CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 6 , Issue 4
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Das Verhalten der Spindelfigur und einige ihrer physikalischen Eigenschaften in den somatischen Zellen
    Bungo Wada
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 381-406_4
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Die wichtigsten Ergebnisse meiner Anstichversuche an den Mitosen lebender Staubfadenhaarzellen von Tradescantia reflexa lassen sich wie folgt zusammenfassen.
    1. Bei den Lebendbeobachtungen der angestochenen Staubfadenhaarzellen von Tradescantia ist festgestellt, daß die Spindelsubstanzen in ihrem Ursprung intranuklear sind, und daß beim Sichtbarwerden der Spindelfigur kein Beweis vom Vermischen der Kernsubstanzen mit dem Zytoplasma in der Metaphase erbracht werden kann.
    2. Die Spindelfigur, in welcher die gallertartigen Chromosomen sich befinden, besteht äußerlich aus Polplasmasträngen und einer Plasmaschicht um dieselben, innerlich aus zähflüssigen Spindelfasern und aus flüssiger Zwischensubstanz und gallertartigen Chromosomen.
    3. Infolge der Quellung der Spindel beim Anstiche erweist sich, daß die Spindelsubstanzen sich in an Wasser mangelndem Zustande befinden, und zwar beruht die flüsige Natur der Zwischensubstanz der Spindel auf ihrem wesentlichen Charakter in lebendem Zustande.
    4. Beim Anstiche werden die Spindelsubstanzen teilweise oder als Ganzes, dabei zusammen mit den Chromosomen, durch die Stichöffnung an der Zellwand ins Medium herausgezogen.
    5. Die Verminderung der Fluidität der Spindelsubstanzen ist beim Anstiche erst in der Telophase erkennbar.
    6. Nach dem Anstiche quellen die Spindelsubstanzen an, wobei die angequollene Spindel sich durch die Koagulation, sowie auch durch die Fixierungsmittel zu einer zytoplasma-ähnlichen Struktur verändert.
    7. Die Verschmelzung der beiden Tochterchromosomengruppen zu einem Kern entsteht durch den Anstich bei den angequollenen, deformierten Spindeln in der Meta-und Anaphase.
    Zum Schluß sei es mir gestattet, meinem hochverehrten Lehrer, Herrn Prof. emer. Dr. K. FUJII, der mich mit stetiger Anregung unterstüzte, hier meinen verbindlichsten Dank auszusprechen. Desgleichen spreche ich hiermit der “Tôshôgû Sanbyakunensai Kinenkai”-Stiftung für die finanzielle Unterstützung bei der Durchführung dieser Untersuchungen meinen besten Dank aus.
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  • IV. Ein Fall von einfacher Translokation bei Rumex acetosa L.
    Yukio Yamamoto
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 407-412
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • P. Revutzkaja
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 413-421
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Franz Schrader
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 422-430
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1) The type of mitotic movement as seen in the X of Protenor is radically different in the two spermatocyte divisions, and differs from that of correspondingly long chromosomes of Amphibia.
    2) In the equation division, the entire broadside of the X serves as a base for the half-spindle component.
    3) In the reduction division the X is connected with both poles through a single delicate fibre.
    4) The nature of the interzonal connections in the Gase of long chromosomes is discussed.
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  • II. Transmission of mutations arising in aged seeds: occurrence of “homozygous dislocants” among progeny of plants raised from aged seeds
    Helen Gerassimova
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 431-437
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Hereditary transmission of chromosomal mutations caused by aging of the meristem of embryos was established.
    2. It was demonstrated that transmission occurs both through female and male sex elements (occurrence of homozygous individuals in F1).
    3. The homozygous chromosomal mutants are not less viable and fertile than their chromosomally normal sibs. No “position effect” could be noticed. High sterility in heterozygous translocants demonstrates the importance of dislocation in production of physiological isolations.
    The author is indebted to Dr. M. NAVASHIN for the interest to the present investigation.
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  • A. A. Prokofyeva-Belgovskaya
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 438-443
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • N. Takamine
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 444-456
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. When root-tips of Vicia Faba, L. are exposed to the ultraviolet rays from a quartz mercury lamp the number of nuclear divisions is greater an the side of the ray source than an the opposite side during the first few hours after exposure, the number progressively increasing to the maximum. After reaching it at the end of the second or third hour after exposure, the number begins to decrease below the normal frequency.
    2. A tendency to recover the normal frequency of nuclear divisions becomes recognizable after an elapse of time (a day or two days), if the material has not been exposed for too long.
    3. When an exposure is made of considerable length, no indication of recovery is observed, so far as the present investigations are concerned.
    4. When the material is exposed to the rays of 2535-2537Å, no increase in the number of nuclear divisions is found, but a decrease takes place which is already conspicuous immediately after exposure, although a tendency to recover the normal frequency is recognizable after an elapse of time.
