CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 55 , Issue 2
Showing 1-23 articles out of 23 articles from the selected issue
  • R. M. Ranganath, D. G. Krishnappa
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 175-179
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotypes of six species of Barleria L. occurring in South India viz., B. acuminata, B. buxifolia, B. gibsoni, B. involucrata var. elata, B. noctiflora and B. strigosa are studied. All the six species have the same chromosome number of 2n=40. However, each species is distinct in respect of relative positions of centromere, presence/absence and position of satellites and total haploid chromatin length. The diagnostic value of the karyomorphological details in these taxa is discussed.
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  • S. K. Dey, T. Wangdi
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 181-186
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Spermatogonial metaphase chromosomes of Petillia patullicollis, Leptocorisa acuta and Ochrochira granulipes reveal C-bands, while G-bands are encountered in some chromosomes of Iphita limbata, Anoplocnemis phasiana and Leptocorisa acuta. The most frequent location of C-heterochromatin occurs in telomeric regions. Interstitial bands are very scarce. Difference in the size of subtelomeric C-heterochromatin block has been observed in the largest chromosome of L. acuta. Satellite-like structures are encountered in chromosomes 1 and 3 of N. icterica and A. phasiana respectively. The banding results are compared with the few reports available on banding of heteropteran chromosomes. It is suggested from our analysis that if C-bands are present, they are preferentially located at telomeric regions of chromosomes. G-band distributions are, however, not discrete enough to identify all the chromosomes of the complement.
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  • P. C. Datta, B. De
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 187-196
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    For better understanding of intrafamilial relations of Annonaceae, number and morphology of chromosomes were studied. Additional informations of 16 collections and previous reports were considered. An ascending series of n=7→8 was available in Annona spp., Malmea Tribe, Cleistopholis sp., Fusaea Tribe, Uvaria spp. Number n=9 was common in Polyalthia, Miliusa, Artabotrys (8→9) and Asimina. In n=7→8 lines, Uvaria and Desmos had primitive chromosome morphology. In n=8→9 lines Artabotrys showed primitive karyotypes, Miliusa and Asimina the most advanced ones.
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  • Ajoy Kumar Roy, Archana Sharma, Geeta Talukder
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 197-201
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The interaction of Al with Ca in six different combinations was studied in bone marrow chromosomes following daily oral administration for prolonged periods. Cytotoxic effects of Al, measured by the induction of chromosomal aberrations, were countered by treatment with Ca. The protection afforded was maximum when Ca was fed at a ratio of 3:1, as related to Al, 2 hours before the administration of Al.
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  • Nivea Conforti-Froes, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Antonio Jose Manzato
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 203-208
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Information about the mutagenic effect of natural food colors gives scientific support to their use as food additives. Two different forms of beet root colours were tested: form I without nitrate residues and form II with nitrate residues. Mutagenic effects were tested in vitro using the human peripheral blood lymphocyte system and in vivo using the Wistar rat cytogenetic test system. Mitotic index (MI), chromosome aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were recorded in the in vitro assay, and MI, CA and micronucleus (MN) frequencies were recorded in the in vivo assay.
    The in vitro tests showed that form I was more effective as a clastogen and SCE inducer, but the in vivo tests failed to show mutagenic activity of either form, suggesting that beet colours may be safely used as food additives.
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  • Soheir El-Khodary, Antoinette Habib, Atef Haliem
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 209-215
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    The present work was carried out to investigate the cytological effects of the herbicide Tribunil on Allium cepa root cells. The roots were treated with different concentrations for different periods (more details in the text). The results obtained showed that Tribunil inhibits spindle formation and is mitodepressive in function. The herbicide induced also clastogenic effects such as laggards, bridges, breaks and fragments, and therefore it is recorded to be a potential mitotic poison.
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  • VI. Cytomorphological polymorphism in Alopecurus aequalis Sobol
    Kuldeep Kumar Koul, R. N. Gohil
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 217-223
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Detailed cytology of two populations of Alopecurus aequalis has been worked out. While the count of 2n=14 observed in Tangmarg population confirms the earlier reports, the 2n=28 in the Ganderbal population is a new record. In the present paper morphological and cytological details of the two cytotypes are described.
