CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 33 , Issue 2
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
  • Rudolf Herich
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 165-167
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In den Nukleolen der Pollenkernen, die in vivo betrachtet wurden, wurde die Existenz dreier nukleolaren Strukturen festgestellt.
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  • M. N. Narkhede, B. A. Phadnis, M. V. Thombre
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 168-173
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Yong Hoi Sen
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 174-180
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • M. R. Banerjee, Ruby J. Walker
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 181-187
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotype from somatic and germ cells of Lagurus lagurus Pall (Steppe-Lemming) a species of Microtinae, showed 54 chromosomes in the diploid set with XY and XX sex-chromosome mechanisms. The autosomes were classified into 3 morphological groups. The Y chromosome is a small acrocentric element and its identification in the male karyotype is rather difficult among the autosomes. Characteristic size and morphology of the X-chromosome, however, permits its positive identification. All the autosomal bivalents showed at diakinesis at least one chiasma and the X and the Y chromosomes are associated end to end. There are two types of metaphase II cells, a Y class and an X class, resulting from the reductional segregation of the sex-chromosomes. The general pattern of DNA replication, both in somatic and germ cells is in agreement with other rodents so far studied.
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  • L. D. Vijendra Das, S. W. Mensinkai
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 188-194
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • J. B. Chowdhury, K. Das
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 195-199
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cyto-morphological studies were conducted on male sterility in yellow and brown sarson. In the post-meiotic stages, the tapetum did not seem to function as a nutritive layer in yellow sarson as it persisted long after degeneration of tetrads. The non-dehiscence of anthers in brown sarson appeared to be due to the presence of large, irregular cells of anther wall in the form of a thick, compact layer. Meiotic studies on these two types of male sterility did not show any abnormality
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  • Juan Carlos Stockert
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 200-201
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Tomáš Husák, Vladimír Srb, Bohumil Kr&aacu ...
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 202-206
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Auf Grund einer mathematischen Analyse schlugen die Autoren vor und gleichzeitig beglaubigten im Falle Gallus gallus f. domestica einen neuen Index zur Bewertung von Vogelmakrochromosomen. Diesen Index einer relativen Länge der Makrochromosome, so genannten H.S.K.-Index (Ik), charakterisieren als Längeverhältnis eines bestimmten Makrochromosomes (Xk) zur Durchschnittslänge aller Makrochromosomes eines gegebenen Karyotypes (X): Ik=Xk/X.
    Den ausgeführten Index beglichen mit dem Frédéricschen I.G.R.-Index und bewiesen, der H.S.K.-Index sei genauer und gewähre mehrere Informationen.
    Zur Berechnung von mathematischen Charakteristiken beider Indexe wurde automatischer Zählapparat Odra 1003 benutzt.
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  • L. Olah
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 207-208
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • I. Heterozygosity in Crinum latifolium
    T. N. Khoshoo, S. N. Raina
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 209-219
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Knowledge of genetic system in tropical-subtropical bulbous ornamentals is most imperative for their genetic improvement. Crinums are being studied from this aspect, and nature and extent of heterozygosity in ornamental C. latifolium has been investigated. For comparison C. asiaticum has been taken as the standard type.
    Rings and/or chains involving 4, 6 or 8 chromosomes, heteromorphicity in the largest bivalent, bridge-fragment configurations are common during meiosis of the heterozygote. Some of these features are karyotypically detectable. Interlocking and entanglements appear to be the cause of interchanges. Segregation is non-disjunctional in majority of the cells, which results in total sterility.
    Heterozygosity is of three types, namely interchanges, inversions and possibly a case of deficiency in the distal segment of one of the arms of one chromosome of the longest submedian pair. Because of vegetative reproduction, the heterozygote not only circumvents high level of reproductive sterility but also conserves a high level of hybridity. The latter may be of adaptive value under garden conditions.
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  • P. C. Datta, R. K. Maiti
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 220-229
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Adhatoda vasica Nees, an well known indigenous drug plant of India, was collected from different regions of the eastern part of India. These places of collection differ as regards edaphic and climatic conditions. Six chromosomal biotypes have been encountered when studying these collections.