    5. When the material is exposed to the ray of 3655Å for 3 hours, the frequency of nuclear division is above normal for a time, followed by a decrease below normal. This presents a marked contrast to the Gase of irradiation for the same length of time by the rays of 2535-2537Å in which the frequency is lower than normal from the first moment after exposure.
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  • The direction of coiling in Tradescantia reflexa Raf. as related to the mode of crossing-over
    B. R. Nebel, M. L. Ruttle
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 457-464
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Observations in T. reflexa an rod-shaped gemini at first metaphase favor the two-plane theory of crossing-over. Rod-shaped gemini at first metaphase commonly originate from gemini with one interstitial chiasma at diakinesis (diag. 1, figs. 1 and 6). Terminalisation of chiasmata thus commonly occurs after the major coil is established. On the basis of the one-plane theory as the result of this terminalisation of chiasmata in rod-shaped gemini, partial antitropy (diag. 1, fig. 7) should be found to occur frequently but was found rarely.
    On the basis of the two-plane theory as the result of terminalisation without crossing-over partial antitropy (diag. 1, fig. 5) should be found rarely and as the result of terminalisation after crossingover but showing no interstitiat reversal in direction of coiling (the types shown in diag. 1 figs. 2 and 3) should be found frequently, both of which premises accord with the actual observations.
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  • Tamaki Shimamura
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 465-473
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Alle Kerne der Endospermzellen und der Hals und Deckzellen der beiden untersuchten Gymnospermen sind immer FEULGEN-positiv.
    2. Das Retikulum der Sperma und Eikerne, wie auch das des Zentral-, Bauchkanalzell und Verschmelzungskerns verhält sich negativ zur FEULGEN-Reaktion. Bei Cycas zeigt nur eine bestimmte Stelle des Eikerns positive Reaktion.
    3. Die Chromosomen von Ginkgo und Cycas sind in allen Stadien FEULGEN-positiv, der Nukleolus dagegen immer negativ.
    4. Bei Ginkgo ist im Stadium der Spirembildung ein lokalisiertes Auftreten der Thymonukleinsäure in den Kernen des Proembryos zu beobachten, dagegen bleibt der größere Teil des Retikulum ungefärbt.
    5. Bei Ginkgo zeigen die ausgeschiedene mit HEIDENHAINschem Haematoxylin färbbaren Körnchen, bei Cycas das Trophoplasma IKENOS einen negativen Ausfall der FEULGEN-Reaktion.
    An dieser Stelle möchte ich Herrn Prof. eurer. Dr. K. FuJII für seine wertvollen Anregungen und Ratschläge und Herrn Prof. Dr. T. NAKAI, Direktor des Botanischen Instituts, für die Benutzung der Laboratoriumseinrichtungen verbindlichst danken. Herrn Dr. K. IsHII bin ich für das Einsammeln der Cycas-Samen in Kagoshima ebenfalls zu Dank verpflichtet.
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  • II. Die Isolierung der auf das Eizytoplasma auflösend wirkenden Substanzen aus den Spermatozoen
    Jinshin Yamane
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 474-483
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Die vorliegenden Experimente wurden vorgenommen, um die Follikelzelimasse des Kanincheneies zur Dispersion führenden Substanzen aus den Spermatozoen zu isolieren; ferner um die Reaktionsfähigkeit der Eizelle, der Eihülle und der Coronazellen auf diese Substanzen zu prüfen. Die Ergebnisse waren folgende:
    1. Die mit Toluol abgetoteten Spermatozoen können die Follikelzellmasse dispersieren und auf die Corona radiata ablösend wirken ebenso wie die lebhaft bewegenden Spermatozoen. Dies weist schon darauf hin, daß die chemische Wirkung der Spermatozoen hierbei die Hauptrolle spielt.
    2. Die Follikelzellmasse zur Dispersion führenden Substanzen lassen sich mit Tyrodelösung ohne weiteres aus den Spermatozoen extrahieren.
    3. Sie sind im Samenextrakt in so hoher Konzentration enthalten, daß ihre Wirkungen auf das Ei viel stärker zutagetreten als bei der Besamung mit Spermasuspension.
    4. Die Reaktionen des Eies auf diese Substanzen offenbaren sich sehr verschiedentlich: Dispersion des Follikelzellmasse, Ablösung der Coronazellen, Auflösung der Eihülle, lebhafte Zytoplasma und Kernteilung in der unbesamten Eizelle, das Zurücktreten der Eichromosomen von der Peripherie nach dem Zentrum des Zytoplasmas, das Zerfallen des Chromosomenkomplexes usw.
