CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume FujiiJubilaei , Issue 1
Showing 1-50 articles out of 71 articles from the selected issue
  • Ernst Küster
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 1-8
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Otto Heilborn
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 9-13
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Masato Tahara
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 14-19
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. In Sciadopitys verticillata the teil division follows the mitosis in the Body cell. The nucleus being situated near the extremity of the cell, the two resulting cells show a remarkable dissimilarity in size and structure.
    2. The mitosis to form the neck canal nucleus and the egg nucleus occurs just under the neck cells of the archegonium. The polar view of the spindle clearly shows 10 chromosomes. In the anaphase, the v-shaped chromosomes in the inner pole form a compact group, while those at the outer pole are scattered loosely and lie almost in a plane similar to those in the metaphase. The polar view of the latter enables us to determine easily the exact number of the chromosomes.
    3. After fertilization 5 successive nuclear divisions occur and produce 32 free nuclei before the formation of the cell-wall.
    In conclusion I wish to express my hearty thanks to Mr. K. OIKAWA for the assistance given me during the course of the present investigation.
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  • V. Abnormal meiotic divisions due to high temperature
    Hajime Matsuura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 20-34_2
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) The subjection of Trillium plants to high temperature prior to the meiotic divisions has produced several abnormalities upon meiotic chromosomes which were distinguishable into two categories, (i) concordant and (ii) discordant.
    2) The concordant anomalies are dependent upon the balanced acceleration rates of the behavior of the kinetochore and of the rest of chromonemata. They are different from the control merely in the dimensions of chromosomes and of entire mother-cells, but quite normal in the mode of bivalent formation and the subsequent behavior of chromosomes.
    3) The discordant anomalies are dependent upon the upsets in timing relationships between the kinetochore and the other pari of the chromonemata. The consequences are (i) the occurrence of 10 univalents at the first metaphase, which is due to either (a) complete failure of synapsis (asynapsis) or (b) premature separation of the associated kinetochores (desynapsis) and (ii) the occurrence of 10 ‘dyads’ each consisting of two separated chromatids lying parallel (‘precocious-a’) or 5 ‘tetrads’ each consisting of four chromatids associating in cruciferous forms (‘precocious-b’). These are illustrated in Diagram 1.
    4) The significances of the kinetochore in the meiotic divisions are discussed in connection with the relationship between mitosis and meiosis and wich the forces acting upon the kinetochore at metaphase.
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  • Rudolf Keller
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 35-42
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • G. W. Beadle
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 43-56
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Elimination of chromosomes or chromosome fragments during somatic cell division in sticky chromosome plants is shown by genetic tests to occur for those segments of chromosomes carrying the plant color genes a, B, and Pl. The relative frequencies with which fragment or whole chromosomes carrying these genes are eliminated are probably in the Order B>Pl>a.
    Elimination of the chromosome carrying the aleurone color gene C (number 9), or fragments including this gene, is shown to be relatively frequent in endorsperm tissue homozygous for the st gene. Chromosome unbalance resulting from elimination is apparently reIated to the “scarring” characteristic of endosperm tissue homozygous for the st gene.
    The frequency of chromosome rearrangements (for the most part, reciprocal translocations) was 1 in 64 in the progeny of st plants as compared wich a frequency of 1 in 594 for comparable normal controls.
    The frequency of mutations in the progeny of sticky chromosome plants was 1 in 49 as compared with 1 in 379 for the normal controls.
    In no case was a detected mutation inseparably associated wich a detected chromosome rearrangement.
    In the F1 of the Cross st×bm1 there appeared a group of plants showing longitudinal white stripes. This striping was not carried by the parents and was not transmitted to progeny resulting from self-pollination. Presumably some cytoplasmic abnormality was produced in the st parent, transmitted to the F1 plants, but not carried to the next generation.
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  • Autopolyploidy of Solanum nigrum Linn
    Miyawo Nakamura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 57-68_1
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Among the plants generally termed as S. nigrum by the systematists the author found two types, karyologically distinct. One of them is n=12, and the other n=36.
    2. Close examination proved that both types are not exactly alike, differing in many points of their morphological characters. The type with 36 chromosomes is the typical S. nigrum, but, the other with 12 chromosomes deserves to receive a new specific name, S. photeinocarpum.