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  • C. K. Saraswathy Amma, A. N. Namboodiri, A. O. N. Panikkar
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 225-229
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Meiotic abnormalities in a spontaneous sterile clone of Hevea brasiliensis were investigated. During metaphase I varying degrees of bivalents and univalents were noted indicating desynapsis. This is the first report of desynapsis in Hevea. Anaphase I was typified by unequal disjunction, absence of active polar movement and varying degree of laggards. At telophase II, instead of normal tetrad formation, 3-9 microspores were found. There is total degeneration of cytoplasm and nuclei resulting in complete sterility. Megaspores also showed sterility.
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  • A. R. Khuda-Bukhsh, I. Kar
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 231-241
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The somatic karyotypes of twenty-seven species of aphids belonging to 5 Sub-families have been described. The majority of the aphid species were collected from various hostplants in different regions of the North-Eastern India and a few of them from the North-West India. An attempt has been made to evaluate the present state of karyotypic knowledge and the karyoevolutionary trend in these five Sub-families of Aphididae.
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  • S. K. Sharma
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 243-247
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma-rays was compared with the biologically comparable doses of NMU, EMS and NaN3 in M2 and M3 generations of large-seeded Macrosperma lentil. NMU was 1.25-2 times more effective than gamma-rays, EMS and NaN3 in M2 generation. It was also the most efficient mutagen. The next effective and efficient mutagen was gamma-rays, followed by EMS and NaN3. The latter two chemicals were comparable. The results were consistent in M3 generation. The magnitude of effectiveness (Mp/dose) was higher in M2 than M3, while the reverse was true for effectiveness (Ms/dose). The estimates of efficiency (Mp/I or Ms/I) were higher in M2 than M3 generation.
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  • Kalpana Pande, S. S. Raghuvanshi, Dhan Prakash
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 249-253
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Interspecific F1 hybrid (2x) between V. radiata var. T44 and V. mungo var. T9 showed intermediate morphological characters of both the parents and low pollen fertility (4.4%). Inspite of profused flowering there was no pod formation. However, on the contrary, the amphiploid (4x) obtained with the colchicine treatment of the F1 hybrid seedling exhibited gigantism in most of the characters and restoration of pollen fertility (81.3%) and seed fertility. The amphiploid showed negative heterosis for various agronomic traits in CI and C2 generation. Tremendous increase in the number of pods/plant resulting in 52.02% heterosis in yield over its superior parent was observed in C3 genertion. While C4 generation of amphiploid besides higher yield was also better for its nutritional value.
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  • Akinori Takai, Yoshio Ojima
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 255-263
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomes and electrophoretic patterns of muscle protein and of LDH isozymes in the Japanese funa Carassius auratus were studied comparatively. All the specimens examined were either of diploid or triploid types. Electrophoretic patterns of muscle protein (MP patterns) were divided into three basic types. The specimens with Type I were the diploid type excepting the gengorobuna with Type III, and those with Type II were the triploid type. LDH isozyme patterns were divided into three types. Type L-1 was found in the kinbuna, and Type L-2 was in all the specimens excepting the gengorobuna with Type L-3 and the kinbuna. All the diploid specimens were the same karyotype constitution and the specimens with the exception of the kinbuna had no C-banded marker chromosomes. The triploid specimens with the different MP patterns showed different karyotypes and C-banding patterns, suggesting the different origins. As a result, the Japanese funa may be classified into four groups, the kinbuna, the diploid ginbuna, the triploid ginbuna, and the gengorobuna. This classification seems to represent well the condition of speciation and evolution.
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  • Katsumi Ueda, Yasue Goto
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 265-271
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The movement of chromosomes in anaphase was studied in staminal hair cells of Tradescantia reflexa and in algal cells of Spirogyra. Nuclei at various stages of anaphase were photographed, and the movement of chromosomes was measured in enlarged photographs. The anaphase movement of chromosomes in Tradescantia reflexa mostly involved the approach of chromosomes towards the spindle pole, while in Spirogyra the movement of chromosomes was induced by the separation of poles.
