Relationships between Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Geoparks are examined. Geoparks have a marked affinity for ESD because education and sustainable development are highlighted in geopark concepts, and both have strong associations with UNESCO. However, there are few papers on relationships between ESD and education on geoparks, and few schools within geoparks are members of the UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet). Therefore, two methods are applied to examine the possibilities for society of multiplying ESD and geoparks. Firstly, cases of geoparks are considered in relation to the content of the Global Action Programme (GAP) on ESD. GAP is intended to make substantial contributions to the post-2015 agenda, and follow up the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005–2014). From the Priority Action Areas of GAP, many areas related to organizational operations are found that can be improved. Examples include increasing member schools of the ASPnet in geoparks as hubs for practicing ESD, and setting out policies and agendas to integrate ESD into the various processes and structures of geopark stakeholders. Regarding academic content, great emphasis is placed on building a sustainable society in Japan's national curriculum standard, making geoparks important, as well as highlighting international cooperation, providing young people with participatory skills, and other issues. Secondly, the academic content related to geoparks is examined from the viewpoints of the Earth Sciences and community development. In the former, the first stage involves the nature of familiar territory, and the second stage involves understanding the mechanism of the Earth's activities. In the latter, the first stage involves relationships between our lives and nature, and the second stage involves developing social skills for reaching understandings with other stakeholders. In addition, the third stage involves encouraging global understanding and international cooperation through geopark activities. Consequently, geoparks could inspire learners to achieve a sustainable society if organizational operations are transformed and academic content related to the Earth Sciences and community development is maximized.