CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 32 , Issue 2
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • III. Dauermodifications in Ageratum conyzoides Linn
    M. L. H. Kaul
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 147-156
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Plants of tetraploid Ageratum conyzoides exhibiting dauermodifications were obtained by treating the seeds with aesculin. Abnormalities in morphological and cytological characters were observed. These gradually diminish in subsequent generations and finally disappeared in the 4th generation. Dauermodification in A. conyzoides seems to be controlled by genes as well, rather than by cytoplasm alone. Genes controlling anthocyanin pattern, cytological behaviour and erectness seem to be linked. An origin of cross bridges has been attempted.
    Download PDF (922K)
  • Sigenobu Kawamatu
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 157-164
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The root cell plastids and their development were studied in seven genera of hydrophytes: Lemna, Nymphoides, Hydrocharis, Trapa, Eichhornia, Najas, and Hydrilla under the electron microscope.
    Roots of these hydrophytes with exception of Eichhornia appear slightly greenish and their plastids are composed of grana-lamellar structures. In some of the young plastids, the development of arranged vesicles into lamellar structures has been observed.
    In the plastids of Eichhdrnia root cells, no grana-lamellar structure has been observed.
    Download PDF (2119K)
  • Milan Macek
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 165-173
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (897K)
  • Y. B. K. Chowdary
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 174-179
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Six species of Stigeoclonium have been collected from nature and also grown in laboratory cultures. The chromosome numbers for six species of Stigeoclonium have been determined. They are as follows:
    S. variabile (6), S. fasciculare (7), S. stagnatile (8), S. aestivale (9), S. elongatum (10), and S. amoenum var. amoenum (12)
    The importance of this study in the systematic determination of the species of Stigeoclonium has been discussed.
    Download PDF (514K)
  • David T. Arakaki, Robert S. Sparkes
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 180-183
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The findings of the present study would seem to establish the normal diploid chromosome number in P. m. hollesteri as 48 rather than the earlier reported number of 52 by Cross (1937-1938).
    The diploid number of 48 also seems more consistent and taxonomically sound in comparison with the chromosomal findings in other subspecies of P. maniculatus. A tentative karyotypic arrangement has been presented with presumptive identification of the XY sex chromosomes through meiotic and mitotic analysis.
    Download PDF (188K)
  • M. J. D. White
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 184-189
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (337K)
  • M. J. D. White, Alejo Mesa, R. Mesa
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 190-199
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (520K)
  • E. S. Robinson, Elsie M. Stephenson
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 200-207
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosomes and multinucleate cells in tadpole heart and kidney cultures and the chromosomes in adult male and female heart and lung cultures of Limnodynastes peroni have been studied. There are 24 chromosomes in the normal diploid set. Chromosome complements with fewer than 24 chromosomes are probably due to chromosome loss during hypotonic spread preparation. In the set there are 10 metacentric pairs and 2 submetacentric pairs. On the basis of length the chromosomes can be divided into two groups. Group I consists of 6 long to medium-sized pairs, while Group II has 6 small pairs. Intra-pair variation in length is regarded as preparative alteration. Heterogamety was not observed. A secondary constriction is present in each member of pair 8. Chromosome number in the Anura is briefly discussed. At least two types of multinucleate cells occur in culture, differing in morphology and origin.
    Download PDF (682K)
  • Vladimír Poza, Jan Gayer
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 208-215
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (1243K)
  • Singo Nakazawa, Noriko Tanno
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 216-223
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Spores of Equisetum arvense and Osmunda japonica, and protonemata of Pteris vittata were cultured with actinomycin D and with chloramphenicol. As a result, the following was revealed.
    1) Equisetum and Osmunda spores can germinate normally in presence of these drugs at concentrations lower than 100μg/ml. Two-dimensional growth is arrested at or higher than 50μg/ml of actinomycin D and 10μg/ml of chloramphenicol, while one-dimensional growth is inhibited at higher concentrations.
    2) In Pteris protonema, as well as in Equisetum and Osmunda, actual arrest of the growth by actinomycin D occurs after the plant continued development of a certain stage for several days. This implies that messenger RNA is taking part in protein synthesis for several days. This is supported by the fact that the cease of growth comes earlier if the plant is cultured with chloramphenicol.
    (3) Localization at high concentration of RNA seems to be a key factor for two-dimensional growth. Such RNA is high-polymer other than soluble RNA, as verified by acquisition of fluoresence combined with berberine sulfate. It is retained for several days even if the growth was arrested by actinomycin D. Therefore, most of such RNA may consist of ribosome RNA. As such RNA cannot take part in two-dimensional growth by itself when applied with actinomycin D, the role of messenger RNA seems to be indispensable for the growth.
