CYTOLOGIA
Online ISSN : 1348-7019
Print ISSN : 0011-4545
Volume 54 , Issue 1
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
  • S. K. Bhatnagar
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 1-3
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Present paper deals with the cytological studies of monoecious and dioecious forms belonging to three Charophyte genera viz. Chara, Nitella and Tolypella. The taxonomic validity of sexual dimorphism has been discussed refuting the generalization of Wood and Imahori (1965).
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  • R. S. Parihar, S. N. Zadoo
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 5-12
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Interchange complex involving full complement of chromosomes was induced in Sesbania aculeata Poir. through gamma irradiation. The association of twelve chromosomes was realized in 11.1 per cent cells in M3 generation and rest of the cells were characterized by break up of the complex into smaller units of different sizes and shapes. Low frequency of complete association, together with interstitial chiasma formation and lower terminalization coefficient of interchange heterozygotes indicated the small size of interchange segments.
    Predominant non-disjunctional orientation, unequal disjunction and break up of large complex into small units led to high percentage of inviable gametes as indicated by low pollen stainability.
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  • N. K. Dwivedi, N. Suryanarayana, A. K. Sikdar, B. N. Susheelamma, M. S ...
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 13-19
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Triploids were successfully evolved in mulberry by diploidizing female gamete cells of Morus alba var. Kanva-2 with 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% colchicine treated for 8 hours for consecutive 3 days and by crossing them with monoecious diploid mutant. The triploids are characterized by increased growth and rooting habit; weight, size and water content of leaves, size of stomata and number of stomatal chloroplast and reduction in frequency of stomata per unit area and internodal distance have been recorded. Meiosis is highly irregular and characterized by the presence of a high frequency of trivalents and univalents. Various types of chromosomal associations, presence of tetravalents, unequal distribution and precocious movements of chromosomes, laggards, bridges at metaphase I and II, cytomixis at metaphase I and II, telophase I and II, dyads and tetrads stages and varying number of microspores have been frequently observed in the PMCs. The reduced pollen fertility has been attributed to various meiotic anomalies. Maintenance and commerical exploitation of triploids with desirable characters on large scale is feasible by vegetative multiplication.
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  • M. Z. Beg, A. H. Khan
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 21-26
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
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  • Golam Kabir, Rishi Muni Singh
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 27-32
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Interphase nuclear organization was studied in six species of Cicer and all the species showed chromocentric nuclear organization in both meristematic and differentiated cells instead of reticulate organization. The number of chromocentres and treatment duration with acid or alkali were found to be species specific character. Percentage heterochromatin values determined by two different techniques were somewhat high in meristematic cells than those in differentiated cells. On the basis of heterochromatin values both in meristematic and differentiated cells C. reticulaturn can be considered as primitive of the six Cicer species. Nuclear organization was found to be governed by small size of chromosomes and low DNA content, but the relationship between heterochromatin values and DNA content was not clear.
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  • K. Mishra, S. S. Raghuvanshi
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 33-36
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Gamma irradiation is one of the most important physical mutagens which is used for cytogenetic effects. The cytogenetic changes occurring due to the storages of Trigonella foenum graecum seeds (2n and 4n) after gamma irradiation were investigated. This treatment accelerated the mitosis and decreased chromosomal aberrations in 2n as well as in 4n. Chromosomal changes produced comprised of fragments and stray in metaphase cell, laggards, fragments and bridges in anaphase. Appearance of higher frequency of aberrations per cell in tetraploid indicated that tetraploids were more sensitive to gamma irradiation rather than diploid. This study also reveals that storage of seeds after gamma irradiation may lead to genetic repairing.
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  • Marjorie P. Maguire
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 37-43
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Observations and measurements of maize sporogenous cell nuclei during premeiotic mitotic division cycles in fixed, sectioned and stained material suggest that a striking compression of the nucleus occurs, especially during early prophase of late (probably the last) premeiotic division. It is reasoned such a process could promote relocations of chromosome arms relative to each other prior to meiosis and facilitate strategic meeting or positioning of pairing partners, possibly in conjunction with membrane system or other anchoring of specialized regions.