    3. S. nigrum is generally distributed throughout the northern part of Japan, whereas S. photeinocarpum occurs in the south. S. nigrum rarely found in Taiwan is of recent introduction, and its distribution is limited only to a few locales.
    4. The chromosome behavior observed in meiosis proved that S. photeinocarpum is a diploid form of the genus Solanum, while, S. nigrum is an autohexaploid.
    5. Size of the vegetative and reproductive organs of S. nigrum is markedly larger than that of S. photeinocarpum.
    6. The comparison of morphological characters and the survey of geographical distribution suggest that, there is an intimate relationship between both types with respect to the evolution of species.
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  • Otto Bank
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 69-77
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Die Kernkolloide der Epidermiszellen von Allium cepa im Gemisch 1 mol KCl+0.1% Methylviolett (1:1) vital diffus gefärbt, können durch KSCN könig und reversibel entmischt werden (Fig. 1)
    2. Die Körner können einigemal (bis zu 3 mal) erzeugt und wieder zum Verschwinden gebracht werden.
    3. Als Beimischungssalz zum Methylviolett eignen sich auch andere Chloride: NaCI, LiCI, NH4CI; schwieriger findet die Entmischung statt, bei Verwendung von Sulfaten (Na2SO4, /NH4/2 SO4), und sehr schwer gestaltet sich die Entmischung, wenn Nitrate (KNO3, NaNO3, NH4NO3, Ca/NO3/2) dem Farbstoff beigemischt werden.
    4. Die Entmischung nach der Nitratbehandlung kann leichter gemacht werden (a) durch vorhergehende verstärkte Plasmolyse (2 mol Lösungen) der Zellen oder (b) durch Verwendung von NH4. SCN als Entmischungssalz. In diesem Falle kommt es jedoch nicht zu körniger sondern zu stäbchenförmiger Entmischung (Fig. 2).
    5. Auch eignen sich nicht alle Farbstoffe zur Hervorrufung der körnigen Entmischung. Prune pure ist gänzlich untauglich. Kristallviolett gibt mit KCI als Beimischung schwache körnige, rever.-sible Entmichung nur bei Anwendung von NH4SCN als Entmischungssalz, mit KSCN gibt es keine Entmischung; Gentianaviolett mit KCI gibt mit KSCN schwache, mit NH4SCN gute Entmischung, Methylviolett gibt sowohl mit KSCN als auch mit NH4SCN gute Entmischung.
    6. Beim Zustandekommen der Entmischung gilt der KaliumNatriumkontrast nicht. Es wird die Annahme ausgesprochen, daß chemische Affinitäten neben den physikalischen Eigenschaften eine sehr beachtenswerte Rolle spielen dürften.
    7. Es wird der Beweis dafür zu führen gesucht, daß bei vitaler Diffusfärbung des Kernes mit basischen Farbstoffen-bei gleichzeitiger Plasmolyse-diese Färbungsart nicht durch Ãnderung des Chromatinanteiles des Kernes, sondern durch Veränderung des phasischen Gleichgewichtes im Kerne bedingt wird.
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  • Richard Goldschmidt
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 78-79
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Analysis of karyotypes in Aloinae with special reference to the SAT-chromosome
    Dyûhei Satô
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 80-95
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    In forty-eight plants and three hybrids in Aloinae i.e., thirteen species and two varieties of Aloe, twelve species and three varieties of Gasteria, two intergeneric hybrids, fifteen species, three varieties and one interspecific hybrid of Haworthia (cf. Table 1-3), the karyotypes were analysed from the point of view of karyotype alteration. All these species except three were diploids (2n=14) and have four long and three short chromosomes in basic number. G. maculata was tetraploid (2n=28), and H. Reinwardtii and H. tesselata were hexaploids (2n=42).
    Generally speaking, Aloe has the longest chromosomes and Haworthia the shortest ones. Gasteria and Haworthia have two pairs of long chromosomes with satellites (2L1+2L4), while Aloe has various combinations of SAT-chromosomes (cf. Table 1). These karyotypes were explicitly explained an the basis of karyotype alteration such as elimination and translocation of satellite and subsequent hybridization. Delaunay's hypothesis of “phylogenetische Chromosomenverkürzung” was discussed with special reference to the karyotypes of Museari, Ornithogalum and Aloinae.