    Download PDF (555K)
  • Robert C. Nims, Robert S. Halliwell, David W. Rosberg
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 224-235
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cell chains were transferred from callus tissue shake cultures of N. tabacum var. Samsun NN, a local lesion host of TMV, to oil-chamber microscope slides. In each slide culture a single cell of one chain was directly injected with a bacteria-free aqueous suspension of TMV. A single cell of another chain was injected with heatinactivated TMV. A third cell chain was not inoculated. Injections were made with a hollow glass needle connected to a microinjection syringe and guided by a micromanipulator. Inoculated and uninoculated control cells showed no evidence of infection. Cells injected with infective TMV, and noninjected cells in the same chain, lived 4-10 days and slowly developed disease symptoms. Inclusions appeared at the nucleus, beginning 23-69 hours after inoculation, and gradually assumed the hexagonal disc form of TMV crystals. Transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands merged with the parietal cytoplasm and cytoplasmic streaming slowed to a stop. The cytoplasmic reticulum became less complex and eventually disappeared. Most plastids and other organelles gradually disappeared from the cytoplasm. Plastids remaining in the cytoplasm became much smaller. In some cells numerous spherical bodies of various size appeared in the vacuole. One cell contained an inclusion similar to an X-body.
    Download PDF (2470K)
  • G. K. Manna, S. C. Mazumder
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 236-247
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. In a total of 303 males of Tristria puluinata, examined from a population in two successive years, three types of cytologically polymorphic individuals were encountered.
    2. The meiotic behaviour of the 21-chromosome bearing individual was orthodox type which on comparative metrical study revealed that the ninth (or seventh or eighth?) pair of autosomes, termed as D chromosomes, is absent in individual which represents the nullosomic condition of the D chromosome.
    3. The 22-chromosome bearing individuals include one D or the monosomic D and the behaviour of which is regular but peculiar.
    4. The meiotic behaviour of the 23-chromosome bearing individual, which includes the two Ds, is regular like that of the normal Cryptosacci grasshoppers.
    5. Discussions have been made as to the frequency, nature and the evolutionary significance of the D chromosome.
    Download PDF (782K)
  • Fransçois Mergen, Bart A. Thielges
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 248-254
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Epicormic sprouts were collected from Pinus rigida trees growing at different levels of chronic Cesium-137 radiation (1.6-13.5R/day) in the Ecology Forest, located on Long Island.
    Cytological examination of the meristematic area at the base of developing needles showed that the frequency of nuclear damage of all types was rather high at low levels of exposure, and increased with increasing exposure. Average diameters of resin ducts in irradiated sprouts were twice the average found in control material; a physiological indication of injury or damage to the irradiated trees.
    The high degree of radiosensitivity during the mitotic process is in agreement with previous reports of the radiosensitivity of P. rigida during meiosis.
    Download PDF (603K)
  • S. A. Faruqi, K. L. Mehra
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 255-261
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytogenetical studies under taken in the interspecific hybrids Setereasea brevifolia×S. talon I revealed that their chromosome behaviour during meiosis was similar to those of their parents. Multivalents and univalents were observed besides bivalents at metaphase I. Also, lagging chromosomes and unequal distribution of chromosomes at anaphase I, micronuclei at dyad and tetrad spore stages and variable number of chromosomes during pollen mitosis were observed in the parents and their hybrids.
    The relationships between the two parental species were discussed in the light of the present findings. The two species seem to be closely related with each other.
    Download PDF (475K)
  • M.S. Pavgi, Rajendra Upadhyay
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 262-269
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The subcuticular hyphae developed from the blastospores of Taphrina maculans Butler germinated over the leaf surface of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) send in aseptate hyphal pegs in the epidermal cells which branch dichotomously many times forming cystolith-like haustoria. They are frequently formed in the hypodermis and sometimes in the mesophyll also. Contact of the haustorial peg and its branches with the host cell protoplasm is always associated with the layering of a colloidal membraneous sheath of unknown chemical composition separating the entire organel from the protoplasm. The haustorium is unicellular though profusely branched enclosing 2 conjugate nuclei in its stem. Its development has been frequently observed to establish contacts with the host nucleus often deforming it to some extent. The nature of this relationship is not known precisely.
    Download PDF (714K)
  • R. P. Roy, Bithi Dutt
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 270-272
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Cytological studies in the species W. microscopica Kurz. of the family Lemnaceae have been made. Meiotic chromosome behaviour is quite regular. 35 bivalents were clearly visible. Pollen mitosis further confirms the haploid chromosome number to be 35. The high chromosome number in the species indicates that it is not a primitive but a reduced taxon. Any opinion about the interrelationship of the various species has to await detailed cytological studies of the different taxa.
