a globular form.
    Following short immersions in ether the structural viscosity of Spirogyra protoplasm, as determined by the centrifuge method, is less than that of normal protoplasm. After longer immersions in ether the structural viscosity returns to approximately normal. Although the structural viscosity returns to approximately normal the protoplasmic pattern does not, because the altered protoplasmic pattern cannot be stimulated by an electrical current as can the normal protoplasmic pattern; that is, after long immersions in ether the protoplasm is anesthetized as evidenced by the observations that in normal cells an electrical current of 2 ma. acting for 2 minutes causes a decrease in structural viscosity whereas in anesthetized cells the electrical current does not cause an appreciable decrease in the structural viscosity. Biochemically the course of anesthesia may be as follows: the initial break down of the protoplasmic network (as evidenced by the decrease in structural viscosity) is followed by a rearrangement of the network constituents. The rearranged pattern is a relatively non-sensitive one. However, the original sensitive pattern can be obtained again by allowing the anesthetized filaments to remain in water for 60 or more minutes following the ether treatment.
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  • Kazuo Suzuki
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 113-126
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. The appearance and fate of the germ cells in the gonads of the Ayu fish obtained during and after their spawning season in the rivers and the pond were studied.
    2. In the river Tamagawa, the female fish after the spawning season could be obtained until in the middle of June, while the male fish could not be obtained after the last October, except only two which were got until December (cf. table 1).
    3. In the female fish of the river Tamagawa, there was no formation of a new crop of germ cells in the gonads, while it was observed in the male.
    4. In the fish obtained at Unagiike pond, the new crop of germ cells was found to form in the gonads of both sexes after the spawning season.
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  • Karyotype analysis in Tricyrtis and Brachycyrtis with special reference to SAT- and nucleolar chromosomes
    Dyûhei Satô
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 127-157
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) Various karyotypes of two species belonging to Brachycyrtis and seven species, six varieties and three races belonging to Tricyrtis have been analysed from the view point of karyotype alteration. These plants all have 26 somatic chromosomes (2n=26=4L+22S) except T. formosana var. stolonifera (2n=25) and two hybrids between T. hirta×T. formosana and T. hirta×T. formosana var. stolonifera (cf. Tab. 1, 2). The chromosome size in Tricyrtis varies between the different species as regards both length and breadth and it is an interesting fact that as the chromosomes in a complement become shorter the satellites become smaller and disappear (cf. fig. 34).
    2) Various combinations of the nucleolar chromosomes (including the SAT-chromosomes) are found in these species and their hybrids. Homozygous and heterozygous types of SAT-chromosomes in Tricyrtis show the validity of Heitz's theory which assumes a correspondence between SAT-chromosomes and nucleoli at the telophase, while some plants of T. formosana var. stolonifera (2n=26=2Ln1+2Ln2+2St+20S) have only two short SAT-chromosomes and four nucleoli in the telophase and T. formosana (2n=26=2Ln1+2Ln2+St+3Sn+18S) has only one short SAT-chromosome and one large and three small nucleoli in the telophase while T perfoliata (2n=26=4L+4Sn+18S) has no SAT-chromosomes and four nucleoli in the telophase. In these cases many nucleolar chromosomes, besides the SAT-chromosomes, become attached to the nucleoli and this phenomenon namely mobilization of the nucleolar chromosomes may be explained on the basis of Matsuura's principle concerning the nucleolar chromosomes which assumes that first, every chromosome can be referred to as a “nucleolar chromosome” in the sense that it can produce nucleolus under certain specified conditions, and secondly, there is usually a differential rate in the capacity for nucleolusorganizing activity of the chromosomes within a complement.
    3) Many hybrids between these plants the SAT-chromosomes and the nucleoli correspond in number, but the satellites of long chromosomes with small satellites from T. hirta have disappeared in these hybrid in most cases. Such disappearance of the satellite or differential amphiplasty is clearly observed in Tricyrtis hybrids as in Crepis (cf. Navashin 1934).
    4) The pollen grain mitosis in T. formosana, T. formosana var. lasiocarpa and in hybrids between T. hirta and T. formosana (2n=26) was observed and, in addition to SAT-chromosomes, nucleolar chromosomes were found in the case of the hybrid i.e., long chromosomes as well as short SAT-chromosomes became attached to the nucleoli (cf. Tab. 7).
    The disappearance of the satellite in hybrids, and mobilization of the nucleolar chromosomes in the root-tips and pollen grains are explained on the basis of the conception of “nucleolar chromosomes”.
    In conclusion the writer wishes to express his sincere thanks to Professor Sinotô for his kind advice and valuable criticism throughout the course of his work.
    A part of the expense of this work was defrayed out of a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research.