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  • F. Ahmad, G. J. Scoles
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 45-50
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Early seed development was studied in wheat×rye crosses, in which irradiated (0-50 Gy) rye pollen was used for pollination. The number of cells and nuclei in the embryos and endosperms were scored daily for 6 and 3 days after pollination (DAP), respectively. Embryo and endosperm growth rates in the 2 Gy treatment were similar to the control (no irradiation). In other treatments, pollen irradiation greatly reduced the growth rates in both the tissues. The 2 Gy and control ovules had 7 to 10 times more embryo cells and 2 to 3 times more endosperm nuclei than the other treatments at 6 and 3 DAP, respectively. Several abnormalities were observed in the developing ovules of pistils pollinated with irradiated pollen. Degeneration of the endosperm began 3 DAP in the 5 Gy and higher radiation treatments but later in the 2 Gy treatment. Embryo abortion also occurred at a later stage in the 2 Gy treatment than in the higher radiation treatments. These studies indicate that gamma radiation doses beyond 2 Gy are quite deleterious to the developing ovule and in most cases the embryo sac succumbs to higher radiation treatments.
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  • G. C. Bairiganjan, S. N. Patnaik
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 51-64
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    With a view to collect the germplasms of the pulses and their allies a survey of Fabaceous plants from Orissa state (India) was undertaken. Through a period of four years (1980-84) 152 species belonging to 60 genera were collected of which 118 species belonging to 57 genera were cytologically studied. While in majority of the species, earlier findings were confirmed, chromosome numbers in 16 species, 1 subspecies and 1 variety are recorded here for the first time and different chromosome numbers than those reported earlier are recorded for six species. In all the genera studied the basic chromosome numbers were found to range from x=6 to x=11 and maximum number of genera were found to possess x=11 with larger number of species at the diploid level. Karyotypic analysis in respect of 95 taxa belonging to 44 genera could be carried out during the present investigation. On the basis of a review of number of genera under different basic chromosome numbers, chromosomal evolution in the family has been envisaged.
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  • B. Vijayavalli, P. M. Mathew
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 65-72
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Detailed karyomorphology of four diploid species of Smilax such as S. aspera (2n=32), S. bracteata (2n=32), S. wightii (2n=32), S. zeylanica (2n=32) and of three polyploid cytotypes of S. ovalifolia (2n=64, 96, 128) from South India has been studied.
    All the species are based on x=16. Their chromosomes are small sized, and karyotypes strinkingly asymmetrical (3B and with low TF% values). The diploid species are similar in gross karyomorphology; but in finer details recognisable difference is evident in a few chromosomes. In S. aspera, one chromosome (No. 7) is heteromorphic in male plants.
    Systematic relationships of the genus Smilax is viewed in the light of chromsome data. The chromosome features lend support to the removal of the genus from the Liliaceous assemblage, and to the creation of a separate family (Smilacaceae) around it. The proposed affinity between Smilacaceae and Dioscoreaceae is favoured.
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  • Z. Vishnuvardhan, N. Lakshmi
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 73-78
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two distinct ecotypes, pink and white have been recognised in P. pedicellatum. They differed from one another in ear shape, colour, number of involucels per panicle and bristles per involucels. Cytological studies revealed the existence of hexaploid chromosome number 2n=54 in some and chromosome numerical mosaicism in others. It is concluded that this is a dynamic and rapidly evolving species showing differentiation of new ecotypes. The genetic mechanisms underlying this diversification are polyploidy, meiotic instability and co-existance of apomixis along with amphimixis.
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  • P. G. Karmakar, Majibar R. Biswas, S. Dana
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 79-82
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Allotetraploids of Vigna mungo×V. umbellata species cross had 81.2% pollen fertility and produced many viable seeds. The average chromosome association per cell at diakinesis and at MI in them were respectively 0.08IV+21.53II+0.60I and 0.11IV+21.62II+0.30I. Fertility improvement in this allotetraploid was due to more regular meiosis. Preferential pairing in the allotetraploid was evident from the low frequency of quadrivalent formation.
