CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 22 , Issue 3-4
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Changes of the testes
    Kazuo Suzuki
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 243-249
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1) The nature of the submaxillary gland and the appearance of germ cells in the testis after ablation of the submaxillary gland were studied in guinea pigs.
    2) In all specimens after operation, the degenerative germ cells were observed in the lobules of testis, whereas the testis did not cause the progressive atrophy, and the renewed spermatogenesis was observed within the prexisting lobules.
    3) An atrophic change of the germinal cells in the present experiment may be due to androgen affected because of the absence of the submaxillary gland.
    4) The reciprocal relation between the testis and the submaxillary gland in order to maintain the normal condition of these organs, was observed in this experiment.
    5) The lack of correlation between the conditions of the testis and the seminal vesicle was observed in the specimen after operation, namely, the germ cells and sperms in the testis suffered damage, whereas the seminal vesicle exhibited normal development.
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  • N. Krishnaswamy, K. Meenakshi
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 250-262
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • IX. Chromosome complement in two interspecific hybrids newly found
    Masataka Kurabayashi, Takashi Saho
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 263-272
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two interspecific hybrids were added as supplements to the genus Trillium in Japan. The parentages were confirmed cytologically, with the aid of differential reaction in chromosomes. The chromosome number, genomic constitution and parentage of these hybrids are tabulated as follows:
    The isolation mechanisms separating the parental species were examined. It was shown that there were differences among them in respect to flowering time and some ecological characters.
    These differences were more conspicuous between T. kamtschaticum and T. smallii than between T. tschonoskii and T. smallii. Hybridization occurred in localities where these external barriers were removed or reduced. These parental species were completely isolated, however, by an internal barrier, viz., chromosomal sterility, and the hybrids produced no progeny in nature.
    The external morphology of the hybrids was generally intermediate between their parents. One of the parents, T. smallii, is an apetal species, and others had three petals. The number of petals of the hybrids varied from three to zero. The reduction of petal number was often accompanied by staminody.
    The process of speciation of Japanese Trillium previously proposed by Haga (1951) was partly rewritten adding the two newly found hybrids. At the same time, a modification was made in the scheme of evolutionary sequences of chromosome doubling, on the assumption that the doubling is conditioned by the pre-existence of sterile hybrids.
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  • XI. Mechanism of chromosomal isolation in Japanese Trillium
    Masataka Kurabayashi, Takashi Saho
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 273-286
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The mechanisms of sterility were investigated with three interspecific hybrid species of Trillium found in Japan.
    There were three possible mechanisms concerned in sterility operative during microsporogenesis of these plants: 1) univalent formation, 2) non-dis-junction of dicentric and acentric chromatids produced in bivalents formed by a pair of corresponding chromosomes belonging to a pair of different genomes included in the hybrids, and 3) random assortment of chromosomes in dyads due to random disjunction of the bivalents formed by heterogenetic chromosome pair.
    The first mechanism is effective in hybrids with an odd number of different gametic sets. The latter are operative irrespective of polyploid of hybrids.
    It was assumed from the above that all possible interspecific hybrids of Japanese Trillium, both living and extinct, are sterile due to the above mentioned mechanisms.
    The origin of the dicentric chromatids, which are the cause of the second sterile mechanism, was discussed on the basis of comparative examinations of the types and frequencies of the dicentrics in all the fertile and sterile species of Japanese Trillium. The conclusion was reached that a majority of the dicentrics originate from inversion crossing-over at prophase. The simultaneous chromatid breakages at chiasmata in metaphase bivalents and the subsequent illegitimate reunion of the broken ends sometimes deform the configuration of chromatids at chiasmata in such a way as that described by Matsuura (1950). But the deformation seems to be facilitated only when the dicentrics produced by inversion crossing-over pre-exist.
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  • Arun Kumar Sharma, Dipti Bhattacharjee
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 287-311
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • I. Alien addition races in tetraploid wheat
    K. Sadanaga
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 312-321
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The allopolyploid of T. durum var. Carleton and Secale celeale (spring rye) was crossed to the T. durum varieties Iumillo, Stewart, F.P.I. 94587 and Golden.