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  • G. B. Halvankar, V. P. Patil
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 273-279
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotype analysis of six species of genus Glycine indicated chromosome number to be 2n=40 in G. canescens, G. clandestina, G. latifolia, G. max cultivars Monetta and MACS-13 and 2n=80 in G. tabacina and G. tomentella. Tetraploid species (2n=80) had nearly double the length of haploid chromosome complement of diploid species. Chromosomes were median to submedian. Diploid species (2n=40) had one pair of SAT-chromosomes whereas tetraploid species (2n=80) had two pairs of SAT-chromosomes. Karyotypes of all these species were more or less similar, inspite of broad inter-specific variations in the morphological characters, suggesting the species differentiation might have been due to micromutations.
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  • Jia F. Chen, Sue Y. Chai
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 281-286
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    A discontinuous 5-bromodeoxyuridine administration method which allowed in vivo sister chromatid exchanges assay in bullfrog bone marrows was developed. As a prototype of an in vivo mutagenesis test, this procedure was utilized to detect the genotoxic and cytoxic effects of cyclophosphamide. A dose-dependent increase in the frequeny of SCEs was observed. Cyclophosphamide caused a slight cell-cycle delay and a dose-dependent decrease in replicative index. The present study demonstrates that in vivo SCE method in bullfrogs can be used as a monitoring system for the assessment of environmental genotoxic chemicals.
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  • H. Kumar, V. C. Mercykutty, C. P. Srivastava
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 287-292
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Autotetraploids of four diverse cultivars, namely, T 163, 68 C, 5064-S and PI 280064 and their selfed progeny (C2 and C3) were examined for nature and frequency of chiasma formation. The proposed revised method of chiasma scoring, considering the varied appearance of chromosome configurations, was found to be 41 per cent more efficient than the conventional method. Further, it also helped in partitioning chiasma frequency in to proximal and distal. Chiasma formation and its distribution varied with the genotype. Autotetraploid of the cultivar 5064-S recorded maximum proximal and total chiasmata per cell. Both proximal and total chiasmata showed significant increase with the advance of generation; distal chiasma did not contribute in enhancing the frequency of total chiasmata suggesting different control mechanisms for proximal and distal chiasmata formation and distribution.
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  • S. R. Yadav, G. B. Dixit
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 293-300
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotypic analysis of 4 species of Urginea Steinh. from India has been made. All the taxa under study are diploids and showing 2n=20 and n=10 except U. indica where 2n=20+3B is also observed. Asymmetrical karyotype with all subtelocetric chromosomes was found as a characteristic of this genus. It has revealed from the present study that there are sharp specific differences at species level. However, close homology in U. indica, U. polyantha and U. razii while distant relationship of these taxa with U. congesta is confirmed. Speciation through structural alterations at chromosomal level and reproductive isolation through differences in time of flower blooming is discussed. Wide distribution and variation in U. indica and other species of Urginea in India is considered to be a result of evolution in secondary centre of variation.
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  • Junko Miyamoto, Siro Kurita
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 301-313
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    We studied the C-banding patterns of Paris tetraphylla. Six hundred and ninety-two plants collected from 38 populations were examined. As is well known, the genome of this species consists of 5 chromosomes: A, B, C, D and E (Haga 1934). We were able to distinguish five corresponding kinds of C-bands. The first is an intermittent dot-like C-band wich appears at the centromeric and terminal regions of every chromosome. The second is a thick band appearing on the distal half of every short arm of the C chromosome. The third appears on either side of the NOR of the D chromosome. The fourth is a thick intercalary band on the long arm of the D chromosome. Banding patterns of the D chromosome were constant among all plants examined except the nonstandard 10 from the Ogura-san population. The fifth is a thin intercalary band observed in the A, B, C and E chromosomes. This fifth type shows inter-individual polymorphism and can be classified into four sub-types, 0, 1, 2 and 3. Frequency of these bands among populations is quite variable. However, some localization of particular banding patterns was found. Traditionally many geneticists have held that C-heterochromatin is genetically inert, but we consider that every C-heterochromatin of P. tetraphylla may have some important biological functions.
