CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 79 , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • Kae Akita, Seiichiro Hasezawa
    Type: Technical note
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 125-126
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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  • Krit Pinthong, Weerayuth Supiwong, Alongklod Tanomtong, Piyorot Hongsa ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 127-132
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The standardized karyotype and idiogram of the sand goby (Oxyeleotris marmoratus) from Chi River in the Maha Sarakham Province of northeastern Thailand were studied. Kidney cell samples were taken from five male and five female fish. The mitotic chromosome preparations were prepared by blood cell culture and directly from kidney cells. Conventional and Ag-NOR staining techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of O. marmoratus was 2n = 46 and the fundamental number (NF) as 50 in both males and females. The types of chromosomes were 2 large submetacentric, 10 large telocentric, 2 medium metacentric and 32 medium telocentric chromosomes. No strange-sized chromosomes related to sex were observed. The region adjacent to the telomere of chromosome pair 7 showed clearly observable secondary constriction/NORs. The karyotype formula for O. marmoratus could be inferred as:
    2n (diploid) 46 = L2sm+Lt10+M2m+Mt32
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  • Suthip Khakhong, Weerayuth Supiwong, Alongklod Tanomtong, Manop Sriutt ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 133-139
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    A first chromosomal characterization of the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) of the splendid snakehead fish, Channa lucius (Cuvier 1831) from the Bung Klua reservoir in the Roi-Et Province of northeastern Thailand was conducted. Blood samples were taken from four male and four female fish. After standard whole blood lymphocytes had been cultured at 27°C for 96 h in the presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on a microscopic slide and air-dried. Conventional and Ag-NOR staining techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of C. lucius was 2n = 48, and the fundamental number (NF) was 54 in both males and females. The types of autosomes were 2 large metacentric, 2 large acrocentric, 22 large telocentric, 2 medium acrocentric, 18 medium telocentric and 2 small telocentric chromosomes. There was no observation of strange-sized chromosomes related to sex. The region adjacent to the telomere of the short arm of chromosome pair 2 showed clearly observable secondary constriction (NORs). The karyotype formula for C. lucius is as follows:
    2n (diploid) 48 = Lm2+La2+Lt22+Ma2+Mt18+St2
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  • Isara Patawang, Alongklod Tanomtong, Sumalee Phimphan, Yodchaiy Chuayn ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 141-150
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Karyological analysis of the rice frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) from Northeast Thailand was conducted. Frog chromosome preparations were obtained by the squash technique from bone marrow and testis. Conventional staining and Ag-NOR banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosome with Giemsa's solution. The results showed that the number of diploid chromosome is 2n = 26, while the fundamental number (NF) is 52 in both males and females. The types of autosome were 4 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 small metacentric, 4 small submetacentric and 2 small acrocentric chromosomes. The present study also revealed that the sex chromosome system of F. limnocharis was XY, in which the X and Y were classified as small metacentric and small submetacentric chromosomes, respectively. Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are located at the secondary constriction of the short arm near the centromere in submetacentric chromosome pair 6. We found that during metaphase I the homologous chromosomes showed synapsis, which can be defined as the 13 ring bivalents and 13 haploid chromosomes at metaphase II as diploid species. The karyotype formula is as follows:
    2n (26) = L4m+L6sm+S8m+S4sm+Sa2+sex-chromosomes (XY)
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  • Vijay Kumar Singhal, Dalvir Kaur, Maninder Kaur Himshikha, Pawan Kumar ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 151-159
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Presently, A. millefolium, a morphogenetically variable species, has been scored from phytogeographically isolated and unexplored areas of the northwest Himalayas for chromosome counts and male meiotic course. All the studied accessions shared the same meiotic chromosome number of n = 9 and existed at diploid level. A majority of the accessions exhibited the normal meiotic course including microsporogenesis and almost cent per cent pollen fertility. However, three accessions scored from Sangla Valley (Chittkul, 3450 m) and Solang Valley (Dhundi, 3000 m and Palchan, 2480 m) showed the presence of multiple associations of chromosomes in PMCs (pollen mother cells). The quadrivalents formed as a consequence to reciprocal translocations are either chain or ring type (typical ring and zigzag). Meiocytes with multivalents depicted relatively higher chiasma frequency than those with normal bivalent formation. In 4.77% of PMCs, chromosomes remained as laggards during anaphase-I and organized into micronuclei during sporad formation. Consequently sterile/unstained pollen grains were observed. This is the first report of structural heterozygosity for reciprocal translocations in the species.