    The chromosomal biotypes differ in structure and sometimes in number of chromosomes, which suggests that there has been an evolution of cytotypes within this species, brought about by translocation, fragmentation, deletion etc. as well as by polyploidy or aneuploidy. These chromosomal changes have probably made the cytotypes best suited to their natural environments, where they normally grow.
    It is expected that these chromosomal differences are also related to the quantitative anatomical characters and to the quantity and quality of chemical substances available in this species.
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  • Yutaka Koshida, Igor L. Kosin
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 230-240
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The interphase nuclei of “stellate” pulp cells in the regenerating feathers of chickens, pheasants, turkeys, Japanese quail, guinea fowl, peafowl, ducks and White-crowned sparrows were examined for the existence of cytologically recognizable sex dimorphism. The cells were fixed in Davidson's fluid and subjected to Feulgen reaction.
    In all six Galliformes studied (chickens, pheasants, turkeys, guinea fowl, peafowl, and the Japanese quail), the frequency of nuclei carrying a characteristic heterochromatin, designated the sex-chromatin-like body or the scl body, was higher in females than in males i.e., 65% vs. 25% respectively, for the basal region of the feather and 50% vs. 15% for the distal. Both the size of the scl body and its affinity for the Feulgen reagent were greater in the female. These differences were statistically significant. In ducks and Whitecrowned sparrows, the frequency of the scl body, its size and affinity, although of a higher order of magnitude in females, were not significantly different from those in males.
    Lack of agreement in the literature on the existence of sex dimorphism in interphase avian nuclei was discussed in the light of the above results.
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  • Ryuso Tanaka, Naomasa Shimotomai
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 241-245
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. An F1 hybrid (2n=18), Chrysanthemum makinoi (2n=18)×Ch. vulgare (2n=18), was reported.
    2. At meiosis in the F1 hybrid 18 univalents or one bivalent and 16 univalents were formed at both diakinesis and metaphase I.
    3. The chromosomes of the bivalent were determined to be the longest chromosomes of the parental species.
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  • Preferential pairing in diploid, triploid, and tetraploid interspecific hybrids involving C. stricta×C. concolor and related species
    Barbara A. Hayhome, E. D. Garber
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 246-255
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Thirty hybridizations involving species and unnamed collections belonging to the genus Collinsia, and the F2 progeny from C. stricta×C. concolor were attempted; 5 gave viable seed. The hybrid between C. concolor and C. parryi was an amphidiploid and those between C. concolor and C. stricta×C. concolor were triploids, an anomalous polyploid (3N+1 to 4N+2), and an amphidiploid; the other hybrids were diploid. Hybrids between C. stricta×C. concolor and C. stricta or C. heterophylla had bivalents and univalents, and hybrids between C. strictaa×C. concolor and C. multicolor had an interchange complex of 6 chromosomes; the amphidiploid for C. concolor×C. parryi exhibited not more than 2 quadrivalents, and the amphidiploid for C. concolor×(C. stricta×C. concolor) only bivalents and occasionally univalents. The diploid hybrids had a low chiasma frequency at metaphase I (1.0 1.4), and the polyploid hybrids had a high chiasma frequency (1.7-1.8). Diploid hybrids, except for those involving C. heterophylla, and the polyploid hybrids were fertile to some extent. The preferential pairing observed in the 2 amphidiploids was explained by assuming 2 types of cryptic structural hybridity.
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  • Chromosomes of the mouse leukemias induced by Moloney leukemogenic virus (MLV) infection
    Toshihide H. Yosida, Lloyd W. Law
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 256-268
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Distribution of chromosome numbers and karotypes were analysed in 26 individual leukemias developing in the mouse strains C3Hf*/Lw, C3Hf*/Gs, C3Hf*/Fg, RFM* and BALB*/c. They developed after natural infection with MLV transmitted to the offspring through mother's milk. Among the examined 26 leukemias, 24 were lymphocytic, while the remaining two were granulocytic. Twenty-three had 40 chromosomes as modal number, all characterized by telocentric centromeres. The remaining three leukemias were remarkable by showing a mode of 41 chromosomes. In leukemias characterized by the modal number of 40, second peaks appeared which differed by the strain. No marked differences in karyotypes were found between granulocytic and lymphocytic leukemias. Lymphocytic leukemias developing after thymectomy showed also similar karyotypes to those developing in intact mice.
