CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 47 , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • A. S. Larik, K. A. Siddiqui, H. Larik
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 247-256
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A cytological survey of the M3 populations of Triticum aestivum derived from gamma rays and fast neutron treatments was conducted. The studies revealed the persistence of chromosomal aberrations such as deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, aneuploids, laggards and dicentric bridges accompanied with acentric fragments in M3 generation. In the mutated population pollen fertility significantly (P≤0.01) decreased. Induced sterility was due to chromosomal anomalies. In the populations derived from gamma rays, highly significant positive correlations at metaphase I were noted between frequency of quadrivalents and the frequency of chiasmata and between the frequency of univalents and the frequency of trivalents and quadrivalents. Highly significant positive correlations in the populations derived from fast neutron treatments were found between the frequency of chiasmata and the frequency of univalents as well as quadrivalents at metaphase I. Likewise the frequency of trivalent was also positively (P≤0.001) associated with the frequency of quadrivalents. Dicentric bridges accompanied by acentric fragments were the result of isolocus breakage of sister chromatids. Production of first division breakages led to the errors at second division. The implications of gamma rays and fast neutron treatments are discussed with reference to the evolution of new varieties of crop plants.
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  • II. Effects of herbicides “lasso and basagran” on chromosomal mechanism in relation to yield and yield components in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)
    S. Srihari Reddy, G. Madhusudana Rao
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 257-267
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present investigation was undertaken to study the undesirable effects of the herbicides, namely, lasso and basagran at higher dose levels on chilli crop. It was observed that both germination and survival were effected in all the treatments of lasso and basagran and the injurious effects of lasso on germination and survival was more than in basagran. Similarly, both lasso and basagran treatments produced meiotic aberrations and the frequency is markedly higher in lasso treatments than in basagran. Pollen sterility which was observed from 17th to 23rd day after spray was highest in lasso treatments over basagran. Yield and yield components are on a par with control in basagran treated population, while it was significantly reduced in lasso treatments. It was concluded that in herbicides like lasso, the threshold level should be fixed for more safer use.
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  • III. Effects of hormones “Planofix and Lihocin” on chromosomal mechanism in relation to yield and yield components in Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)
    S. Srihari Reddy, G. Madhusudana Rao
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 269-278
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present investigation was undertaken to study the undesirable effects of hormones viz., planofix and lihocin on yield and yield components of chilli at different dose levels. The first concentration of planofix and the first two concentrations of lihocin has stimulatory effect on germination. However, the survival percent was markedly effected in all the treatments of planofix and lihocin. Both the hormones under study produced meiotic abnormalities and the frequency is markedly high in planofix treated population than in lihocin. Pollen sterility which was observed from 9th to 19th day after spraying was highest in planofix treated population over lihocin treatments. The first concentration of planofix and lihocin significantly increased the yield compared to the control. Whereas the next two concentrations of lihocin has no effect on yield. However in planofix, the yield is reduced in last two concentrations and the reduction is significant at the highest concentration. It was concluded that the normal concentrations of both planofix and lihocin are safe to use. However, the use of planofix warrants greater care at higher con-centrations.
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  • IV. Einfluss methodischer Faktoren auf cytophotometrische Kern-DNA-Bestimmungen von Vicia faba-Wurzelspitzen-Zellen
    C. U. Hesemann
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 279-286
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Mit Hilfe der Scanning-Photometrie wurde der DNA-Gehalt Feulgen-gefärbter Kerne von Vicia faba-Wurzelspitzen-Zellen unter verschiedenen methodischen Bedingungen bestimmt.
    Wurde die Hydrolysezeit von normalerweise angewandten 55 auf 70 Minuten ausgedehnt, dann wurde bei der längeren Hydrolysezeit ein hoch signifikant erniedrigter DNA-Mittelwert gefunden. Unter sonst gleichen methodischen Bedingungen wurden als Feulgen-Farbstoffe Pararosanilin (Chroma) and Fuchsin basisch (Serva) verwandt. Nach Anfärbung mit Fuchsin wurden DNA-Mittelwerte gefunden, die bei alien Versuchsgliedern um durchschnittlich 30% niedriger lagen als nach Pararosanilin-Färbung.
