We observed 11 patients who stayed in the Yamada Red Cross Hospital from June 1949 to December 1949, and measured their plasma protein fractions by electrophoreses. At the sametime, we examined dextrose double examination (Hagedorn-Yensen), serum N-P-N, serum-Cl (Koranyi-Ruszniak), serum-Ca (Krammer-Tisdall), sedimentation rate of red blood cells (Westergren), plasma bilirubin (Meulengracht), serum-Co (Inoue) and serum-Cd (Fujita-Iwano). Conclusion 1) In biliary liver cirrhosis total plasma protein and albumin decreased (43.5-43 per cent), and especially after every ascites puncture. Alpha-globulin decreased. The increase of beta-globulin was not always proportional to the quantity of plasma bilirubin. Gamma-globulin increased (22.7 per cent). Both died after leaving the hospital. 2) In biliary liver cirrhosis and subacute hepatatrophia albumin decreased and the increase of beta-globulin was not alway proportional to the quantity of plasma bilirubin. In subacute hepatatrophia gamma-globulin increases (35.5 per cent). 3) Obstructive jaundice (2 cases) The one died from insufficiency of liver function, the other completely cured. Albumin decreased (34.5-42.4 per cent). 4) Simple jaundice (3 cases) All patients were completely cured. In all cases. serum protein did not decreased, but on the contrary, it increased in one of them. In all cases, albumin decreased at first, but after leaving the hospital, a normal conditions was regained. The increase of beta-globulin was almost proportional to the quantity of poasma bilirubin. 5) Dextrose double examination. Fatal cases (3 cases; Staub (-), 2 cases; Staub (+)). Others; Staub (+). 6) Serum N-P-N. In subacute hepatatrophia, the value increased (93.2mg/100cc), in all others, normal. 7) Serum Cl, normal. 8) Serum Ca, normal.
1) With a view to making clear the difference between immunisations with living and dead bacteria, we studied experimental typhoid fever of rabbits, especially on agglutination, onset-inhibiting power and alteration of serum protein in electrophoretic analysis. 2) Dividing rabbits into two groups we vaccinated the first group with weak living S. cholerae suis (R type P 32 strain) and the second group with dead S-type bacteria. After vaccinating them, we inoculated both groups with the strong “Hokkaido-Strain”. The second group died though they showed strong agglutination. Those in the first group all remained alive, though agglutination was negative. 3) Total serum, protein increased in all cases except one. γ-Globulin showed the most remakable increase, namely two or three fold. We were not able to recognize quantitative difference in γ-globulin between these two groups. However, the shape of the peak showed a difference. In the first group the shape of the peak of γ-globulin is larger on the side of larger mobility, than on the side of a smaller mobility. The conditions in those of the second group are completely reverse. 4) It was supposed that there were some relations among the shape of the γ-globulin-peak, agglutination and general immunisation.
We studied the plasma protein fraction of healthy men and of patients of pulmonary tuberculosis by means of Tiselius' apparatus. We admihistered tibione for 1-4 months to the patients of pulmonary tuberculosis, and observed the change of plasma protein fraction, with various clinical investigations. The results are as follows; The total protein, albumin and albumin-globulin quotient decreased, but γ-globulin and fibrinogen increased more in the plasma protein fraction of the cases of pulmonary tuberculosis than in those of healthy men. When tibione gave effective results, pathological change of plasma protein fractions had a tendency to return to healthy conditions.
