Food Hygiene and Safety Science (Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi)
Online ISSN : 1882-1006
Print ISSN : 0015-6426
ISSN-L : 0015-6426
Volume 3 , Issue 4
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • Masamichi TOYOMIZU, Yukio TOMIYASU
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 323-333
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Influences of Hexammine-Cobalt Chloride on Protein Waves of Water Extracts from Aquatic Animals
    Tetsujiro OBARA, Yasokichi OGASAWARA
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 334-343
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In previous reports we have examined influences of CoCl2 on the protein waves obtained from water extracts of aquatic animal meats of 85 species. The results of the above experiments have shown that as there is a characteristic change in the protein waves of many species, the polarography may be useful in the practical inspection of foods. However, there are many species which can not be distinguished from one another. Therefore, other new methods for the determination of the protein waves must be devised.
    In the present experiment we have examined influences of hexammine-cobalt chloride, Co (NH3) 6Cl3, on the protein waves obtained from water extracts of the meats in aquatic animals of 30 species under the same conditions as in a previous experiment. The result of the above experiment is as follows:
    When the protein waves of the aquatic animals of 30 species were estimated in the buffer solutions containing hexammine-cobalt chloride, their waves did not belong to group I and group II, but belong to group III or group IV. And their waves gave monotonous shapes.
    In the case of every height curve and crossing point of their protein waves estimated in the buffer solutions with hexammine-cobalt chloride, there was a tendency that they were analogous to one another. Consequently, there were many species which could not be distinguished from one another.
    As everybody knows, cystine and cysteine produce a pronounced single catalytic wave in an ammonia buffer containing divalent cobalt, but not in a buffer containing trivalent cobalt. Therefore, when the protein waves in the crude samples containing free sulfhydryl groups are determined, it is more desirable to use hexammine-cobalt chloride.
    We greatly hope that various new and suitable methods for the estimation of the protein waves in the hexammine-cobalt chloride solutions may be devised and applied in the practical inspection of foods.
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  • Gendo OMORI, Moriyoshi IWAO, Teruhiko KISHI
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 343-346
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Of 426 cases of food poisoning occurred in Osaka city during the year 1957-1961, 21 cases (4.9%), affecting 720 persons, were due to Salmonellae. They comprised 3 cases due to S. typhimurium, 11 cases due to S. enteritidis, 3 cases due to S. thompson, 2 cases due to S. give, 1 case due to S. senftenberg, and 1 case of mixed infection with S. enteritidis and S. thompson.
    The frequency distribution of these Salmonella types varied during the five year study, showing a predominance of thompson, give, and senftenberg types of a chicken source with a marked diminution of enteritidis and typhimurium types of a rodent source in the latter half of the period.
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  • Hiroshi TSUNODA
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 347-351
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The cultivation method of the mold strain described in the title and the results of its toxicological examinations are presented.
    The Cultivation Method Observed: Each culture flask of 300ml in volume is filled with hulled rice immersed in tap water to two third of its volume after remaining water was thoroughly removed. The hulled rice as culture medium iss terilized in the cotton-stopered flasks for 15 minutes at 101b/inin2. Subsequently, the mold seed is inoculated and the flasks are kept in an incubator at 30°C for 5 days and as a result of this procedure mold vigorously grows. The flasks are kept for further 14 days in a chamber maintained at 20°C to 23°C. The yellowed rice obtained is dried at 55°C to 60°C and ground.
    Toxicological Testings of the Yellowed Rice: The diet containing the yellowed rice flour at the rate of 50 to 10% were subjected to the animal examination using mice fed with the test diet per os ad libitum.
    Observation Results of Survival Lengtk of the Test Animals and Further Histological Study: The diet containing the yellowed rice flour at 50%, killed the test animals within 25 days and 25% diet within one month. About two third of all the test animals fed with 10% diet were observed to die within 300 days, the rests still surviving even after 400 days. Pathological findings regarding the test animals above described are as follows: In acute cases, fatty degeneration of the liver and round cell infiltration at periportal spaces in the slight degree were observed. Pleomorthism of the nuclei, without necrotic foci, was showed. In chronical cases, the round cell infiltration of periportal spaces was found to be remarkable and subsequently the infiltration was observed to extend to the central part of the liver. Swelling, hyperplasia of the liver cells and remarkable pleomorthism of the nuclei as well as hyperplasia of intrahepatic bile canaliculi were observed.
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  • On the Metabolism of Naphthol Yellow S in Rabbit (1)
    Iwao KAWASHIRO, Takeo TAMURA, Ritsuko YAMAZOE
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 352-355
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    1. Through our research into the metabolism in rabbit of Naphthol Yellow S (NYS), it was clarified that NYS was excreted as the unchanged one without forming glucuronide or sulfate.
    2. About 10% and 50-70% of the amount of NYS administered to the test animals per os and through the subcutaneous injection respectively were excreted as unchanged NYS. In both cases most of them were found in the test animal's urine obtained within the first 24hrs. After the administration and scanty in the one within the second 24hrs. The concentration in the test animal's blood of NYS amounted to its highest level in 2hrs. after the administration per os and in 30min. after the subcutaneous method, then it decreased to the normal level of its concentration showed before the administrations. In the liver, kidney and other internal organs of the test animals which had completely discharged NYS no residue of deposited or remained NYS was discovered.
    3. We could measure the changes of the NYS concentration in the test animal's blood by means of the photoelectric colorimetry. Protein-excluding agents, measurable range, accuracy, etc. necessary for carrying out the colorimetrical procedure were investigated and thereby, basic important conditions for the measurement were established.