    A single hybrid each was obtained from the crosses involving Stewart and F.P.I. 94587. Fourteen bivalents and seven univalents were the most frequently observed configuration in the pollen mother cells. A quadrivalent in the form of a ring of four chromosomes was observed in some of the pollen mother cells. Genome constitution of these hybrids is believed to be AABBS.
    Five hybrids between Triticale and lumillo were obtained. Four hybrids had 32 and one hybrid had 31 somatic chromosomes. All hybrids lacked the hairy neck character. A quadrivalent in the form of a ring of four chromosomes was observed in the pollen mother cells of the hybrids. The genome constitution of the 32 and 31 chromosome hybrids is postulated to be AABBS-3 and AABBS-4 respectively.
    Two BC1 plants with 28 wheat chromosomes plus 1 rye chromosome were obtained by backcrossing hybrids 35-1 to Khapli. The presence of the rye chromosome resulted in plants with thin culms and narrow leaves.
    An individual with 28 wheat chromosomes plus chromosome I of rye was obtained by backcrossing hybrid 37-1 to Khapli. The presence of the rye chromosome adversely affected plant height and increased the frequency of asynapsis of one or two pairs of wheat chromosomes.
    Quadrivalents observed in the hybrids involving durum varieties are believed to be due to a reciprocal translocation present in the Triticale parent.
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  • M. Tsujita, K. Watanabe, S. Tsuda
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 322-327
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    An electron-microscopical study of the fine structure of the nuclei of Paramecium caudatum has been carried out by means of ultra-thin sections.
    The results of the observations are summarized as follows:
    1) The macronucleus is surrounded by thin nuclear membrane.
    2) Throughout the whole macronucleus many globular bodies connected by thin strands of bead-like structures are distributed. They measured about 0.1 to 0.2μ in diameter.
    3) It is inferred that bead-like structures are related to chromosomes.
    4) In the micronucleus a stage resembling a prophase of nuclear division could be observed.
    5) Spherical granules which measure 1μ or more in diameter are scat-tered here and there in the macronucleus, and we suppose these granules are nucleoli. These granules are often fused into two or more large vacuolated masses.
    Some of the nucleoli in the macronucleus have fine-grained centers and densely osmiophilic perimeters.
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  • Yukio Kato
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 328-336
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Some experiments were made on the polarity of Dryopteris erthrosora and Equisetum arvense. The results obtained are as follows:
    1. When Dryopteris spores were cultured in a medium containing tryptophane, the hypertrophy of spore occurs prior to the first division. If the spore, the exine membrane of which being taken away by this method, is immersed in a concentrated KOH solution, the partial thickening of spore membrane was clearly seen as in Equisetum spore. The thickening place is now called the “rhizoid-bearing region” or “RBR” by abbreviation. The rhizoid is usually formed in the RBR. This is true in the tryptophane-containing medium. In the case of the secondary or lateral rhizoid which is formed at the spore cultured in the naphthalene acetic acid-containing medium, the RBR is so found that it stands for the centre of rhizoid formation rather than that of the original polarity. The partial and localized accumulation of some substances coloured in the KOH solution was found within the spore.
    2. In Equisetum, the giant spore obtained by the colchicine treatment does not show the gradients in regard to the distribution of red colouredsubstances and to the vital staining with Nile blue, while the cell aggregates without rhizoids induced by Na-salt of adenosine triphosphate or chloralhydrate show an obvious gradient mentioned above.
    3. The cause and mechanism of the rhizoid-differentiation in ferns were discussed and a working hypothesis was proposed in the present paper
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  • Ken-Ya Kawamura
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 337-346
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Comparative observations on the spindle formation and cytokinesis of the primary spermatocytes in nine species of grasshopper were carried out in the living and fixed materials.
    The cytoplasmic precursor of the spindle body, three types of mitotic apparatus, and two types of the cleavage pattern were described and discussed.