    Heitz's hypothesis of SAT-chromosomes was supported by the present analysis of karyotypes in Aloinae. The correspondence of the number of SAT-chromosomes and nucleoli in the telophase was clearly demonstrated in forty-three plant forms of Aloinae (cf. Table 1-3). The secondary constriction and the centromere were referred to in relation to the nucleolus formation.
    The writer wishes to express his cordial thanks to Dr. Y. Sinotô for his helpful suggestions and criticisms in the course of this work.
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  • The possibility of sex-chromosomes
    Henry Wilhelm Jensen
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 96-103
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. The pre-meiotic spireme in the three species studied appears to exist as a fundamentally continuous spireme and gives rise to the meiotic chromosomes by splitting instead of pairing.
    2. There is no evidence for a sex-determining apparatus among the chromosomes of said species.
    3. The haploid numbers have been counted as follows:
    Dioscorea quaternata (Walt.) Gmel.…….27
    Smilax glauca Walt.………………….14
    S. rotundif olia L.…………………16
    4. Meiotic abnormalities in Smilax rotundifolia and Dioscorea quaternata are contrasted with various accepted sex-determining apparatus to show that the latter are not justified as such.
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  • A. Kiesel, H. Doinikowa
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 104-107
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Karl Sax
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 108-114_1
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Fused chromatids and chromatid fragments were found in a plant of Paeonia suffruticosa grown at the Bussey Institution. The inversions which produce the chromatid bridges occur in at least three of the five pairs of ehromosomes. Heterozygous inversions also cause partial asynapsis. The irregularities at meiosis cause about 66 per cent of pollen sterility. Most of the sterility is attributed to crossing over in heterozygous inversions paired nonhomologously.
    The size of the chromatid fragments varies from a fraction of a micron to 9 microns in length. The uniform distribution of fragment size is attributed to crossing over in a number of short heterozygous inversions paired homologously, although there is some evidence that the variation in fragment size is caused by crossing over in non-homologously paired loops, or by inverted crossing over in non-homologously paired rods.
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  • Tetsu Sakamura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 115-124
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Um das Verständnis des osmotischen Zellmechanismus zu erleichtern, wurden analoge Erscheinungen unter Verwendung der schematischen Modelle erklärt, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Arbeitsleistung.
    2. Die osmotischen Erscheinungen und Zustandsgrößen der pflanzlichen Zelle wurden übersichtlich graphisch dargestellt. Der Zusammenhang der Konzentration der Autlenlösung mit der Saugkraft der Zelle, der Dehnbarkeit der Zellmembran usw. wurde dadurch leicht begreiflich gemacht.
    3. Der Ausdruck “osmotischer Druck” ist noch immer als notwendig zu behalten, um die osmotische Zellmechanik zu erklären.
    4. Es wird der Begriff “Saugeffekt” der Zelle vorgeschlagen, die Zellerscheinung zu verstehen, durch welche ihre Volumänderung erfolgt.
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  • Hideo Kikkawa
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 125-128
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Hugo Kaho
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 129-148
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Olive Swezy
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 149-155
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Two plants in the progeny of a triploid of Crepis Bungei gave variable counts of ehromosomes in sporadic cells in the root-tips, one plant with twelve chromosomes, containing teils with numbers ranging from thirteen to seventeen.
    One plant of Crepis Marschallii contained cells in its root-tips with a large V-shaped chromosome which had no mate. In one root-tip there was an extra chromosome in cells without the V-chromosome.
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  • Fred Viès
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 156-158_1
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Noboru Takamine
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 159-161
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. By the smear method of preparation the doubly coiled spiral structure was ascertained in the metaphasic and telophasic Chromosomes in the heterotype division.
    2. During the progress from the heterotype telophase to the interkinesis, the spirals of larger gyres or the major spirals were unravelled, and in the interkinesis only the spirals of small gyres or the minor spirals were observed.
    3. In the homotype division, the Chromosomes were of the single coiled spiral structure throughout the division.
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  • G. Tischler
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 162-170
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Der Gehalt der Polyploiden unter den eingebürgerten “Halligen”pflanzen hat gegenüber dem der Gesamtflora des benachbarten Landes eine leichte Steigerung erfahren. An dieser nehmen die verschiedenen ökologischen Gruppen in ungleichem Maße teil. Am meisten Diploide haben die Pflanzen der “Graslandschaft”, wobei die Halophyten und Nichthalophyten sich nicht sehr unterscheiden. Wesentlich mehr Polyploide haben aber die völlig eingebürgerten, ursprünglich durch den Menschen eingeführten Unkräuter. Die Vertreter der spärlichen Sandflora sowie die der Gewässer- und Uferflora sind durchweg polyploid.