    Differences in karyotypes in various leukemias induced by virus infection, radiation and chemical treatment, and those developing spontaneously were discussed.
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  • J. B. Chowdhury, Bachitar Singh Ghai, Pawan Kumar Sareen
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 269-275
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytological study of the induced polyploids of self-incompatible Brassica campestris var. brown sarson revealed the presence of multivalents, univalents, laggards, etc., which lead to irregular separation of chromosomes. However, quite a high percentage of cells showed normal distribution (20 chromosomes to each pole). The polyploid plants in C1 generation were self-compatible or partially self-compatible although the diploids were self-incompatible. The tetraploids had more seed setting than the diploid plants both on self-pollination and open-pollination.
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  • Günter Senf
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 276-286
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Investigations have shown that the high fertility of the population A-the result of a 2x. 4x crossing-is caused by the aneutetraploids with z=37 chromosomes and the karyotype (2A, 2B, 5C, 5D, 5E, 4F, 4G, 5H, 5I). Plants with this karyotype are found very frequently. Not only after self-pollination but also after open-pollination they form on an average more than the three fold quantity of seed in comparison with the numerically eutetraploid individuals with z=36 chromosomes. They proved to be the most fertile plants of the population at all.
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  • Elisabeth Peveling
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 287-317
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Die an den Chromosomen den verschiedenen Pflanzen und Tiere durchgeführten Untersuchungen brachten bis heute keine klärende Auffassung vom Chromosomenbau. Weder die Frage, ob das chromatische Material von einer Chromosomenmatrix umgeben ist, noch der strukturelle Aufbau der Chromosomen konnten geklärt werden. Die Existenz einer Chromosomenmatrix, die nach lichtmikroskopischen Beobachtungen umstritten war (vgl. S. 6) und nach elektronenoptischen Untersuchungen weitgehend abgelehnt wurde, ist nach jüngsten Elektromikrogrammen erneut zu diskutieren. Eine Matrixähnliche Struktur konnte elektronenoptisch bisher allerdings nur in der praemeiotischen Mitose von Paeonia tenuifolia gefunden werden (PEVELING 1966). Die Untersuchungen sprechen für eine Anlagerung von Matrixsubstanz um eine chromonematische Substanz zu Beginn der Kernteilung. Entsprechende Beobachtungen liegen lichtmikroskopisch an Mais-Chromosomen vor (Mc CLINTOCK 1934). Außerdem konnte am selben Objekt ein Zusammenhang zwischen Nucleolussubstanz und Chromosomen lichtmikroskopisch nachgewiesen werden (MCCLINTOCK 1934). Beziehungen zwischen Nucleolus und Chromosomensubstanz wurden auch elektronenmikroskopisch gezeigt im Wurzelmeristem von Allium cepa und Vicia faba (LAFONTAINE 1965) und im Wurzelmeristem von Hordeum vulgare und Cucumis sativus (PEVELING, unveröffentlicht). -Über die chemische Natur der Chromosomenmatrix fehlen allerdings noch Untersuchungen. Ob es sich um Nucleolusmaterial handelt oder um Phospholipide (LA COUR u. CHAYAEN 1958), wovon die Chromonemata zu Beginn der Spiralisierung eingehüllt werden, ist zur Zeit noch nicht zu entscheiden. In jedem Falle zeigt sich bei der Darstellung der Matrix eine starke pH-Abhängigkeit, worauf bereits ZEIGER (1934) hinwies.