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  • Ken-ya Kawamura
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 347-354
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effects of hypotonic and hypertonic media on the spermatocytes of the grasshopper, Acrydium japonicum, were observed with special reference to the cytokinesis and spindle.
    Changes of the cleavage pattern and spindle length were described and discussed.
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  • Alfred M. Elliott, Gordon M. Clark
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 355-359
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • 1. Relative contents of chlorophylls and carotenoids in rice leaves
    Yoshiwo Katayama, Shojiro Shida
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 360-369
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. A trial by means of paper chromatography on the studies in regard to the variation and formation of leaf pigments was made, using three strains or lines of rice (Zuiho-green leaf, Murasaki-ine-purple leaf and Kogane-nishiki-yellow leaf).
    2. The extraction of pigments was carried out with a solution of methanol, acetone, benzene in 4:1:1 ratios. Approximately 24 hours were elapsed and after filtration the solvent was evaporated under the low pressure, and thus the residual crude pigment was obtained. This was solved again with ether, and thus used as material. The filter paper used was Toyo Roshi No. 50 (1×40cm) and the material spotted at the situation of 6cm from the surface of solution. Developmental solution was of toluol and petroleum benzine (2:1), and by the ascending method the experiments were carried out 40 minutes at a temperature of 4°C.
    3. The pigments were separated clearly in 5 spot areas (Fig. 1) in order of chlorophyll b (yellow green), chlophyll a (blue green), 2 sorts of Xanthophyll (yellow) and carotene (orange yellow), and thus Rf values and coloured areas were measured. Although the Rf value of carotene was almost constant, other pigments increased rectilinearly according to their sample amounts (Tab. 1, Fig. 2).
    4. Owing to the test of observed error in coloured area a variance analysis was done for the measured values, denoting very small in the observed error in the same cylinder as shown in Table 2. The relation between sample amount and coloured area for respective pigments (Tab. 3, Figs. 37) differs in the situation and slope of curves according to their materials, but the curves which select the most adequate experimental formula seem to be almost similar. Thus three strains will be discussed together in treatment. Consequently the related formula thus obtained will be applicable to those other then these three strains.
    5, The authors subjected the data to x2-test (Tab. 4) whether the follow-ing formulae are most applicable to the relation between sample amount (x) and coloured area (y) or not.
    1) y=K1x+K2
    2) y=K1logx+K2
    3) log y=K1logx+K2
    where K1 and K2 are constants. The result shows that (2) formula is most adapted for carotene and xanthophyll, and (3) formula for chlorophyll, (1) formula being conformable also to chlorophyll b.
    6. For the sake of the analysis of relative contents, Zuiho with green leaves under the usual culture was used as control, and the constants of respective pigments were calculated by the most applicable experimental formula for this material. Thus the nomogram (Fig. 8) was plotted, showing relation between pigment amount and coloured area. The actual values the from other strains will be put in this nomogram and provisionally the calculated γ of crude pigments as those of the control Zuiho will be deter-mined (Tab. 5).
    7. To avoid the error in the case of actual measurement, the pigment amounts will be placed in the range of 40100 calculated γ, adjusting the dilution of sample density. And simply and speedily the experiments will be carried out by the extraction with methanol, acetone and benzene, whereas the upper clear portion of extraction standing for a while after the mixing is soon used as sample solution. Moreover, in this method the test will be safely carried out even with the sample amount of 0.5gr. fresh leaves.
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  • Ira Sarkar
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 370-379
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Immersion of grasshopper embryos in various concentrations of versene solution, produces a number of well-marked changes in the mitotic cycle of the neuroblast cell.
    2. Treatment with .0025 to .01M for one hour results in mitotic blockage at interphase, early prophase, late prophase and telophase stages, and mitotic delay at middle prophase and prometaphase and metaphase stages. No effect on early and middle anaphase and the later part of very late prophase is detected.