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  • Laila Mekki
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 161-172
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    The present study evaluates the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of the crude water and ethanol extracts of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) on the Vicia faba L. M1 generation. Two types of treatments were carried out in this study. In the first type, the germinated root tips were treated with four dilutions of the water extract and ethanol extract (12.5, 25, 50 and 100%). All concentrations were applied for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. In the second treatment, soaked V. faba seeds were treated with the same concentrations of the two extracts for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and then planted to raise the M1 generation. Root tips were squashed after Feulgen staining, and the prepared slides were analyzed for chromosomal aberrations and mitotic index changes. Significant concentration-dependent increase and duration-dependent decrease of MI were observed with aqueous extracts, while with ethanol extracts, the MI showed concentration- and duration-dependent decrease. The two extracts induced significant (p<0.01) increase in the percentage of nuclear and chromosomal aberrations. Concentration- and duration-dependent increase in the number of branches per plant and decrease in the other studied growth parameters were also recorded for all treatments with the water and ethanol extracts.
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  • Namrata Singh, Alka Srivastava
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 173-180
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Genotoxicological biomonitoring of Vigna mungo populations in the Banda district in Uttar Pradesh, sprayed with the herbicides glyphosate and pendimethalin, was done by studying their meiotic behavior and morphological characters and comparing them with untreated populations.
    The herbicides caused a change in the frequency of different meiotic phases at a given time, and also induced various anomalies. Disturbed polarity, spindle disturbance, bridges, and laggards were common in both the populations. Micronuclei were found in a large number of cells. Pollen fertility was less in the glyphosate-treated group as compared to the pendimethalin-treated and control groups. A comparative account of the correlation between percentage anomaly and pollen fertility as indicators of genotoxicity of the two herbicides has been described in this paper.
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  • Atilla Arslan, Jan Zima
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 181-185
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    The karyotype was examined in two specimens of the fallow deer (Dama dama) originating from the last indigenous population in Anatolia, Turkey. The complement includes 68 chromosomes, with the acrocentric X chromosome and the small metacentric Y chromosome. The autosomal complement contains a single metacentric pair and 32 acrocentric pairs of diminishing size. The metacentric autosomal pair possesses only an indistinct dark C-band in the centromeric area, whereas the acrocentric autosomes and the X chromosome have large C-positively stained pericentromeric blocks. The Y chromosome stains C-positively but the intensity of staining is lower than in the centromeric areas of other chromosomes. The Ag-NOR sites were detected in telomeric regions of the long arms of two large acrocentric autosomal pairs. The chromosome complement seems to be identical with karyotypes examined in various introduced and captive populations.
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  • Mahdi Rezaei, Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Abdol Hadi Hoseinzadeh, Alireza A ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 187-194
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    In this study the variation of various karyotype characteristics in different populations of Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) and Papaver bracteatum (Iranian poppy) was evaluated. All populations were diploid, as the basic chromosome number of P. bracteatum and P. somniferum was 7 and 11, respectively. In P. bracteatum, the 14202, 16986 and P1007107 populations represented 2 metacentric and 5 submetacentric chromosomes, while the 23157 and P1006859 populations represented 1 metacentric, 5 submetacentric and 1 subtelocentric chromosomes. In P. somniferum the 13912 population had 2 metacentric, 5 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric chromosomes, and the 13913 population comprised 2 metacentric, 7 submetacentric and 2 subtelocentric chromosomes, while the rest of the populations had 2 metacentric, 6 submetacentric and 3 subtelocentric chromosomes. All of the populations indicated 3A category, except for P1007107 whose category was 2A. In P. bracteatum the maximum and minimum chromosomal total length were 28.70 and 22.90 in the 23157 and 14202 populations, respectively, while in P. somniferum they were 32.97 and 29.05 in the 15093 and 13911 populations, respectively. Variance analysis indicated that there was no significant difference among the karyological traits in both species and thus, populations with different ecological origin were karyologically similar. The depicted scatter plot based on extracted components from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that P. somniferum populations separated from P. bracteatum populations.
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  • Abdelfattah Badr, Hanaa H. El-Shazly, Mohamed Halawa
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 195-206
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study aimed at investigating the changes imposed by gamma radiation in mitotic activities and the chromosomes as well as the vegetative criteria and yield of M1 and M2 plants of five cowpea cultivars. Seeds of cultivars (Kaha 1, Dokki 331, Azmerly, Cream 7 and Giza 6) were exposed to levels of γ-radiation ranging from 50 to 300 Gy. Low levels of γ-radiation enhanced mitotic activity and resulted in significant increase in chromosomal abnormalities in the root tip cells of M1 and M2 plants. The percentage of abnormalities varied among the varieties and was generally lower in M2 plants compared to M1 plants. The 50-Gy and 100-Gy doses of γ-radiation induced positive effects on plant growth and yield of M1 plants, while the 300 Gy of γ-radiation caused detrimental damage on three cultivars (Dokki 331, Azmerly and Cream 7), which failed to grow to flowering. More pronounced improvements in growth and yield were recorded in M2 plants; the increase in growth and yield was often associated with increased mitotic activity and the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities, indicating that γ-radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities are not likely to be associated with negative effects on growth or yield. Based on the calculated yield index, 50 Gy of γ-radiation may be used to improve the yield of three varieties (Dokki 331, Azmerly and Cream 7) and the 100 Gy dose may be recommended for improving the yield of the two varieties, Kaha 1 and Giza 6.