    In der Frage nach der Strukturordnung der chromonematischen Substanz stehen sich als zwei Haupttheorien die beiden Auffassungen von der Vielsträngigkeit (vorwiegend vertreten durch KAUFMANN und RIS) und der Einsträngigkeit (vertreten von TAYLOR) gegenüber. Die Vorstellung von der Vielsträngigkeit eines Chromosoms, die Polynemiehypothese, beruht auf Beobachtungen von Chromosomen im Licht und Elektronenmikroskop; die Theorie von der Einsträngigkeit ist dagegen auf indirekte Schlüsse nach autoradiographischen Versuchen zurückzuführen. Der Begriff der Vielsträngigkeit wird angewandt sowohl auf die lichtmikroskopisch sichtbaren Einheiten des Chromosoms-die Chromonemata-, als auch auf sublichtmikroskopische Fibrillen im Bereich von 100Å Dicke (vgl. Tab. 1). Auf nur einen DNS-Faden in Form der Doppelhelix weist neben den Markierungsversuchen auch der Zerfall der Achse mit ihren seitlichen Schleifen nach DNase-Behandlung von Lampenbürstenchromosomen hin (GALL 1963b). Die Beobachtung einer an mehreren Stellen gleichzeitig einsetzenden DNS-Vermehrung spricht für eine DNS-Doppelhelix, die aus mehreren Replikationseinheiten besteht (KEYL u. PELLING 1963, PLAUT 1963).
    Sowohl nach Untersuchungen mit Schleifenmutanten bei Lampenbürstenchromosomen (HESS 1965) als auch nach Bestimmungen mit Hilfe des Dichtegradienten an Vicia faba Chromosomen (TAYLOR 1965) wird für die DNS-Doppelhelix folgendes angenommen. In weiten Abschnitten soll die DNS keine genetische Information geben, sondern als Primer für die Bildung von messenger-RNS für bestimmte Proteine dienen. Die zwischen den Primer liegende DNS gibt genetische Information.
    Es erhebt sich nun die Frage, ob die Hypothesen vom ein-oder vielsträngigen Chromosomenbau, die sich einander gegenüber stehen, nicht durch eine Gesamtschau aller Ergebnisse zu einer Synthese geführt werden können.
    Überblickt man die Untersuchungen an Chromosomen verschiedener Organismen, so werden immer mehr Schleifenstrukturen entdeckt.
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  • I. Microtubules and the formation of the spindle in spore mother cells of Equisetum arvense
    Aiko Sakai
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 318-330
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The development of the spindle body was studied in the spore mother cells of Equisetum arvense under the electron microscope. The spindle body consists of two elements, spindle fibers and a spindle matrix filling the spaces between these spindle fibers. These spindle fibers originate from the cytoplasm as follows. Microtubules of 25mμ in diameter become visible among the cytoplasmic organelles (such as mitochondria and plastids) in early diakinesis (Fig. 2). These microtubules move to the cytoplasmic region around the nucleus (Figs. 3-6) during diakinesis, while other organelles such as mitochondria and plastids move to the periphery of the cell (forming the clear zone). As soon as the continuous nuclear envelope breaks into fragments (prometaphase-I), these microtubules intrude into the nuclear area from the clear zone together with ER, small vesicles (30-100mμ in diameter) and cytoplasmic matrix (Figs. 7 and 8). They may connect with the kinetochore of each chromosome (chromosomal fibers, Fig. 9). Some microtubules not connected with kinetochore may form continuous fibers running from pole to pole (Figs. 9 and 10).
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  • IX. Spiral growth in callus cells of the fern, Pteris vittata L.
    Yukio Kato
    1968 Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 331-335
    Published: June 25, 1968
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A type of spiral growth has been found in isolated single cells of the gametophytic callus tissue of Pteris vittata. Spiralization occurred by the twisting of cell wall with a regular interval and unequal elongation in both sides of the cell. This is the first report on spiral growth found in isolated single cells of higher plants. The callus cells have often been connected by thin membranes or membranous fragments. This can be regarded as an evidence for the presence of files of daughter cells surrounded by the stretched wall of the original parent cell in living material.
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