CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 51 , Issue 3
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
  • Rosario Rodriguez-Arnaiz, Rene Fernando Molina Martinez
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 421-425
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    It was analyzed the genetic effects of potassium dichromate and chromium trioxide in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with different concentrations of the salts. K2Cr2O7 was less toxic than CrO3.
    Potassium dichromate induced sex-chromosome loss and non-disjunction at the highest concentration employed (400 ppm) while chromium trioxide did not showed these effects.
    Both salts induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutations.
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  • I. A. Hamal, A. K. Koul
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 427-432
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Some plants of L. thomsonii var. evolutior (Umbelliferae) were found to bear two types of rootlets, some bearing 22 and others 23 chromosomes. During meio-sis, the sporogenous cells have two or no B-chromosome. The two B-chromosomes pair and form a small bivalent. At mitotic interphase, B-chromosome forms a heteropycnotic body. Incorporation of the B-chromosomes increased the length of A-chromosomes and boosts chiasmata frequency.
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  • S. B. Agrawal
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 433-438
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The karyological effect of sulphur dioxide, a gaseous air pollutant was ob-served on actively growing filaments of a green alga, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum (Ag.) Kuetz. (Cladophorales, Chlorophyceae) maintained in culture. The control material is characterized by n=24 chromosomes. Various cytological abnormali-ties at nuclear and chromosomal level were recorded qualitatively as well as quanti-tatively. The results have been discussed in relation to earlier reports.
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  • I. Effect of purine derivatives
    P. N. Mehra, Neena Dhiman
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 439-448
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Effect of caffeine, xanthine and xanthosine has been studied on the root-tips of Pterotheca falconeri. This plant is very suitable for such studies since there are only 3 pairs of chromosomes, each easily identifiable. Caffeine induced maximum “meiotic reductions” (54.5%) in 57 mM/ 1 HT/72 HR, followed by xanthosine (33.33%) in 60 mM/1 HT/0 HR, and xanthine (25%) in 57 mM/1 HT/6 HR. Spo-radic pairing of chromosomes and formation of what look like chiasmata, followed by second meiotic division and formation of haploid cells with complete chromo-somal complement, have been observed. In addition, reductional groupings with no precise distribution of homologues have also been noticed, but their percentage is far less than “meiotic reductions”. In caffeine treatment mitotic index was found to be dependent upon concentration, time of treatment and recovery period, while in the other two purine derivatives it was independent of the first two in the con-centrations tried.
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  • II. Effect of purine derivatives (contd.) and DNA
    P. N. Mehra, Neena Dhiman
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 449-456
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    It is a continuation of the previous paper (Mehra and Dhiman, this journal) dealing with induced “meiotic reductions”. In this paper are described the effects of purine derivatives aminophylline, theophylline, adenine, adenosine, as well as DNA on root-tip cells of Pterotheca falconeri. Besides “meiotic reductions”, reductional groupings were also noticed and their percentage is recorded. In regard to mitotic index aminophylline and DNA failed to show any correlation with con-centration and treatment periods. But DNA at 7%/1 HT/96 HR and 8%/2 HT/48 HR was lethal to the root-tips. However, it was different with adenine, adenosine and theophylline where the mitotic index was concentration and treatment period dependent. There was decrease in mitotic index with increase in concentration or the treatment period.
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  • III. Effect of pyrimidine derivatives, and RNA
    P. N. Mehra, Lalita Kumari
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 457-466
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Pyrimidines and their derivatives (thymine, cytosine, cytidine, uracil and uridine monophosphate) and RNA have been found to effect “meiotic reductions” in the root-tips of Pterotheca falconeri in significant numbers, followed by second division comparable to what occurs in meiocytes during meiosis. The high per-centage of “meiotic reductions” in contrast to reductional groupings of all types taken together in optimal concentrations of these physiological substances is quite meaningful, -particularly when taken in conjunction with the results already obtained with purines and their derivatives and DNA (this journal). The significance of these results will be discussed in the next paper of the series.
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  • IV. Concluding remarks
    P. N. Mehra
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 467-472
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • S. N. Zadoo
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 473-478
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Thirty-four accessions of Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin. were analysed cytolo-gically in order to know their chromosomal status. Eighteen accessions were found to be tetraploids and sixteen accessions were hexaploids based on x=9. The pair-ing behaviour of chromosomes at meiosis indicates segmental allopolyploid nature of the taxa. The irregular meiosis, however, had no effect on seed production, as the taxa are apomictic in nature. Study of pollen size and stainability indicated that these two criteria cannot be reliable indicators of the level of polyploidy.