    Download PDF (218K)
  • Doris H. Wurster, Kurt Benirschke
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 273-285
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosome complement has been studied in the following six species, all members of the Artiodactyla: Virginia white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis, 2n=70), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, 2n=70), fallow deer (Dama dama, 2n=68), muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi, n=46), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, 2n=56 and 58), and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis, 2n=56). Karyotypes of each species have been presented, with a discussion on hybridization of the species.
    Placentation in the white-tailed deer has been briefly described. Placental anatomy and chromosomes from leucocyte cultures of opposite-sexed white-tailed deer twins were investigated with particular interest as to the possible existence of chimerism, and freemartin effects as a cause of antler growth in does. No evidence for a common circulation between the twins was found.

    Die Chromosomenzahl von sechs Arten der Artiodactyla wird berichtet; die nordamerikanischen Rehe Odocoileus virginianus (2n=70) and O. hemionus (2n=70), ferner Dama dama (2n=68), Muntiacus reevesi (2n=46), Antilocapra americana (2n=58) and der südafrikanische Springbock (Antidorcas marsupialis 2n=56). Die Bastardisierung dieser Tiere wird kurz besprochen und die Placentation des weissschwanz Rehes beschrieben. Diese Art hat häufig verschiedengeschlechtige Zwillinge, jedoch wurden interplacentare Anastomosen und Blutchimärismus nicht gefunden. Somit kann ein Zwickeneffekt nicht die Ursache für den gelegentlichen Befund des Geweihwachstums dieser Rehe sein.
    Download PDF (1046K)
  • Arun Kumar Sharma, Tapati Chatterjee
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 286-307
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Thirteen species and cytotypes distributed under six families of the order Helobiae of Engler and Prantl have been studied in the present text. Different species of Helobiae so far studied by previous authors have also been taken into consideration for interpretation of taxonomic affinities. In almost all the families of the Helobiae, polyploidy and aneuploidy in inter and intraspecific level associated with structural alteration have played a very significant role in the evolution. Possibility of the origin of cytotypes through the structural and numerical variations, which is prevalent in practically all the members of Helobiae, by both vegetative and sexual reproduction, has been pointed out and its implications have been discussed.
    The families Alismataceae and Butomaceae have been found cytologically to have a few advanced characters and can not be considered primitive as a whole. A few genera belonging to each of the two families might be primitive and have contributed to other orders of monocotyledons.
    One of the most advanced families of Helobiae is Hydrocharitaceae, which can not be regarded as primitive on cytological grounds, even if on taxonomic reasons it is to be kept within the Butomales. It possibly represents a side line of development from primitive Butomales.
    The positions of Aponogetonales and Potamogetonales in the same line of evolution and their relative systematic status as indicated by taxonomists has been justified.
    Najadales on the other hand should be regarded as representing a distinct line of evolution which is entirely independent of Aponogetonales and Potamogetonales.
    Download PDF (2015K)
  • M. Macek, M. Chvapil, J. Hurych, M. Dlouhá
    1967 Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 308-316
    Published: September 30, 1967
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1) The amount of total hydroxyproline and nitrogen in post-mortem tissue cultures of human fibroblasts from 14 subjects (foetuses, prematures, sucklings) affected mainly by various forms of anoxic syndromes and inborn developmental defects was studied.
    2) Tissue culture fibroblasts from spleen, thymus, pericardium, peritoneum, pleura, diaphragm, skeletal muscle and myocardium were studied.
    3) By comparing the values Hypro/N, Hypro/107 cells it was proved that there is no difference between fibroblasts of the same individual, between fibroblasts from the same organs of various individuals and between fibroblasts of various organs of various individuals.
    4) A difference between tissue cultures from living donors and from pos-tmortem tissue cultures was not proved either. The average value of the amount of μg Hypro/mg N in post-mortem cultures was 3.1±0.3 (x±tsx), in the ratio μg Hypro/107 cells 16.2μg (geometrical mean) with a lower confidence limit of 13.5 and the upper one of 19.4.
    5) The time of tissue sampling after death had no influence on the amount of hydroxyproline in fibroblasts up to 3 days after death.
    6) These conclusions are valid also for the index N/107 cells with the exception that the difference related to cultures from living donors was not proved in the spleen only.
    7) These results justify a wider use of tissue cultures from necropsy material for experimental and physiological study, particularly in organs which can be dealt with only with difficulty and for the study of pathogenesis of diseases with hereditarily conditioned disturbances of connective tissue.
    Download PDF (652K)
feedback
Top