    3. Treatment with cencentrations above .01M produces pronounced stickiness of chromosomes at the mid-mitotic stages and greatly increased mitotic delay, and subsequent blockage of mitosis.
    4. Cleavage abnormalities are observed in the neuroblast cells when treated with concentrations above .01M for more than one hour.
    5. Telophase chromosomes become highly refractile on being immersed for 30 minutes in .0025-.03M of versene. Treatment with .05M produces immediate blockage of most of the stages of mitosis. No refractile chromo-somes appear at telophase at this concentration.
    6. Recovery from most of the changes induced by versene is noticed, when the cells are transferred back to normal culture solution.
    7. That most of the effects of versene treatment may be due to lack of calcium ions in the cell, is indicated.
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  • Karl Michael Jakob
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 380-392
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    At pachytene, approximately 35% of the analyzable cells of Ricinus communis, variety Gamadon, exhibit H- and cross-shaped configurations of four chromosomes. Such “interchromosomal associations” involving chromosomes F and G occur in about 19% or the analyzable cells. The centromeres of chromosomes E and G assume a central possition in most of these configurations. A comparative study of the macrochromomere pattern of the free chromosome pairs E and G indicates a morphological similarity between two groups of three macrochromomeres located in the long arm of chromosome E and the short arm of chromosome G, adjacent to the centromeres.
    At diakinesis and metaphase I interchromosomal associations consist of true configurations of four as well as loose associations of pairs. The di-akinesis interchromosomal associations involving the nucleolus chromosome E and one other (presumably G) do not normally consist of true configurations of four chromosomes linked by chiasmata, but only of secondarily associated pairs. There is a correspondence between the frequency of interchromosomal associations involving chromosomes E and G at pachytene and that at diakinesis involving chromosome E and one other chromosome.
    In Ricinus, secondary association involving different chromosome pairs can be thought of as the consequence of either or both of the following zygotene-pachytene processes; 1) fusion of the chromosomes at the centro-meres; 2) the exchange of portions of pairings strands affecting two of the four chromosomes involved in interchromosomal association without the for-mation of chiasmata in the regions of interchromosomal contact.
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  • S. C. Verma
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 393-403
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Studies into the cytological behaviour in the genus Ophioglossum have been undertaken especially from a cytogeographical and cytotaxonomical bias. The present investigation reveals the haploid chromosome number in an Australian population of Ophioglossuon coriaceum A. Cunn. to be 510 and it includes 10-14 very small bivalents. This number is incidently a mul-tiple of 15 and lends further support to Ninan's (1956a) suggestion that 15 is probably the common base number of the family Ophioglossaceae. -However, keeping in view the discrepancies in chromosome numbers in some Ophioglossum species, in particular O. polyphyllum (cf. Table 1) and Helminthostachys (n=94, Ninan Lc) it seems desirable to make further enquiries in this direction especially as Stebbins (1950) has also pointed out that the higher the number the more are the ways in which it can be compounded. Apart from repeated allopolyploidy the present writer, on the basis of the existence of multivalents in a form of O. vulgatum (Verma 1956), emphasizes also the role of autopolyploidy. Furthermore, vegetative reproduction is responsible for supporting diverse chromosomal constitution and the initial sterility arising out of autopolyploidy.
    Taxonomic status of Ophioglossum coriaeemn is discussed in the light of Claussen's (1938) morphological observations and the available cytological data on the related species O. lusitanicum (Manton 1950b and Ninan 1956a) as well as other widely distributed species like O. vulgatum (Verma 1956). It is suggested that O. coriaceum should not be treated as a distinct species but rather be merged within the polymorphic O. lusitanicum. Pending fur-ther studies on more parts of its range, it is at present regarded as a distinct cytogeographical race and thus be treated as a ssp. of O. lusitanicum, as pro-posed earlier by Claussen on the basis of morphology and geographical distribution.
    Based on observations on O. vulgatum and O. lusitanicum (sensu Claussen, 1938), it is suggested that the genus Ophioglossum as a whole be regarded as a group of facultative apomicts. Furthermore, the species concept in the genus should be on more or less similar lines as adopted for apomictic angiosperms (cf. Stebbins 1950).