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  • D. Subramanian
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 479-488
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotype analyses were made using root tip mitosis in 21 species of South Indian Apiaceae. First record of chromosome numbers have been made in Hydro-cotyle conferta (2n=18), H. rotundifolio (2n=18), Pimpinnella pulneyensis (2n=18), P. candolleana (2n=18), Heracleum rigens (2n=40), H. ceylanicum (2n=44), H. sprengelianum (2n=14), H. courtallense (2n=40) H. hookerianum (2n=46), H. aquilegifolium (2n=46), H. candolleanum (2n=40) and H. pedatum (2n=46). The most commonly occurring somatic chromosome number is 2n=18 and 2n=22. It is evident from the present investigation and those data available from earlier studies in this family that aneuploidy and euploidy together with karyotypic asym-metry of chromosomes play important role in the origin and evolution of the species studied.
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  • John E. Dille, Elizabeth N. King, Marsha Bright
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 489-492
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Isotox 25 Seed Treater (F) was applied at recommended rates to dry seeds of rye which were allowed to germinate. Roots from treated seeds were short and thickened near the apex. Cells of root tips showed greatly enlarged cells possessing nuclei exhibiting various levels of polyploidy.
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  • K. Jayalakshmi, P. S. R. L. Narasinga Rao, J. V. Pantulu
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 493-499
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In order to study the meiotic effects of B chromosomes when they are present in a tetraploid background, B chromosomes were introduced into autotetraploid pearl millet by crossing tetraploids with B-carrying triploids. A majority of the eutetraploids in the second generation progeny of this cross had two types of Bs viz., standards and isos, both in varying numbers and present separately or in com-bination. As it is not possible to fix a model number to a plant, cell level analyses were carried out. The mean A chromosome chiasmata per cell was higher in the 4n B cell population compared to controls. Within the 4n B cell population those with Bs had more chiasmata than those without Bs. Independent of this effect on A chromosome chiasmata, B chromosomes had a quadrivalent enhancing effect as was evident from regression analyses of variance. It is pointed out that the chro-mosome pairing pattern in 4n B plants was as may be predicted. on the basis of information about the effect of Bs on meiosis in diploids.
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  • B. N. Verma, L. Labh
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 501-506
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • B. N. Verma
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 507-512
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • S. M. Handa, Manjit Kaur
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 513-518
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    In the multiple myeloma, the autosomes No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 22 and sex chromosomes-XY are most commonly involved in one or the other type of abnormalities, such as deletions, interstitial deletion, translocation, missing of chromomsomes. The trisomy 22 is the most consistent abnormality found in almost every metaphase plate studied. The chromosome numbers range from 40 to 45 with a mode at 44.
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  • S. M. Handa, Sudha Vashisht
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 519-526
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The chromosomal preparations of five different brain tumours namely the desmoplastic medulloblastoma, the cerebellar sarcoma, the pituitary adenoma, the parietal mass glioma and the CPangle tumour obtained from cancer patients have been made by the direct method using air drying technique coupled with a few-treatments. The medulloblastoma are characteristic of a mode of 45 chromosomes with a number ranging from 10 to 80. There is a missing of one chromosome of the group A i.e. A3. The chromosomal breaks and markers are quite frequent. The cerebellar sarcoma possess a mode of 43 chromosomes. The chromosomes from groups B, C and D are affected. The breaks and gaps are common. The pituitary adenoma possess the hypodiploid mode of chromosomes. Chromosomes from groups A, C and G are mainly affected. The gaps and dicentric are always present. In the gliomas, there is a loss of chromosome from groups A and G and an addition of one chromosome each in the A, D and E. The chromosomes with the breaks and gaps are also common. The CPangle tumour (Schwanna-degenerating) posses-ses loss of chromosomes from groups A, C and D.
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  • J. S. P. Sarma, A. K. Sharma
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 527-547
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The present investigation was undertaken with a view to explore the variational patterns of the mitotic chromosomes of maize and to examine the intergeneric re-lationships within the Maydeae. Twenty two cultivars of maize, mostly of Indian origin and one each of teosinte and Coix were analysed, employing the refined techniques of chromosome analysis.