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  • Neha Mittal, Anand Kumar Srivastava
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 207-214
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Five partially tolerant and five non-tolerant accessions of Hordeum vulgare (Barley) against a combination of cadmium and hexavalent chromium were crossed after screening to produce intra-category hybrids, and the intra-category genetic variability and their effect on reproductive biology were analyzed. A differential response for the amount of meiotic irregularity was recorded between different (Cd+Cr)-treated sets of hybrids. This could be due to a differential response of the genotypes for the same concentration of (Cd+Cr). These two heavy metals in combination reduced the number of pollen grains per anther and significantly increased pollen sterility.
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  • Okunola A. Alabi, Evi Osifo-Whiskey, Precious Yadi, Moruf Lawal, Adeku ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 215-225
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The tobacco industry is one of the biggest industries in the world. Large quantities of wastewater are generated during processing and cigarette-making which may be toxic to the environment and public health. In this study, the potential genotoxicity of tobacco wastewater was evaluated using mice bone marrow micronucleus and sperm morphology assays. The wastewater was considered at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% (v/v, wastewater/distilled water). There was concentration-dependent induction of micronucleated erythrocytes at all tested concentrations, with significant (p<0.05) induction at 25, 50, 75 and 100% concentrations compared to the negative control. Assessment of sperm shape showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities with significant decrease in mean sperm count in treated groups. Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni and Co analysed in the wastewater contributed significantly to these observations. This shows that tobacco wastewater constituents are capable of inducing somatic and germ cell mutations.
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  • Maninder Kaur, Vijay Kumar Singhal
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 227-233
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    In the present study, we report the phenomenon of cytomixis for the first time in some individuals of Nepeta govaniana showing chromatin transfer at the different stages of meiosis I. In most of the cases, two to six PMCs are involved in chromatin transfer. The migration of chromatin is either complete or partial, resulting in denucleated, double nucleolated, hypoploid and hyperploid PMCs. Single or multiple cytoplasmic channels between two or more proximate PMCs have been observed at prophase I. PMCs involved in cytomixis showed various other meiotic irregularities such as spindle abnormalities, chromatin stickiness, asynchronous disjunction of bivalents and laggards. In the present case, the cytomixis and associated meiotic irregularities did not cause significant reduction in pollen fertility, but resulted into the formation of heterogeneously sized pollen grains. The role of such variably sized fertile pollen grains in the origin of polyploids and aneuploids can not be ruled out.
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  • Abdulmani H. Al-Qahtani, Mohammad S. Al-Khalifa, Abdulaziz A. Al-Saleh
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 235-242
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is considered one of the most dangerous and destructive insects to the date palm tree in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, karyotype, meiosis and sperm formation were investigated in this weevil, which was collected from different farms of Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. The chromosome number is n = 11 and 2n = 22. In the karyotype analysis, the somatic chromosomes were categorized into two groups; five pairs of metacentric and five pairs of submetacentric. The sex chromosomes include one acrocentric X chromosome and one dot-shaped Y chromosome that form a parachute system type (Xyp). The lengths of the chromosomes vary between 1.11 and 4.44 μm, and the Y chromosome is the shortest. The fundamental number (the number of arms) of the chromosomes is 42, while the number of arms for the somatic chromosomes is only 40. Several stages of the first and second meiotic cell divisions were observed and described.
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  • Rohit Kumar, Prabhati Kumari Sahoo, Waikhom Vishwanath, Ashoktaru Bara ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 243-246
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The karyotypical analysis of two fish species, Schistura obliquofascia and Puntius chelynoides, from the Kumaun Himalayan Rivers was carried out to ascertain the taxonomic position of the species. The diploid chromosome number in S. obliquofascia was ascertained to be 2n = 50 with a karyotype of 2n = 20 metacentric (m), 20 submetacentric (sm), 6 subtelocentric (st) and 4 telocentric (t) chromosomes, and a fundamental arm number (FN) of 90, where as in P. chelynoides, the diploid chromosome number was 100 with a karyotypic formula of 2n = 26m+16sm+18st+40t with a fundamental arm number (FN) of 142. No sex chromosome pair was identified in the form of a heteromorphic pair in either of the species. The relationship within closely related species for both the genus was also discussed using this chromosomal data.