    Present cytological data reveals that the species with wider distribution show numerous cytological races as well as high number. Furthermore, there is probably a gradual increase in the chromosome number from Northern to Southern latitudes. This formulation, however, needs further study on widely distributed species.
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  • S. de Toledo Piza Jr
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 404-411
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. The male of Scaptocoris castaneus Perty (Hemiptera-Cydnidae) has spermatogonia with 26 chromosomes and primary spermatocytes with 12 autosomal tetrads plus an XY-complex.
    2. From diakinesis up to metaphase the tetrads consist of four distinctly separated chromatids, the two at each side being connected with one another by a thin thread.
    3. The sex chromosomes (X and Y), from leptotene onward, appear fused to one another in a plasmosome. They first separate at anaphase or a little earlier for going to opposite poles. Since we can sometimes disclose several chromatin corpuscles within the plasmosome, the genesis of the sexcomplex remains an obscure affair.
    4. Discussing the facts reported in this paper the author reinforces his conviction concerning the localized condition of hemipteran chromosomes.
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  • M. J. Hollingsworth
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 412-414
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Carl C. Lindegren
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 415-441
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • B. Wada, K. Fukunaga
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 442-451
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. The spindle figure treated with metal salt solutions shows its outline without failure and is filled up densely with innumerable spindle fibers.
    2. The distal ends of large chromosomes hitherto considered as lying in the cytoplasm are found to be always enveloped with a spindle surface membrane, when cells are alive.
    3. The multipolar spindle in pollen mother cells appears irregularly in its outline but is clearly distinguished from the cytoplasm, and reveals that it is nuclear in origin.
    4. In the materials used in this study no essential difference is found in the structure of the karyokinetic spindle between plant and animal cells.
    5. The preservation of the submicroscopic structures of the spindle in preparations is discussed on the case of fixation and of coagulation.
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  • G. P. Sharma, Brij L. Gupta
    1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages 452-467
    Published: December 30, 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. The cytoplasmic inclusions during the spermatogenesis of the three species of ticks, viz., Hyalomma aegyptium, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Argas persicus, have been worked out with the positive phase-contrast and interference microscopes.
    2. In the early primordial germ cells the cytoplasm reveals the mito-chondria as a juxta-nuclear mass of fine granules, giving a phase-change which is slightly higher than that of the cytoplasm. In later stages these granules form filamentous mitochondria.
    3. In the spermatogonia, spermatocytes and early spermatids the mito-chondria appear as delicate filaments of uniform contour, producing a low phase-change, which in most cases possess a dark granule at one or both of their tips. The mitochondrial filaments appear red with a violet tinge, whereas their tip granules are bluish-violet under the interference colour contrast.
    4. In late spermatids the mitochondria appear as prominent granules, giving a considerable phase-change and appearing deep violet under the inter-ference colour contrast. The mitochondria retain this form even in the ripe tubuliform sperm.
    5. The Golgi bodies appear for the first time in the early spermatogonia as a few discrete granules of dark contrast which appear violet-blue under the interference colour contrast. These later on appear as (a) dark crenated or smooth rods, (b) two dark smooth rods lying close and parallel to each other, (c) two dark smooth rods lying embedded in a grey material and (d) spheres engirdled by a complete or incomplete sheath of very dark contrast. All these forms are visible under the interference microscope also.
    6. Whereas in the spermatocytes and early spermatids the Golgi bodies show all the above forms, in the late spermatids these appear as grey spheres of homogeneous contrast which, ultimately, diappear completely.
    7. It is suggested that the Golgi granules originate as the tip granules of the mitochondrial filaments. These later on disassociate themselves from the mitochondrial filaments and develop gradually into duplex Golgi spheroids.
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  • 1957 Volume 22 Issue 3-4 Pages e1
    Published: 1957
    Released: March 19, 2009
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