    2. Im starken Gegensatz dazu enthalten die “nicht wirklich eingebürgerten” Pflanzen einen Gehalt an Polyploiden, der unter dem der Gesamtflora ist.
    3. Daraus darf wohl geschlossen werden, daß bei Neueinführungen von Arten der Faktor der Polyploidie einen starken ökologischen Wert besitzt.
    4. Die anhangsweise gegebene Analyse der Lokalflora einer besonders kleinen Insel, die von menschlichen Eingriffen möglichst verschont geblieben ist, ergab einen Polyploiden-Gehalt, der ungefähr mit dem der Gesamthalligen übereinstimmt.
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  • Walter S. Flory
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 171-180
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Previously unreported counts an 40 weil differentiated species or varieties of the Polemoniaceae are given. Included with these is a general account of all chromosome numbers reported for species of this family to date. This is followed by a summary of chromosome size, chromosome morphology, and the different cytological groups observed. There is a discussion an the taxonomic grouping implied by the cytological facts.
    The author wishes to thank Professor Orland E. White and Professor Edgar T. Wherry for gifts of materials, and for their interest in this work. To Professors E. T. Wherry, Karl Sax, and S. H. Yarnell grateful acknowledgement is made for their critical reading of the manuscript.
    This study was begun at the Blandy Experimental Farm of the University of Virginia, and was continued while the writer was a Fellow of the National Research Council at Harvard University.
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  • Yukio Yamamoto
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 181-187
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • E. B. Babcock, G. L. Stebbins Jr, J. A. Jenkins
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 188-210
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Arne Müntzing
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 211-227
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) The chromosome numbers of twin seedlings in various species of cultivated plants have been examined. Though most of the twins have the normal chromosome number, twin seedlings with deviating chromosome numbers were found in the following species: Triticum vulgare, Triticum turgidum, Secale cereale, Avena sativa, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Lolium perenne and Solanum tuberosum.
    2) If the twin plants differ in chromosome number, one of the twins is generally triploid in relation to the other one. This may be due to simultaneous fertilization of reduced and unreduced embryo sacs.
    3) Attention is called to the theoretical and practical importance of the twin method. Though the twins are formed in a low frequency, a rieh material may be obtained by cooperation with seed control stations.
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  • Daigoro Moriwaki
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 228-233
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. In an x-rayed series with purplish (ph) and bobbed (bb) characters of Drosophila ananassae, an autosomal dominant gene capable of causing the bristles to be minute was found. The gene, Minute-IIb, belongs to the second chromosome, the locus of which however has not yet been determined, the recombination values with cardinal (II-0.0) and Plexate (II-25.9) each being nearly 50 per cent.
    2. During the experiments in which the pedigree of Minute-IIb was used, another bb-like character unexpectedly appeared at times: the parents in this Gase, it being always believed, carry neither M-IIb nor bb genotypically.
    3. As an expianation of the unexpected appearance of bb-like character, I proposed that we assume fragmentation of the bb-region in the X-chromosome, which would go far towards explaining the peculiar examples here mentioned, although no satisfactory cytological proof of it has yet been obtained.
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  • Ernst G. Pringsheim
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 234-255
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Das Stigma besteht aus einer plasmatischen Grundsubstanz, der carotinhaltige Öltröpfchen eingelagert sind. Selten fehlen diese, sodaß das Stigma vorübergehend oder dauernd ungefärbt erscheint. Es ist nicht möglich dem Stigma eine für alle Flagellaten und Algenschwärmer giltige morphologische Deutung zu geben; doch sind in manchen Fällen Beziehungen zum Plastiden-Apparat festgestellt worden.
    Fast alle chlorophyllhaltigen Flagellaten-Stadien besitzen ein Stigma. Bei ungefärbten ist es auf diejenigen Arten beschränkt, welche sich durch irgend welche Merkmale als nahe Verwandte von gefärbten erkennen lassen. Unter diesen apochlorotischen Flagellaten besitzt aber auch nur eine beschränkte Anzahl dieses Organ. Es wird eine Liste dieser Arten gegeben. Sie finden sich bei Chryso-. Phyto-, Eugleno- und Dinoflagellaten. Auch eine Liste der Parallelformen mit und ohne Stigma, die als getrennte Arten angesehen werden müssen, wird gegeben.