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  • Harpreet Kaur, Nadeem Mubarik, Santosh Kumari, Raghbir Chand Gupta
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 247-259
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    At present, cytological studies have been carried out on a population basis for assessing the genetic diversity in seven species of the genus Pennisetum, P. alopecuroides (n = 18), P. americanum (n = 7), P. flaccidum (n = 27), P. lanatum (n = 18, 21), P. orientale (n = 18), P. purpureum (n = 14, 18, 21) and P. ramosum (n = 5), from phytogeographically different areas of Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir in the Western Himalayas. For P. lanatum and P. purpureum, the chromosomal counts of n = 21 make first ever records of new cytotypes on a worldwide basis. In addition, P. lanatum and P. purpureum with n = 18 make new records in India. Both the cytotypes of P. lanatum and three different cytotypes of P. purpureum show some marked differences in their morphological features. Meiotic course is abnormal in almost all the species. The vary basis of the intraspecific genetic diversity, i.e. the variability of chromosome numbers, has been discussed not only for the Western Himalayas taxa, but also on India basis in light of worldwide data, pointing out slight differences in various parameters.
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  • Neiva Izabel Pierozzi, Renata Moro Baroni
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 261-268
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Acetic orcein as well as C- and NOR-banding (silver staining) techniques were applied to the mitotic chromosomes of ramie Boehmeria nivea var. nivea (L.) Gaudisch cv. Miyasaki for chromosome characterization. C-banding was also applied in pachytene and diakinesis meiotic phases for heterochromatin localization. The species showed a predominance of submetacentric chromosomes as observed in karyotype formula: 1m + 12sm + 1sms, as well as a moderate karyotype asymmetry as revealed by the Stebbins criteria and Romero-Zarco and Paszko indices. C-bands were preferentially localized in the chromosome short arms of the mitotic chromosomes. Large blocks of pericentromeric heterochromatin C-bands were seen at pachytene meiotic phase, while at diakinesis phase, C-bands were located on the chromosome ends as well as nearby or on the chiasmata. The interphase nuclei of mitotic cells were classified as prochromosome type, which is the same as S2 type. One pair of chromosomes with satellite segment was seen in the genotype studied after acetic orcein and silver staining (NOR-band). Chromosome morphometric data along with NOR localization were suitable to characterize the Miyasaki cultivar.
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  • Mohamed A. El-Esawi, Reda Sammour
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 269-275
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    Karyotypes of 40 accessions representing 10 different Lactuca species were studied in detail. Karyological features were numerically analyzed. The cluster analysis of the collected karyological data indicated significant inter- and intra-specific differences for all variables measured. L. sativa and L. serriola had similar karyotypes, suggesting close relationship of these species.
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  • Mazin B. Qumsiyeh, Zuhair S. Amr, Kareem T. Abu Srour, Nael Al-Fawaghr ...
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 277-280
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    In this paper we report the first karyotypic data on Nebo hierichonticus (Simon 1872) from the occupied Palestinian territories. The karyotype consists of 50 chromosomes which appear acrocentric except for pair 3, likely representing the XY. With additional data on scorpionidae coming through, we suggest that a model of chromosomal evolution might involve changes in chromosome numbers that relate to chromosomal stability in the nucleus and recombination affecting adaptability as previously suggested and supported by studies of salmonid fish chromosomes.
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  • Pulakesh Parai, Anita Mukherjee
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 281-286
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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    The present paper deals with the detailed cytomorphological study of two Aloe species, viz., Aloe variegata L. and A. zebrina Baker, by studying both root tip mitosis as well as pollen mitosis. It was clear from our cytomorphological studies that these two Aloe species reflect the bimodal, asymmetrical karyotype retained within other members of the family Xanthorrhoeaceae. Although both the species were morphologically very similar and had the same diploid chromosome number, 2n=2x=14(8 L+6S), they could be differentiated by quantitative parameters of their karyotypes. It was found that both Aloe species contained the diploid (2n=14) somatic chromosome numbers with one pair of both satellite and secondary constrictions. The total haploid chromosome length in Aloe variegata and A. zebrina was noted to be 3168.49 μm and 3193.49 μm, respectively, and the total forma percentage (TF%) was recorded as 17.99 and 17.42, respectively, which reflects the asymmetric nature of the karyotype. The chromosome number (2n=2x=14) analyzed in root tip mitosis reflecting the diploid karyotype of the two species was also correlated to the number noted in pollen mitosis (n=x=7). These data add to the information about karyosystematics and could support inter-specific relationships.
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  • Type: ERRATA
    2014 Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages E21
    Published: June 25, 2014
    Released: October 28, 2014
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