Davis, et al., describing the Wassermann antibody, said that it has a rather broad range of mobility with its center between beta- and gamma-globulin, although, no separate peak is there. The present report also discussed the mutual relationship between serum protein fractions and antibodies in Wassermann, Meinicke and Murata tests. Experimental Electrophoretic analysis and fractionation were carried out with the Tiselius' apparatus using Schlieren-diagonal method. Pooled syphilitic human sera were dialyzed, before electrophoresis, against 1/20M phosphate buffer of pH 8.0. Electrophoresis was carried out until the components. were distributed throughout the length of the cell, and then compensated so that the ascending albumin peak and alpha-globulin peak might be situated respectively above and below the flange plates between the upper and lower compartments. The compartments were then seprated by sliding over the plates, and albumin separated above the plates was taken out with along pipette. Repeating the same process, fractions were also prepared. Serologic actiivities of these fractions were determined by Wassermann, Meinicke and Murata tests. Concentrations of serum proteins in syphilitic serum were estimated on electrophoretic patterns, then compared with those of normal serum. Results and Discussion Results in Wassermann, Meinicke and Murata tests, are shown in Tables 1-3, and the relationship between these tests and the degree of serum dilution is shown in Table 4. Most of the fractions containing gamma-globulin indicate positive reaction in these tests. Therefore, it is considered that the antibodies in serologic tests for syphilis are contained in gamma-globulin. Even though beta-globulin may contin Wassermann antibody as Davis, et al described, since beta-globulin concentration in fraction is not high, the fraction may not indicate positive reaction. Table 5 shows that in sypholitic sera, an increase of gamma-globuling occurs, with some decreasee of albumin, and almost no quantitative change in alpha- or beta-globulins. It is observed that gamma-globulin increases remarkably, but the amount of beta-globulin does not change perceptibly. Therefore, even though beta-globulin may contain antibody, its amount is cosidered to be very small in comparison with that in gamma-globulin. 1) Wassermann antibody is chiefly contained in gamma-globulin. 2) The antibodies in Meinicke and Murata tests are closely related to Wassermann antibody, and are also chiefly contained in gamma-globulin. 3) In syphilitic sera are found an increase of gamma-globulin, some decrease of albumin, and almost no quantitative change of alpha- and beta-globulins.
We designed the “Serogram” as a method to express the serum protein components. Since the previous year, we have been observing the variation of serum protein components by “Serogram” in the cases of tuberculosis treated with chemotherapeutic agents or by surgical means. The serogram of some diseases, such as carcinoma, nephrosis, kala-azar, etc., was found to show very specific figures, so that we assumed that serogram will be valuable as a method, of differentiating some diseases, and in expressing the condition of serum proteins easily.
The electrophoretic patterns of egg white under the condition of pH 7.8, 0.15μ (phosphate buffer) were obttined by employing the Tiselius apparatus with a cylindrical-lens system constructed by the author. The eleven components, except ovomucin, were reported and discussed by referring to the previous reports. The electrophoretic composition was computed from the patterns and compared with the results of Longsworth, et al. (1940), Bain, et al (1947), Forsyth, et al (1950), and Sørensen (1933-35). There was almost no difference between the three separate layers of egg white. Next, each process of the fractionation of egg white be sodium sulfate according to Kekwick and Cannan was traced electrophoretically. When sodium sulfate was added to egg white to half saturation, a precipitate containing mucin and globulins separated out. It was found electrophoretically, that this precipitate contained an especially large amount of G2-globulin, but a small amount of each globulin remained in the filtrate, Then, almost all of ovalbumin, with a small amount of conalbumin and ovomucoid, was precipitated by the saturation of sodium sulfate. A small amount of each globulin was also precipitated together. When this precipitate was dissolved into distilled watet, the remaining globulins were removed, and ovalbumin was recrystallized by the addition of sodium sulfate. The initially recrystallized albumin was almost pure, electrophoretically. When three recrystallization were repeated, aquite pure ovalbumin was obtained as needle crystals (20-30μ).
To calrify the presence of a relationship between erythrocyte sedimentation rate and plasma proteins in pulumonary tuberculosis, determination of plasma protein fraction of 75 patients was carried out by the electrophoretic method, extending to a total of 153 times. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Erythrocyte sedimentation rates are significantly correlative with albumin, total globulin, fibrinogen and γ-globulin, and are not correlative with total plasma protein. 2) α-Globulin and β-globulin are not correlative with erythrocyte sedimentation rates, but they are significantly correlative with common logarithm of erythrocyte sedimentation rates. 3) It is presumed that erythrocyte sedimentation rates are determined by the combination of relative plasma protein fractions.