    Die Bedeutung des Stigmas für die Phototaxis wird erörtert, und es werden Gründe dafür zusammengestellt, daß es selbst das reizperzipierende Organ ist. 1. Grund: Das Maximum der Lichtreizbarkeit liegt bei der gleiden Wellenlänge wie das Absorptionsmaximum des Stigmenfarbstoffes. 2. Grund: Die Arten mit Stigma sind phototaktisch; ähnliche Arten ohne Stigma aber nicht. Ob das Stigma bei apochlorotischen Flagellaten eine ökologische Bedeutung hat, wissen wir nicht.
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  • Kyojiro Shimakura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 256-261
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) Fresh pollen mother-cells at prophase I-anaphase I of Trillium kamtschaticum were observed in anthral slime mixed with an ample amount of 6.0 or 7.0g./100 c.c. saccharose solution.
    2) Cell division was inhibited after preparation, but the chromosomes were always distinctly visible, except in the earlier prophase I cells.
    3) The internal structure of the chromosomes was examined in fresh state and the presence of double coiling in chromonemata at late prophase I-late anaphase 1 was demonstrated.
    4) Indications for the existence of double-coiled twin chromonemata in a “single major spiral” or a “monad” at metaphase I and anaphase I were presented in some detail.
    The writer wishes here to express his sincere gratitude to Prof. T. INUKAI, Prof. T. SAKAMURA, and Prof. H. MATSUURA for their encouragement and criticisms during the course of the present work. Acknowledgement is also due to the Foundation for the Promotion of Scientific and Industrial Research of Japan, with the aid of whose financial support the present investigation has been carried out.
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  • Dontcho Kostoff
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 262-277
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • G. A. Lewitsky
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 278-281
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Goichi Nakajima
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 282-292
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) The male individuals of the dioecious plants comprising 11 genera, 18 species and 2 varieties have been investigated cytologically, Nith special reference to the sex chromosomes.
    2) In each of 16 species and one variety one unequal pair of chromosomes was observed. This unequal pair is assumed to be a sex chromosome complex of XY type.
    3) A tetrapartite chromosome was observed in Humulus lupulus var. cordifoliits, which may be a sex chromosome complex of XYXY type.
    4) In Carex grallatoria and Cleratis heracleaefolia any norphological sex chromosome complex was not observed.
    In ciosing the writer wishes to express his thanks to Prof. Kagawa of the Utsunomiya Agricultural College for his valuable suggestion in this work.
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  • Seiji Matsumura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 293-298
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Margaret Upcott
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 299-310
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Pollen sterility in Lathgyrus odoratus is known to behave as a simple Mendelian recessive.
    As compared with the normal meiosis, chromosome development in the sterile is delayed in relation to the growth of the anthers. This delay begins to take effect before pachytene.
    That the timing is abnormal is shown by the fact that the sterile anthers containing pollen-mother-cells at the first metaphase are equal in size to normals containing binucleate pollen and by the fact that the spindle at metaphase is elongated as it is at a normal anaphase. The development of the chromosomes is delayed relative to that of the spindle. Associated with this delay is a difference of substrate conditions in the nucleus as shown by (i) its reaction to the fixative in prophase (ii) greater spiralisation (iii) greater terminalisation, indicating that these are all a function of rate of development.
    After the first division, the timing disharmony apparently becomes so acute that further development ceases.
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  • Werner Lindenbein
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 311-320_2
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Die in den Zellen der Charazeen zu beobachtende Plasmarotation muß als eine spontane Lebenserscheinung angesehen werden, die nicht erst auf Eingriffe präparativer Art hin auftritt. Die sie veranlassenden inneren und äußeren Reize gehören zur normalen Umwelt der Zelle. Die Strömungsgeschwindigkeit ist Schwankungen unterworfen, die sowohl auf äußere Reize als auch auf innere Bedingungen, Alter der Zelle, innere und äußere Reibung, zurückgeführt werden müssen. Die Partien größter und geringster Geschwindigkeit liegen für längere Zeit innerhalb einer Zelle fest. Strömung und Plastidengestalt sind abhängig von bestimmten, dem ruhenden Außenplasma eignenden Strukturen. Bei Schädigung des Außenplasmas treten Strukturveränderungen ein, durch welche die Strömung sistiert wird und die Plastidenform wechselt. An Mikrotomschnitten fixierten Materials sind charakteristische Übergangsbilder, welche die Plastiden bei diesem Vorgang durchlaufen, nachweisbar.