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  • S. C. Hiremath, G. N. V. Patil, S. S. Salimath
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 315-319
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Interspecific hybrids between Panicum sumatrense and P. psilopodium were produced and analyzed to assess the genome homology between these two taxa. Meiotic behaviour was perfectly normal in both the parental species, P. sumatrense and P. psilopodium. Regular 18 bivalents were observed in the parents and they are allotetraploid. Both the parents are fully fertile. In the hybrids a mean chromosome pairing of 17.9 II+0.035 IV per cell was found in 200 cells analyzed. About 96% of the PMCs contained 18 bivalents. Regular 18 bivalent formation in the hybrids strongly suggests that the genomes of P. sumatrense and P. psilopodium are basically similar and are fully homologous. Thus P. sumatrense or sama millet might have originated from wild taxon P. psilopodium through selection and further cultivation. Presence of a single quadrivalent in the hybrid indicates the genomic divergence and differentiation in these two species through one reciprocal translocation.
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  • M. R. Vijayaraghavan, Sudesh, Nidhi Gautam
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 321-326
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    In Acrotrema arnottianum the zygotic transfer cell stains well for insoluble polysaccharides and feebly for total proteins. The zygotic mantle reveals three zones and the outermost layer of zygotic mantle has PAS positive wall labyrinth. The zygotic mantle acts as a transfer cell with one common goal namely of short distance transport of solutes. During progressive stages of embryo development the basal cell of suspensor has remarkable plate-like labyrinth derived and contributed by the zygote wall.
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  • Basavaiah, Mala V. Rajan, S. B. Dandin, N. Suryanarayana, K. Sengupta
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 327-333
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Chromosomal association and behaviour during microsporogenesis were studied in 4 triploid (2n=3x=42) varieties of mulberry. The meiosis of these varieties was irregular and indicated the typical features met within triploids. The average frequency of chromosomal associations observed were 0.06IV+11.97III+1.83II+2.22I, 13.25III+0.75II+0.75I, 12.79III+1.18II+ 1.25I and 0.04IV+11.42III+2.31II+2.94I in FGDTR-9, TR-8, Thailobed and KPG-1 respectively. The high frequency of trivalents suggested autotriploid nature of these varieties. Due to random assortment of loosely paired chromosomes of trivalents and the regular univalents, anaphasic separation was unequal leading to the formation of aberrent pollen grains. These features are discussed in relation to the importance of triploid mulberries in sericulture.
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  • B. Vijayavalli, P. M. Mathew
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 335-338
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Cytology of two species of Hosta such as H. lancifolia (2n=60) and H. ovata (2n=120) and one of Hemerocallis, namely H. fulva (2n=22) is reported. The species of Hosta so far known constitute a polyploid series on x=10, while Hemerocallis is based on x=11 and diploid. The karyotypes of species of Hosta were highly asymmetrical with sharp intrakaryotypic chromosome size difference, and that of Hemerocallis graded and symmetrical with large sized chromosomes. It is contended that the high chromosome numbered taxa of Hosta may have arisen by polyploidy on x=10 accompanied by large scale chromosomal structural alterations, mostly involving differential deletion and elimination of chromosome arms of most of the chromosomes.
    The disputed systematic relationships of Hosta and Hemerocallis are viewed in the light of chromosome data. Both in chromosome number and karyomorphology Hosta appears to be very similar to the Agavaceous genera, and Hemerocallis to Amaryllis type. The separation of Hosta and Hemerocallis from the common tribal fold and treatment of Hemerocallis in a separate monotypic family Hemerocallidaceae proposed by Dahlgren et al. appear to be cytologically justifiable.
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  • R. Vieira, A. Queiroz, W. Viegas
    1990 Volume 55 Issue 2 Pages 339-347
    Published: June 25, 1990
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Treatments of root tips with chelating agents EDTA or EGTA before or after fixation, followed by silver staining, clearly allowed for the visualization in interphase cells of nucleoli containing structures designated as “interphase-NORs”. Results showed that the total number of interphase-NORs per cell was identical to the maximum number of major functional NORs described for each species studied. The parallel morphology of interphase-NORs and metaphase-NORs presented and its more detailed structure can be observed. The nature of the NOR structure during interphase and metaphase is discussed and its unique chromosome architecture is suggested.
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