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  • Richard E. Crang, Thomas E. Jensen, Barbara B. Doonan
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 83-90
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Electron microscopic observations of mitotically-dividing blastospores of the imperfect fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans have revealed a variety of polyphosphate inclusion bodies in association with chromatin at varying stages of nuclear mitotic division. The bodies varied in size up to a diameter of nearly 0.5μm. Only occasional observations of polyphosphate bodies were otherwise made. When found, they were in the vacuolar system included in small cytoplasmic pockets.
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  • S. S. Raghuvanshi, Renu Kesarwani
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 91-95
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The experiment was set up to resolve the controversy about uniform retention of B chromosomes at various ploidy levels. This paper presents the ploidy response of B chromosome in root meristem of Butea monosperma-a tree, growing around Lucknow. The root tips had euchromatic distinguishable 1B chromosome which showed different behaviour at different ploidy levels. On treatment with 0.2% aqueous colchicine different levels of ploidy were observed. Tetraploids and mixoploids showed 2B chromosomes instead of 1B chromosome as in diploid i.e. B chromosome divides along with A chromosome showing behaviour similar to A chromosome. But in few tetraploids, mixoploid cells and one octaploid cell undivided 1B chromosome like diploids was observed.
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  • Oli Sen, Sima Bhattacharya, Sunirmal Chanda
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 97-108
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Somatic and meiotic study in the different taxa of Phaseolus and Vigna shows the chromosome number to be 2n=22 and n=11 respectively. The size of somatic chromosome ranges from 15.81μm to 25.43 4μm. TF% value in some of the taxa studied is between 35% and 41% with asymmetrical karyotype, whereas in the other taxa it ranges between 42% to 48% with symmetrical karyotype. S% ranges from 36.36% to 66.66%. Meiotic study shows regular formation of eleven bivalents. Variation in meiotic chromosome number have been noted in some of taxa ranging from n=7 to n=12. Laggards and late separating chromosomes are some of the meiotic irregularities observed.
    Pollen morphology study in the different taxa show the pollen grains to be oblate radiosymmetric and isopolar. All the species of the two genera showed reticulate surface ornamentation except for P. vulgaris surface appeared to be finely rugulate.
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  • S. Ignacimuthu, N. Sakthivel
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 109-114
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The effect of ethylmethane sulphonate and gamma rays has been studied in Vigna radiata cv. PS 16. The seeds were treated with 0.05%, 0.1% 0.15% and 0.2% and 5.KR, 10 KR, 15 KR and 20 KR. Chromosomal aberrations such as univalents, trivalents, multivalents, nonorientation of chromosome, clumping, laggards and micronuclei were observed at various dose treatments. Pollen fertility decreased with increase in dose of mutagens. There was a positive and significant correlation between chromosomal abnormality and pollen sterility.
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  • II. Genesis of bivalent pairing in tetraploids
    Foja Singh
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 115-120
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Both natural and induced tetraploid Petunia hybrida form bivalents at M1. The genesis of bivalent pairing and presence of a mutivalent suppressor system has been discussed.
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  • Minati Mohanty, S. N. Patnaik
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 121-128
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Crosses between Atylosia cajanifolia and two cultivars of Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) became successful only when the former was used as the male parent. These yielded a number of F1 plants whose hybridity could be established through detailed cytomorphological analysis. The hybrids showed intermediate characters between the two parents with predominance of A. cajanifolia in those of flower, pod and seed. Chromosomal analysis of the hybrids showed evidence of heteromorphism and cryptic structural alterations in certain bivalents that might one have been responsible for the evolution of the cultivated pigeonpea from its wild relatives.