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  • Die Einwirkung des Dampfgemisches von Ammonia und Chloroform auf die Mitose bei den Tradescantia-Haarzellen
    Bungo Wada
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 158-179
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Durch Lebendbeobachtung der Staubfadenhaarzellen von Tradescantia reflexa wurde die Einwirkung des Dampfgemisches Ammonia-Chloroform auf die Teilungsfigur untersucht. Gleichzeitig wurden das Zustandekommen verschiedener Teilungsanomalien, die gegenseitige Beziehung zwischen den Spindelsubstanzen und der phragmoplast-bildenden Substanz, ihre Einzelwesenheit, sowohl normale als auch abnormale Zytokinesevorgänge erörtert.
    2. Die Einwirkung des Dampfgemisches auf die Teilungsfigur ruft zuerst die Quellung der Chromosomen und der Spindelsubstanzen hervor, dann tritt eine Störung der weiteren Karyokinesevorgänge ein. In der angequollenen Spindelfigur verwandeln sich die Chromosomen zur Struktur des Ruhekernes und die Spindelsubstanzen zur phragmoplast-bildenden Substanz, welche sich neben dem Chromosomenklumpen anhäuft und dort klar hyaline Räume, formiert. In der Mitte des hyalinen Raumes tritt eine Wandanlage auf, welche sich unter der Mitwirkung der Zytoplasmaanhäufung um sie herum und der des Zytoplasmas vom Mutterzellwandbelag aus zur festen Querwand entwickelt.
    3. Unter der Einwirkung des Dampfgemisches kommen daher Syndiploid-, Riesen-, oder Zwergkerne, zweikernige oder kernlose Zellen und vielkernige Zellen mit vielen Räumchen zustande. In der durch das Dampfgemisch hervorgerufenen zweikernigen Zelle verschmelzen die beiden Tochterkerne selten zu einem Syndiploidkern.
    Zum Schluß erlaube ich mir, Herrn Ehrenprof. Dr. K. FUJII für die ständige Anregung der laufenden Untersuchungen meinen herzlichsten Dank auszusprechen. Desgleichen bin ich der Japanischen Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Zytologie für die finanzielle Unterstützung dieser Arbeit zu großem Dank verpflichtet.
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  • K. Yasui
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 180-188
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Iris japonica Thunb. (Japanese name “Syaga”) is an allotriploid (2n=54), but neither autotriploid nor hypertriploid. It contains 2 different karyotypes; the chromosome constitution may be described as AAB.
    2. I. japonica has been probably derived from a hybrid between 2 species which had different karyotypes, probably A and B, and one set (A) of the parent chromosomes was doubled. It might have originated partly in its present habitat and survived there, while the parent species have become extinct.
    3. A Chinese species allied to I. japonica is a diploid plant having 36 somatic chromosomes. Its karyotype (C) is different from A and B. Neither this species nor SIMONET's I. japonica is to be considered as the direct parent of our I. japonica Thunb.
    4. I. formosana Ohi is also a diploid plant having 28 somatic chromosomes. Not only its karyotype (D) but also the number of the chromosomes are different from those of other species. This type may be intimately related to the ancestral type of other species. The absence of terminal-constriction chromosomes in this karyotype and their presence in other species suggests that the increase of the chromosome number in the latter is mostly due to the fragmentation of the chromosomes which occurred at the attachment constriction.
    5. I. japonica and its allied species show an aneuploid series, 2n=28, 34, 36, and an allotriploid 2n=54. They all show different karyotypes.
    6. Aneuploidy may appear occasionally in any plant, but in that which propagates by seeds only, the aberrant chromosomes will be easily eliminated through meiosis. Therefore the survival of the aneuploid series in nature is probably due to the capability of vegetative propagation in these plants.
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  • The cytology of Scilla indica Baker
    T. S. Raghavan, K. R. Venkatasubban
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 189-204
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Three karyotypes of Scilla indica, 2n=44, 45, 46 have been recognised. The 45 type is ‘broad-leaved’, while the 44 and 46 are ‘narrow leaved’ and indistinguishable morphologically from one another.
    The somatic chromosome complements have been analysed in the tree types.
    Meiosis is extremely irregular and the irregularities have been described in detail.
    Polyploid pollen formation has been recorded and this is related to the failure of cell wall development in the first division or in the two divisions.
    The chromosomes in the diploid pollen grain exhibit what may be termed somatic pairing.
    On the evidence of the various irregularities in meiosis and the analysis of the chromosome complements, it is suggested that Scilla indica is a hybrid between a sixteen chromosomed species and a twenty-chromosomed species, the complement being suggested to be made up of a triploid set of the former and a diploid set of the latter.
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  • T. Sugiura
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 205-212
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Yoshinari Kuwada
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 213-256
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • The Paraffin Method in Plant Cytology
    P. Maheshwari
    1939 Volume 10 Issue 1-2 Pages 257-281
    Published: November 16, 1939
    Released: March 19, 2009
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