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  • Girija Prasanna Majumdar, Robindra Mohon Datta
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 321-322_1
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Jun-ichi Morita
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 323-328
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • B. Nêmec
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 329-332
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Kazuo Suzuki
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 333-335
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Walter P. Thompson, Mary G. Thompson
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 336-342
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Three different reciprocal translocations produced by radiation treatment in Triticum monococcum and 2 in T. darum have been studied. A plant which is heterozygous for any of them shows nearly normal fertility, both of seeds and pollen. This is due to a regular zigzag (Oenothera-like) segregation of the 4 chromosomes in the translocation ring.
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  • N. N. Sokolow
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 343-359
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Takenoshin Nakai, Siduo Momose
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 360-365
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • D. G. Catcheside
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 366-378
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Observations upon secondary pairing of bivalents at meiosis in Brassica oleracea (n=9) suggest that this species is a secondary polyploid with a basic chromosome number of six. Three of the six basic chromosomes are present in duplicate, the other three but once each. Structural changes, inducing aberrant kinds of secondary pairing, are superimposed.
    2. The course of meiosis subsequent to diakinesis is described and it is shown that there is no direct continuity between the secondary pairing present at metaphase I and metaphase II respectively, though the former tends to determine the latter.
    3. The relative frequencies of different types of secondary pairing at metaphase I and II are similar. Statistical tests indicate that any heterogeneity inherent in the data lies between the different preparations examined; probably, fixation can cause minor changes, especially emphasis of weak secondary pairing.
    4. There is a significant correlation in type of secondary pairing between the two metaphase II plates of a pollen mother-cell. Probably no movement of the chromosomes relative to one another occurs during interphase, except during the period when the spherical distribution of the chromosomes is being established.
    5. In the normal classes of secondary pairing two similar bivalents have a mean chance, 0.5923±0.0129, of pairing secondarily. This is dose in value to the chance, about 0.625, of two particular bivalents lying adjacent at diakinesis. The normal classes fit a binomial distribution fairly well.
    6. We may conclude that two similar bivalents will be paired secondarily at metaphase I if they occupy adjacent positions at diakinesis. Similar data apply to interkinesis and metaphase II and to prophase and metaphase of mitosis. The mechanism, however, will always be subject to the limitations imposed by mechanical and genetical inhibitors.
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  • P. Martens
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 379-388
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Dans un hyménium mûr d'Aleuria violacea (PERS.) GILL., un certain nombre d'asques renferment plusieurs centaines de petites “conidies”, capables de reproduire le mycélium (fig. 18). La genèse de ces conidies, aux dépens des huit ascospores normales (fig. 1), a été décrite en détail. L'ascospore uninucléée subit d'abord une première série de mitoses et de cloisonnements transversaux, et eile s'accroît concurremment (figs. 2-12). Les cloisonnements peuvent s'accompagner, parfois dès la première division, de la dissociation des cellules sporales (figs. 7, 13, 14). Ces dernières subissent ensuite une seconde séie de mitoses et de cloisonnements dans tous les sens, dans un protoplasme devenu très vacuolaire, et l'orientation des cloisons nouvelies paraît liée à la situation des vacuoles (figs. 14-16). La spore primitive est finalement réduite en une trentaine ou une quarantaine de petites “conidies” polygonales, qui se séparent et se répandent dans l'asque et sont ensuite liérées (figs. 15-18). Elles germent déjà à la surface de l'hyménium, dans la mince couche de gelée amorphe qui recouvre celui-ci (figs. 19-22).
    Cette évolution ne comporte aucun phénomène de bourgeonnement proprement dit, et eile ne se ramène pas non plus à une simple dissociation de spores pluricellulaires en leurs cellules composantes. Elle a été comparée avec les autres cas du même ordre et principalement avec les résultats de BREFELD.
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  • Yoshinari Kuwada
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 389-402
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Seiichi Toshioka
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 403-406
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • P. N. Schürhoff, H. Müller
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 407-415
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Tamaki Shimamura
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 416-423
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. The whole contents of the body cell of Ginkgo is transformed into two spermatozoids. Between the two spermatozoids there is no cell wall when they are formed, however they are surrounded by a common wall.