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  • Anath Bandhu Das, Ranajit Mallick
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 129-134
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Karyotype analysis of three varieties of Indian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) revealed that minute structural alteration of chromosomes associated with variation of 4C DNA content, genomic chromosome length and genomic chromosome volume has played an important role in establishment of new cultivated varieties.
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  • II. Chromosomal stability in sporophytes and gametophytes regenerated
    Masahiro Takei
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 135-144
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    1. Cytogenetic characteristics were investigated in the leaf calli and the regenerated plants, i.e., whole sporophytes and cordate gametophytes from these calli, of the fern Lepisorus thunbergianus.
    2. No chromosomal abnormality was found to occur in the young leaf tips used as explants for the present tissue clutures. The karyomorphological features of these explants were identical with those of the native sporophytes of L. thunbergianus (diploid, 2n=50) in the previous report by Takei (1982b).
    3. In the calli induced from the diploid explants (2n=50), two different chromosome numbers were observed as follows: 2n=50 and 2n=100. The former chromosome number was observed in about 85% of the callus cells, i.e., all the aggregated green cells and many of the large-sized globular cells, and the latter one was observed only in some of the large-sized globular callus cells.
    4. The uniform chromosome numbers, 2n=50, were observed in cells of the whole sporophytes regenerated from the leaf calli showing a low variability in chromosome number. These sporophytes were also found to show a stability in karyotypic feature, for example, arm-ratio, chromosome length and staining density of chromatin. These features were identical with those of the leaf tips used as explants.
    5. The regenerated cordate gametophytes were found to be karyomorphologically and microspectrophotometrically uniform. The chromosome numbers and the microspectrophotometrical values of the nuclear DNA showed that these gametophytes were the same diploid (n=50) as the regenerated sporophytes or as the leaf tips used as explants. In addition to this, these gametophytes were observed to possess identical characteristics in arm-ratio, length, staining density, etc. of the metaphase chromosomes with those of the regenerated sporophytes or of the explants.
    6. All the cytological results of the present investigrations indicate that the chromosomal stability was maintained throughout the process of the regeneration of the new plants (i.e., whole sporophytes and cordate gametophytes) from the calli originating in young leaf tissues of L. thunbergianus (diploid, 2n=50).
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  • I. Induced by Safrole
    Ajay K. Jain
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 145-148
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    Safrole, a naturally occurring substance in spices, was screened for its genotoxic potentialities in V79 cell line system. It showed weak mutagenic and SCE's enhancing effects. However, the magnitude of aberrant metephases was considerably high. Chromosomal abnormalities were: gap, break, exchange figures, dicentric chromosome types. The possible genetic hazards have been discussed.
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  • II. Induced by ICR-170
    Ajay K. Jain
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 149-152
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    ICR-170(2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(ethyl-2-2 chloro ethyl)-aminopropyl amino) acridine 2HCl)-a synthetic antitumor drug was assayed for HGPRT gene locus mutation, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in V79 cells system. The tested concentrations (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0μg/ml) showed dose dependent effect. Chromosomal abnormalities were gap, break, fragment, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome, exchange figures and endoreduplication. The present study suggests that ICR-170 is strong mutagenic, chromotoxic and supposed to be potentially carcinogenic compound.
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  • III. Concluding remarks
    Ajay K. Jain
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 153-157
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The widely accepted assays (HGPRT gene locus mutation, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) for the evaluation of genotoxicity of environmental chemicals in mammalian cell systems, were comparatively studied due to Safrole and ICR-170 treatments to know the interrelationship between them. The correlation co-efficient between mutation frequency-chromosomal aberrations and mutation frequency-SCE's due to Safrole was insignificant contrary to ICR-170 treatment. Thus it is deduced that the correlation between these biological end points may be positive or negative depending upon the natare of physical or chemical agents.