    5. Diese Reaktionen sind jedoch prinzipiell gleich und lassen sich der Auflösung des Zytoplasmas zuröckföhren. Je nach der Stärke des Samenextraktes zeigt die Eizelle bald Zytolyse bald Zytoplasma und Kernteilung.
    6. Die in Frage stehenden Substanzen des Samenextraktes sind beim pH-Wert 7, 7 leistungsfähig, wenigstens 6 Tage lang bei 5°C aufbewahrbar; sie werden jedoch durch Kaolin gewissermaßen adsorbiert und durch das Kochen vollständig inaktiviert.
    7. Diese Eigenschaften deuten darauf an, daß sie Tryptasen sein müssen, was aber auf chemischem Wege noch prufungsbedürftig ist.
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  • K. Yasui
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 484-491
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. Eight diploid and one autotriploid species of Hosta were studied cytologically. The formula of the haploid chromosomes in this genus may be given as 4L+Il+1M+3m+13S+8s. This constitution shows great deviation from those of Hemerocallis not only in the chromosome number but also in their sizes, so the writer is of the opinion that the genus, as far as chromosome types are concerned, is to be separated from Hemerocallineae.
    2. H. clausa is an autotriploid species. The irregular behaviour of the chromosomes in the meiosis in PMC is the cause of pollen sterility. Beside this the degeneration of PMC in the early meiotic phases, the degeneration of the embryo-sac, the non-opening of the corolla caused by the sistution of the growth of the corolla just before the opening stage, all tend to the entire sterility of this species. The cytological derivation of these characters as well as of the species itself is not yet known.
    The expence for the carrying out this study was partly defrayed out of a grant from the Department of Education, to which the writer wishes to express her thanks. To Einer. Prof. K. Fuari her hearty thanks are due for his kind advices. The writer is also deeply indebted to Prof. T. NAKAI who gave her the interesting material of H. clausa collected by him. Her thanks are also due to Mr. T. TERASAKI who gave her some material for the present study.
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  • Morphology of the spermatozoid in Chara and Nitella with special reference to the strcuture of the motile apparatus
    Masato Sasaki
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 492-495
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • I. A trisomic plant
    Fumi Takagi
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 496-501
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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  • Hideo Matsuda
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 502-522
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    1. The tetraploid plant of giant variety of Petunia was selfed. Among 31 plants of the F1 progeny 29 were tetraploid, one 4n-1 and one 4n-3. No significant morphological differences were noticed among them.
    2. The tetraploid plants of the giant variety and the diploid plants of small variety were crossed reciprocally. Among the populations of F1 progenies two gave a high percent of triploids besides each one plant of heteroploids and a diploid. The third gave no triploid but respectively one plant of 2n, 3n+2 and 4n. Among these three diploid plants, one was completely different from both the parents, while the other two were complete replicas of the diploid parent. The triploid plants showed approximately intermediate characters more or less tending toward the tetraploid parent.
    3. The triploid progeny was cytologically studied. In the heterotypic metaphase 7 sets of trivalent were not infrequentiy found. Almost all the trivalent configurations possible in auto-triploids were observed excepting one. Besides these the ring of three or triangle, and the multivalents were sometimes met with. These may be interpreted by the segmental interchange hypothesis.
    4. The 2n×4n crossing gave only the diploid progeny in one Gase. These progeny exhibited exactly the same characters morphologically as well as physiologically as the diploid parent. Another mating resulted in three tetraploids and one 4n-1 plant.
    5. The triploid hybrids selfed gave 26, 27, 28 and 29 chromosome plants in the F, progeny among which 27 chromosome plants were of the highest fequency. The majority of these progenies had one or two fragments of chromosomes. A trabant derived from the diploid ancestor is identified at one end of one of the chromosomes.
    6. The triploid hybrid was back crossed to the diploid parent. Three plants were obtained with the somatic number respectively of 19, 20 and 21. This shows that the gametes of the triploid with the chromosome numbers of 12, 13 and 14 function.
    7. The tetraploid-triploid crossings gave the F1 progenies of 24, 26, 27, 28 and 29 chromosomes with respective frequencies of 1, 6, 17 and 29.
    8. The reciprocals of the above crossings gave one 29 chromosome plant and twenty 28 chromosome plants.
    9. The appearance of diploid progenies in the crossings between 2n and 4n plants may be explained by the diploid parthenogenesis.
    10. As to the appearance of diploid progenies in 4n×2n crossings, two different Gases must be distinguished: (1) diploid parthenogenesis and (2) merogony. Both of these are supposed to occur.
    11. The occurrence of tetraploid plants among the F1 progeny of 4n×2n crossings probably was induced by the fertilization of an egg nucleus by a generative nucleus with double number of chromosomes.
    12. The tetraploid and triploid plants of Petunia must be autotetraploid and auto-triploid.
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  • G. Yamaha
    1935 Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 523-526
    Published: December 30, 1935
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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