    2. So long as the spermatozoids are still enclosed in the mother cell the cytoplasmic sheath of the spiral band takes an a compressed form.
    3. The swimming spermatozoid has an expanded spiral band, which is distinctly broadest in width at the apical end and gradually decreases finaily fading out entirely.
    4. Several methods by which the spermatozoids get out of the polten tube in sugar solutions are described.
    5. The Body of the spermatozoid is soft and elastic, so that as a result of a slight pressure it may change its form, but it recovers its shape again after the Pressure is removed.
    6. The cytoplasmic sheath of the spiral band only may be of a comparatively solid nature, whereas the remaining parts of the body, which are surrounded by the plasma membrane are of a highly liquid nature.
    7. The entire spermatozoid is found in the receptive cavity. This fast proves that the spermatozoid passes without injury through the narrow opening or canal between the neck cells.
    8. The male nucleus slips out of its cytoplasmic sheath, then travels an alone and fuses with the egg nucleus, while the cilia bearing cytoplasmic sheath is left near the boundary of the egg cytoplasm.
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  • Gottwalt Christian Hirsch, L. H. Bretschneider
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 424-436
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    In jeder Zelle des Ascarisdarmes findet Sekretion, Resorption, intraplasmatische Verarbeitung und Aufstapelung der Reservestoffe statt. Hier ist nur folgenden ersten Fragen der Darmtätigkeit nachgegangen:
    1. Es werden in der Darmzelle von Ascaris fünf strukturelle Stockwerke beschrieben (Abb. 1-4), von denen I die auffallend starke Basalmembran bildet, II eine Ergastoplasmazone. Das Stockwerk III ist der wichtigste Arbeitsraum der Zelle. Er wird nach oben und unten durch eine besondere Membran abgeschlossen. Er kann in mehrere Unterstockwerke verteilt werden, von denen B wiederum das Hauptarbeitsfeld bildet: hier liegen der Kern und die Mitochondrien, hier entstehen die Granula in zwei verschiedenen Formen und hier wird die Golgisubstanz an der Phasengrenze zwischen Granula B und Protoplasma gebildet; außerdem wird hier vorallem Glykogen und Fett niedergeschlagen. Das Stockwerk IV ist eine Durchgangszone für Resorpta und Sekrete. Abgeschlossen nach außen wird die Zelle durch eine äußere Grenzmembran und durch das Stockwerk V, welches aus einem Basalplasma und zahlreichen fingerförmigen Protoplasmaausstülpungen besteht.
    2. Während des Hungerns (Abb. 6-8) werden Fett und Glykogen abgebaut. Die Anzahl der fetthaltigen Zellen während 6 Tagen Hungerns schwankt: sie nimmt anfänglich ab, ist am 3. Tage wieder angestiegen, um bis zum 6. Tage wieder abzusinken. Weiterhin ist zu sehen, daß die großen Fettbrocken in kleinere Fettvakuolen aufgeteilt werden, und zwar geschieht der Abbau langsam vom apikalen zum basalen Teile der Zone B: d.h. basalwärts.
    Das Glykogen dagegen wird in umgekehrter Richtung: von unten nach oben abgebaut, also apikalwärts. Ein Abtransport von Glykogen findet wärend des Hungerns nicht statt.
    3. Während des Hungerns werden Sekretstoffe aufgebaut und aufgestapelt. Die kleinen Granula A entstehen an der Oberfläche der Mitochondrien unter teilweisem Aufbrauch der Mitochondriensubstanz (Abb. 9). Wahrscheinlich gehen diese Granula A in B über, doch ist dies für Ascaris noch nicht sicher. An der Oberfläche der Granula B entsteht die Golgisubstanz. Diese großen Granula werden in Vakuolen aufgelöst, welche durch die oberen Stockwerke und zwischen den fingerförmigen Ausstülpungen hindurch in das Lumen des Darmes eintreten (Abb. 10).
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  • Nagaharu U, Tutumi Nagamatu, Usaburo Midusima
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 437-441
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Friedl Weber
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 442-446_1
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • A. Eichhorn
    1937 Volume FujiiJubilaei Issue 1 Pages 447-448
    Published: June 10, 1937
    Released: March 19, 2009
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