    A wide variation was observed in the total chromatin lengths of the haploid complements. The cultivar CM-105 has the longest complement while Synthetic-B23 has the shortest complement. The karyotype is graded. The qualitative features of the ideograms are relatively uniform. The position of primary constriction varies from median to nearly submedian. Three types of chromosomes with secondary constriction were recognized, depending on the relative position of the two constrictions. Certain other variations were observed such as heteromorphic satellited chromosomes and haploid chromosome number in roots. The karyo-types of teosinte and Coix do not differ more than those of cultivars of maize.
    The gross chromosome uniformity of maize is well known and is the resultant of judicious human selection. The presence of gross chromosomal aberrations as the possible cause of the wide range of length variation in the chromosome comple-ments can be ruled out. Addition or deletion of nucleotypic DNA during the for-mation of the cultivars might possibly have played a role in causing the observed variation. Differential condensation patterns of the chromosomes, reflecting dif-ferent degrees of genetic activity have also been suggested to result in alterations of chromosome characteristics. In addition, several other factors such as minor aberrations, genetic differences, inherent length variability, nature of formation of the cultivars and differential response to the treatment may have acted individually and interacted with each other to produce the wide variation. Thus it has been shown that mitotic chromosome analysis, when carried at with appropriate tech-niques, brings out significant differences in maize.
    Evidences from several fields such as pachytene cytology, archaeology, paly-nology and comparative biochemistry indicate the close similarity of maize and teosinte. The present investigation does not warrant the segregation of maize and teosinte into distinct genera. The observations further support the inclusion of maize, teosinte and Coix in the Maydeae.
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  • V. K. Dimitriadis
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 549-555
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Electron microscopic examination and morphometric evaluation of Drosophila auraria larvae fed on diets rich in starch, casein or cholesterol for 24 h indicated that each of these nutrients influence, perhaps upon a secretagogue mechanism, the number of secretory granules which are produced in several midgut regions. The relation of these secretory granules to digestive enzymes as well as the participation of the midgut regions in the digestion of starch, casein and cholesterol is discussed.
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  • J. R. Gold, C. T. Amemiya, J. R. Ellison
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 557-566
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomal heterochromatin was differentiated in two closely related spe-cies of the North American cyprinid genus Notropis. The amounts of heterochro-matin in the genomes of the two species were appreciable: 35% in N. lutrensis and 39% in N. venustus. The chromosomal distribution of heterochromatin was similar in both species: most or all chromosomes contained procentric bands, a few pos-sessed terminal and/or interstitial bands, and there was a preponderance of sub-metacentric and acrocentric chromosomes with entirely heterochromatic short arms. Several chromosomes could be putatively homologized either within or between the two species, although in general the amount and type of heterochromatin made precise homologization difficult. The total amount of heterochromatin resolved in these two species is considerably more than that found among most of the relatively few fish species studied to date. Heterochromatin appears to be one of the few potentially variable fractions of the cyprinid genome which may have contributed to the extensive speciation exhibited by these fish in North America. A few marker chromosomes, specifically the one bearing the nucleolus organizer region or NOR, may prove valuable in cyprinid taxonomy.
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  • R. G. Belcheva, V. Y. Biserkov, H. L. Ilieva, V. A. Beschkov, P. M. Pe ...
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 567-570
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The karyotype of Lacerta vivipara (Jacq.) from four different popultations in Bulgaria has been studied. The diploid chromosome number in the female is 2n=32A+Z1Z2W and in the male 2n=32A+Z1Z1Z2Z2.
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  • A. Badr
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 571-577
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Actively dividing root tips of Vicia faba were treated with 4 different concentrations of turbutryn for 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours. The concentrations used were 4, 20, 100 and 500 ppm of the herbicide. Almost all treatments exerted a mitodepressive action and resulted in reductions in the amounts of DNA and RNA. Turbutryn produced a number of chromosomal anomalies. The types of abnormalities induced are comprised of mitotic abnormalities, which indicate an effect on the spindle ap-paratus, chromosomal stickiness and chromosomal aberrations including chromo-some breakage. The mitodepressive action of turbutryn is remarkably associated with the ability of this herbicide to reduce the amounts of DNA and RNA and its capacity to induce chromosomal anomalies.
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  • Sharda Khandelwal
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 579-586
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Following are the impotant observations:
    1. Physico-chemical properties of fatty oil of Ophioglossum costatum has been determined for the first times.
    2. The present study is a pioneer attempt to see the effect of oil of O. costatum on mitotic cell division of A. sativum and V. faba.