    Bei einem Vergleich Pararosanilin-gefärbter Präparate untereinander der gleichen und verschiedener Färbeserien sowie Fuchsin-gefärbte untereinander der gleichen Färbeserie ergab sich, daß zwischen alien DNA-Mittelwerten signifikante Unterschiede von 3, 6 bis 8, 0% bestehen.
    Um den Einfluf3 kurzer wiederholter Belichtung auf das Meßergebnis zu prüfen, wurden Kerne mit 10 facher Wiederholung gemessen. Es konnten keine nennenswerten Unterschiede zwischen den 10 Meßwerten eines Kerns festgestellt werden.
    Kern-DNA-Messungen bei unterschiedlichen Schwellenwerten erbrachten folgendes Resultat: Bei Schwellenwerten bis 0, 10 bestanden zwischen den DNA-Werten der Kerne nur geringfügige Abweichungen von durchschnittlich 1%. Bei Schwellenwerten von 0, 20 und 0, 30 wurden im Vergleich zu den DNA-Werten der Kerne der nächst niedrigeren Schwellenwert-Stufe drastische Unterschiede bis zu 8, 7% festgestellt.
    Im Diskussionsteil wird die bei cytophotometrischen Kern-DNA-Bestimmungen von pflanzlichen Zellen vielfach mangelhafte Berücksichtigung methodischer Faktoren erörtert.
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  • M. A. Nazeer, G. V. Subrahmanyam, D. Ohri
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 287-293
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Studies on eleven cultivars of Lathyrus odoratus L. have revealed minor but consistent karyotypic variation. Contrary to earlier reports, two pairs of nucleolar chromosomes have been found in all the cultivars. The mean chiasma frequency between the cultivars varies significantly (P=<0.01) which suggests genetic control of chiasma formation.
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  • G. P. Verma, R. C. Sinha, V. P. Verma, S. Bisoyi
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 295-307
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The oocyte of Acrida turrita matures in 12 growing stages and develops two types (compound and fatty) of yolk. Compound yolk, composed of carbohydrate (glycogen) and protein (protein-bound -NH2, -SH and -SS groups, tyrosine and arginine), develops from the carbohydrate- and protein-positive yolk precursors, which infiltrate into the oocyte through the intercellular spaces in the surrounding follicular epithelium. Fatty yolk, composed of neutral fat, develops from sudanophilic lipids, which visibly migrate through the follicular cells to the oocyte. The differentiation of the follicular cells during different growing stages of oocyte indicates their direct and/or indirect involvement in the process of vitellogenesis and chorion formation.
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  • G. M. Sinha, S. K. Mondal, S. Ghosal
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 309-315
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The duration of individual stages of meiosis and spermiogenesis in Anabas testudineus (Bloch) was estimated autoradiographically by using H3-TdR. The leptotene, zygotene and pachytene last for 0.33±0.08, 0.20 and 1.80±0.10 days respectively whereas the duration of diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I is comparatively longer and last for about 1.30±0.20 days. The spermiogenesis is completed within 6.60±0.40 days whereas the total duration of meiosis and spermiogenesis is about 10.50 days.
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  • Sanae Kasahara, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 317-324
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In a sample of 30 specimens of Akodon sp. (Rodentia, Cricetidae), diploid numbers of 2n=24 and 2n=25 along with two mosaic cases with 2n=25/26 and 2n=23/24 were found. The inter and intraindividual chromosome variability of 2n=24, 2n=25 and 2n=25/26 was due to the presence of supernumerary chromosomes. The 2n=23/24 mosaic resulted from elimination of the Y chromosome in somatic cells, the gonads showing a normal XY constitution. Heteromorphism of the X chromosome was also observed. G- and C-band patterns of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes are described.