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  • S. Ignacimuthu, C. R. Babu
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 159-167
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Seeds of Vigna sublobata (wild), V. radiata cv. PS 16 and V. mungo cv. T 9 (both cultivars) were used for the induction of mutations with EMS and gamma rays. Four dose treatments of each of these mutagens (EMS: 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4%; gamma rays: 10 KR, 20 KR, 30 KR and 40 KR; EMS+gamma rays: 0.1%+10 KR, 0.2%+20 KR, 0.3%+30 KR and 0.4%+40 KR) were employed. In M1 and M2 generations of all the three species, there is a dose dependent increase in the frequencies of different kinds of meiotic chromosomal abnormalites. The presence of univalents, trivalents and multivalents suggests that mutagenesis did result in point mutations or deletions, inversions and translocations. The spectrum and frequencies of different kinds of chromosomal abnormalities extend support to the exchange hypothesis. There is a dose dependnt increase in the percent pollen sterility; the ‘r’ value between chromosomal abnormality and pollen sterility is positive and highly significant.
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  • J. Christopher, L. S. Mini, T. Nagendra Pillai
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 169-172
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
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    C. aquatica could be clearly distinguished on the basis of habit, by the presence of glands which bear bristle-like hairs in the upper surface of the levaes and leaf-sheaths and the involucre which is abruptly constricted into a beak. Its chromosome number is found to be n=20 and 2n=40 which is a new count for this species. Meiosis is normal and this is a highly stabilized species which propagates by seeds as well as by suckers. Karyotype study shows close affinity between this species and the cosmopolitan C. lacryma-jobi.
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  • Ruma Pal, Probir Chatterjee
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 173-178
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Two species of Chara viz., C. zeylanica and C. corallina were treated with CuSO4 and Diurone [3-(3, 4-dichloropheny)1)-1, 1-dimethyl urea] at a concentration range of 0.1 to 0.25% and 10 to 100 ppm respectively. The cytological changes of antheridial filamentous cells of Chara were noted due to the chemical treatment and are analysed.
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  • Sandip Mukhopadhyay, Nirmalya Banerjee
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 179-182
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A cytological analysis was carried out on Solanum sarrachoides Sendt. The chromosome number was found to be n=12 and 2n=24. The karyotype analysis revealed graded karyotype with chromosomes of medium to short in length. The length and volume of each chromosome differed. Genetically controlled differential coiling and uncoiling along with the DNA and protein content in the determination of chromosome length and volume was suggested.
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  • S. K. Bhatnagar, Abha Verma, V. K. Singh
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 183-189
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Mutagenicity of 1-Triacontanol was tested on Tolypella prolifera. On the basis of induced chromosomal and nuclear aberrations, mitotic index and the percentage of aberrated cells, mutagenic activities of Triacontanol were assessed. Application of Triacontanol in charophyte taxa has been recommended for chromosome analysis in place of polyploid inducing colchicine.
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  • John F. Herath, S. M. Jalal, Michael J. Ebertz, J. T. Martsolf
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 191-195
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The organophosphorus insecticide malathion is extensively used in commercial and agricultural control of insects. The potential of the compound as a genotoxic agent was determined on the basis of chromosome damage and rates of sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocyte culture. Four treatments (5, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml), a solvent control and an untreated control were used in three replications for 4-hr and 24-hr exposures to assess the damage to chromosomes. Three treatments (5, 20 and 50μg/ml) and the solvent control, in one replication, were used to determine the rates of sister chromatid exchanges. A trend of higher rates of chromosomal aberrations was observed reaching statistical significance generally at the higher concentrations. The sister chromatid exchange rates were highly significantly elevated at 20μg/ml or higher concentration. Malathion therefore should be viewed as a potentially genotoxic agent, particularly for those who comein contact with the compound repeatedly.
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  • P. K. Sharma, Rakesh Bhargava, A. K. Koul
    1989 Volume 54 Issue 1 Pages 197-202
    Published: March 25, 1989
    Released: March 19, 2009
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The paper contains observations on the foliar flavonoid profiles of di-, tri and tetrasomic individuals of Plantago lagopus L. The results indicate that the presence of additional chromosome 4 induces qualitative as well as quantitative changes in flavonoids. The possible reasons for such changes have been discussed.
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