    3. The mitotic index was seen to decrease gradually as the time of treatment was increased.
    4. Prolonged treatment causing the death and deorganisation of actively dividing cells.
    5. This oil has the potential use in anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent.
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  • B. L. Kaul
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 587-592
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Experiments were conducted to find out the influence of hyperthermic treatments on the biological activity of 1, 3-propane sultone. Hyperthermic (35-45°C) pretre-atments for 1-4 hours gave significant protection against the biological damage pro-duced by the mutagen. Seedling injury was reduced from 36 to 8% and root injury totally eliminated. Chromosome aberrations in root tip cells were reduced by one half. Hyperthermic post-treatments, however, were ineffective.
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  • K. H. Sit
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 593-601
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Broad based differential regions were detected in microphotometric tracings of Giemsa stained but unbanded Bufo melanostictus chromosomes. This was facilitated by the combination of (1) a very small photometric step size of 0.05μ, (2) scanning at “minimum effective aperture” with the magnification of the chromatid width adjusted to fall within it, and (3) direct multidirectional tracing along the exact pathway of the chromatid arms. It seems possible that Giemsa stained bandings could be superimposed phenomena since they are consequent upon various treatments to the chromosome, including some which produce gross structural alterations.
    B. melanostictus is the common toad found in gardens of the South East Asian region, whose karyotype has not been previously documented because of the dif-ficulty in culturing its cells in vitro. We succeeded by using medium enriched with 10, 000 mol. wt. ultrafiltrate of unfertilized eggs of the female. The karyotype (2n=22) consisted of all metacentric chromosomes except for a single submetacentric ele-ment. By size, the chromosomes were divisible into 2 groupings, a bigger and a smaller, easily discernible by simple inspection.
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  • Kunja Bihari Padhy, B. Nayak
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 603-608
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Male pupae of the domesticated silkmoth, P. ricini were irradiated with 600-6000 R of 60Co gamma ray and studied for the nature and frequency of visible chiasmata in the meiotic spermatocytes. Significant increase in lower doses (600, 1200 R) and decrease in higher dose (6000 R) were observed. More interstitial chiasmata were induced in the medium bivalents; and low frequency of terminals restricted to the smaller bivalents. The minimum chiasma per bivalent was one and never zero. Nature of monocentric versus holocentric chromosomes with regard to the gamma induced chiasmata were, however, discussed.
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  • Animesh K. Datta, Amal K. Biswas, Subir Sen
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 609-615
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Gamma irradiation induced mutagenic sensitivity of Nigella sativa L. (black cummin) was assessed from R1 attributes like frequency of seed germination, rate of seedling growth, chromosomal anomalies and sterility types, following exposures of dry dormant seed samples (1.8% moisture content) to 5 KR, 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR, 40 KR, 50 KR and 60 KR of γ-irradiations. Results indicated that gamma radiations have induced both physiological and chromosomal disturbances. LD50 was found to lie between 20 KR and 30 KR of rγ-ray. Treatments beyond 30 KR of irradiation were found to be lethal due to complete failure of emergence of seedlings in the field conditions; although 5 KR has shown stimulation in mitotic index. Sterility types have possibly appeared as an outcome of meiotic disturbances.
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  • H. T. Stalker, R. D. Dalmacio
    1986 Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 617-629
    Published: September 25, 1986
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Mitotic chromosomes of nine Arachis hypogaea L. cultivars plus A. monticola Krap. et Rig. were analyzed cytologically. The cultivars included representatives of the four botanical varieties of A. hypogaea. The objective of this investigation was to identify the chromosomes of cultivated peanuts and determine the variation among subspecies and varieties. The A. hypogaea chromosomes ranged in length between 1.44 and 4.17μm and were mostly metacentric. Variation was observed in the numbers of asymmetrical chromosomes per cultivar and in the chromosome with a secondary constriction. Based on heterochromatic regions, centromere positions, and chromosome lengths, homologues were identified and ordered from 1=longest to 20=shortest. Although each genotype had a unique karyotype, patterns of variation were observed and all A. hypogaea varieties were cytologically disting-uished. Varieties vulgaris and hypogaea were karyologically the extreme groups with other varieties being intermediate. The cultivar nambyquarae is grouped kary-ologically with var. fastigiata even though it is a member of subspecies hypogaea. Arachis monticola was karyologically more similar to variety vaulgaris than other groups of A. hypogaea. This suggests that the variety vulgaris cultivars may be the most ancient A. hypogaea group.
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