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  • W. W. K. Cheung, A. T. Marshall
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 325-339
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • S. M. Jalal, Mary L. Coleman, Walter A. Washahl
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 341-345
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    G banded karyotypic analysis of normal parents, whose second child was stillborn with multiple congenital abnormalities, revealed a normal 46, XY father and 45, XX, t (13q; 14q) mother. By a simplified silver staining technique it was possible to demonstrate that the entire secondary constriction of both chromosomes were lost in the process of translocation. C banding displayed the translocated chromosome to be monocentric. We therefore conclude that the translocation represents a typical Robertsonian fusion. Loss of two nucleolar organizers has seemingly no deleterious effect in development.
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  • M. Rai, K. Das
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 347-352
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Meiotic studies in Linum usitatissimum L., Linum angustifolium Huds. and Linum africanum L. were carried out and 2n=30 chromosome number was confirmed. Among the 3 species, mean chiasmata per bivalent varied between 1.82 to 1.90 maximum being in Linum africanum. Secondary association of chromosomes were observed in Linum usitatissimum as well as in Linum angustifolium. However, the 2 species differed in number of bivalents associated. In Linum angustifolium as many as 8 bivalents were involved in association where as in Linum usitatissimum not more than 4 bivalents participated in such a association. In both the species, 11 II+2 IV configuration was most frequent. In all the species early separation of chromosomes in 1-3 bivalents was noted. In Linum angustifolium one of the secondarily associated bivalent invariable showed early separation. Despite secondary association and early separation, meiosis was normal in all the species. Pollen and ovule fertility was also normal. Cytological data in general revealed cryptic chromosomal differences among the 3 species. Linum angustifolium appeared closer to Linum usitatissimum than to Linum africanum.
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  • N. K. Soni, Premlata Oswal, S. K. Yadav
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 353-358
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Attempts were made to determine the effects of solar eclipse (80% totality, 16th Feb. 1980) on cell division process in meristematic root tips of Allium sativum L. Normal day light stimulated cell division. Solar eclipse was found to produce inhibitory effects on mitosis. Eclipse's day light exposures induced various mitotic chromosomal aberrations i.e. scattering/fragmentation, stickiness, eroded chromosomes, chromosomal bridges, laggards and stathmoanaphase.
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  • Régis Pépin et Jacqueline Boumendil
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 359-377
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Preservation of Fine Structure in the Sclerotium of Sclerotinia tuberosa, a Discomycete Fungus; a Model for Preparing Infiltration Resistant and Heterogeneous Specimens
    The sclerotium of Sclerotinia tuberosa is difficult to prepare for electron microscopy, on account of its resistance to infiltration and its heterogeneity. In this work, several preparative methods have been investigated. The effects of varying composition, concentration and pH of the fixative mixture, fixation time (from 2 to 24 hours), embedding medium have been discussed. This kind of sample re-quires a formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde mixture rather than glutaraldehyde only. The nature of buffer plays an important role in preserving the fine structure. It appears that buffers are to be valued for their capacity to restrict ionic leakage and protein extraction. From this point of view the citrate-phosphate buffer allows the best overall pictures to be obtained. However a long fixation time limits the characteristic effects of the buffer and should be preferred to a shorter time, as far as topographic research is concerned. It is also necessary to increase the post-fixation time in order to obtain a good contrast although this may be less important if the aldehyde fixation is sufficiently long. In conclusion a satisfactory fixation and embedding technique for the sclerotium of Sclerotinia tuberosa is herewith suggested, which can be applied to other samples with the same technical problems.
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  • Bharati Behera, S. N. Patnaik
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 379-389
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Hybrids between Amaranthus spinosus L, (n-=17), a diploid and A. dubius Mart. ex Tell. (n=32), a tetraploid compared to A. spinosus frequently arise in nature where both the species grow together. Cytological analysis of such triploid hybrids, the hexaploids raised through colchicine treatment and certain deviant hexaploids, mainly found among the progeny of the second and third generation hexaploids revealed interesting genome relationships between A. dubius and A. spinosus. In the pollen mother cells of the triploid hybrid (2n=49) various types of chromosomal associations could be seen ranging from 22II+5I to 4IV+9II+15I with a high frequency of 17II+15I. In view of this the possibilities of only autosyndesis or only allosyndesis were eliminated and this was strongly suggestive of the presence of three sets of genomes in the triploid hybrid with both auto- and allosyndesis. The observed frequency of bivalent distribution was strongly deviating from the expected frequency of binomial distribution and the pattern of deviation with a modal value of 17 bivalents may suggest that a set of chromosomes genetically comparable to those of A. spinosus is present within A. dubius genome.
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  • Dag Bjerketvedt, Morten Motzfeldt Laane
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 391-398
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    We report presence of accessory chromosomes in some populations of Paris quadrifolia L. In one population up to ten such chromosomes occurred in the PMC's. These chromosomes were also found occasionally in root tip cells, being condensed outside the nuclear membrane. The number of accessories varied both between meiotic and somatic cells.. Paris quadrifolia L. is a species well-known for its particular large chromosomes. The extensive structural differences of karyotypes between different populations in Norway might give interesting clues to the origin of accessories.
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  • Sarat Chandra Mohanty
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 399-408
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    In Philosamia ricini fatty yolk is derived from Golgi (Lipid) bodies. Golgi bodies and Golgi vesicles which are also called as lipids of first and second categories (L1 and L2) occur in the nurse cells, follicle cells as well as in the oocyte. Considerable amount of L1 and L2 infiltrate into the oocyte, accumulate and form abundant precursors for the synthesis of L3 bodies or Fatty yolk. Histochemically, L1 bodies are of saturated phospholipid nature; L2 bodies are crescentic and have phospholipid sheath and triglyceride core of masked lipids; and L3 bodies are unsaturated triglycerides.
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  • Akira Kodama, John P. Mitchell
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 409-418
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) is subject to crown gall tumors. In an attempt to understand the process of initiation of these tumors karyological studies of wounded stem tissue have been made and the results compared with those of karyological and cytophotometric studies of unwounded stem tissue.
    Wounding induced increased mitotic activity with polyploid mitoses becoming relatively more frequent. These polyploid cells are more likely to have been present in the tissue at the time of wounding rather than induced by the wounding. Mitoses were found commonly in vascular and pith tissue but not in the cortex. The region of active cell division extended about 500μm from the wound surface. The wound-induced mitotic activity continued for approximately three weeks. The level of mitotic activity and the relative frequency of polyploid mitoses was similar to that found earlier in crown gall tumor tissue, the difference being that the tumor tissue remained mitotically active for approximately three months.
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  • Mani Ram Singh
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 419-426
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effects of maleic hydrazide MH, indole-3 acetic acid IAA and colchicine were studied on the mitotic division and induction of chromosomal abnormality in Allium cepa root tips treated with 25, 50 and 75 ppm concentrations for 4, 8 and 12 hour durations. Inhibition of mitosis was brought about under all treatments except IAA which at lower concentration stimulated the division. For the inhibition of mitosis IAA was most effective and MH was least effective. The capacity to produce chromosomal abnormality was evidenced by the presence of chromosome and chromatid breaks, bridge formation, spindle fibre inhibition resulting in the formation of polyploid cells; chromosome erosion, lagging of chromosomes, micronuclei, stickiness and swelling of the nucleus.
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  • B. Dimitrov, P. Popov, N. Zagorska
    1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages 427-433
    Published: June 25, 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The metaphase chromosomes of the haploid of N. tabacum under study can be divided in 3 groups, the first one being composed of two sub-groups depending on the centromeres position and the absolute length of the individual chromosomes. The third chromosome of the group of the sub-telocentric chromosomes has a satellite and can serve as a marker chromosome. The longest chromosome in the karyotype is that of the sub-group of large metacentric chromosomes while the shortest chromosome is the last one of the sub-group of small metacentric chromosomes. The highest percentage participation in the total length of the metaphase chromosomes is that of the group of metacentric chromosomes (42.75%), the lowest one being that of the group of sub-metacentric chromosomes (18.63%).
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  • 1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages e1a
    Published: 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • 1982 Volume 47 Issue 2 Pages e1b
    Published: 1982
    Released: March 19, 2009
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