    4. In the sample urine obtained from the administered animals we could detect a red substance, presumably one of the metabolites, by the partition paper chromatography and isolate it by the column chromatography. But its properties are remained to be studied.
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  • Tomokichi TSUGO, Masahiro IWAIDA, Akio NAGAO, Yoshie KOBAYASHI, Kazuko ...
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 356-364
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: July 27, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments were done on effects of nisin produced by a variety of Streptococcus lactis on the spoilage of process cheese caused by certain species of clostridia during its storage. Process cheeses were prepared from Gouda, Cheddar and Emmenthal cheeses using either polyphosphate or citrate. Both domestic and imported cheeses were used as raw materials. The products were packed with a sheet of a synthetic resin film and sealed with paraffin, which was stored at 37°C, and pH of the product was 6.0-6.2, water content 41-46%. After 7 to 10 days' incubation, the product manufactured from imported Emmenthal and Cheddar cheese resulted in the formation of gas holes leading to blowing or inflation due to the germination and multiplication of the spores of Clostridium perfingens (Cl. welchii), following the decrease in acidity and the increase in pH of the products. The use of nisin was effective for preventing the blowing of this type.
    The addition of 50 Reading unit nisin/g cheese was sufficient to prevent the blowing. However, the growth of butyric acid bacteria could not be restrained by nisin.
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  • Macroscopic Examination of Rats Fed 2- (2-furyl) -3- (5-nitro-2-furyl) acryl amide and Nitrofurazone for One Year
    Kazuyoshi AISO, Masayoshi KANISAWA, Hiroshi YAMAOKA, Kazuyo TATSUMI, N ...
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 365-373
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One year feeding experiments, using Wister strain rats, were carried out to compare chronic toxicity of a new nitrofuran, 2- (2-furyl) -3- (5-nitro-2-furyl) acryl amide, with that of nitrofurazone.
    Two nitrofuran compounds were incorporated in the basal diet at the concentrations of 0.0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02per cent respectively.
    A total of 88 rats, weighing 80-110g. was used. Six males and six females were placed in each of the diet groups.
    The results obtained are following.
    When the general observation made on rats eating the drugs in the diet, it appears that no definite signs of toxicity were observed in each levels of nitrofuran: such as food consumption, drug intake, appearance of skin, hair, state of motility, and mortality.
    From an analysis of growth curves, no differences were observed between the new nitrofuran and the control in body weight gain, while the body gains of the animals fed nitrofurazone were slightly less than those of controls.
    In post-mortem examination, the authors did not find any pathological changes in thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, main internal organs, skin, bone and ingestive organs.
    Haematological nature was also shown normal levels.
    Accumulation of the drugs in liver and kidney was not observed.
    The data of microscopic examination will be described in next report.
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  • A Systematic Analysis of Food Preservatives in Food
    Taro KOMODA, Ryuzo TAKESHITA
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 374-381
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Such food preservatives as salicylic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), esters of p-hydroxy benzoica cid (POBA-E), sorbic acid (SOA), dehydroacetic acid (DHA), methylnaphthoquinone (MNQ), nitrofurazone (NFS) and nitrofurylacrylamide (NFA) contained in food are separated with solvents to three groups. When it is difficult to extract the acidic compounds of the food preservatives with solvent, anion exchange resins are used for the uptake of the acidic compounds. The elution of the acidic compounds from the resins is carried out by means of a mixture of glacial acetic acid and acetone.
    The food preservatives in fraction I; SA, BA, POBA-E, SOA and DHA are identified by the paper electrophoresis with buffer solution consisted of dimethylformamide-pyridine-acetic acid-water (pH 5.6) or n-butanol-aqueous ammonia-acetic acid-water (pH 5.0) and also by the paper chromatography with cyclohexanol-ammonium carbonate buffer. The spots are detected with ultraviolef light and colorreagents e. g. diazotized sulfanilic acid, diazotized nitroaniline, methyl red or ferric chloride.
    The food preservative, MNQ in fraction II is paper-chromatographed with 95% mnethanol by the ascending procedure and detected with ultraviolet light and color reagents e. g. sodium hydroxide, 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, etc. By the addition of 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to fraction II, the 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of MNQ is formed and also paper chromatographed with concentrated aqueous ammonia ascendingly.
    The food preservatives, NFS and NFA in fraction III are separated by the ascending paper chromatography with n-butanol saturated with water. The spots are detected with ultraviolet light and colorreagent e. g. sodium hydroxide.
    MNc in fraction I and Rf values of the food preservatives in fraction I, II and III are tabulated.
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  • Detection of Artificial Sweeteners (Saccharin, Cyclohexane Sulfamic Acid and Dulcin) in their Preparations and Food
    Taro KOMODA, Ryuzo TAKESHITA
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 382-386
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A solution containing saccharin, cyclohexane sulfamic acid and dulcin which have been obtained from a preparation or food is allowed to stand in a centrifugal tube for 10 minutes with Amberlite CG 400 Type I (Cl-form) with shaking sometimes and centrifuged. The elution of saccharin and cyclohexane sulfamic acid from the resins is carried out by means of a mixture of 10% oxalic acid and alcohol. The eluate is neutralized with aqueous ammonia and applied to the paper chromatography. Dulcin is obtained by extracting the supernatant with etbylacetate.
    Saccharin, cyclohexane sulfamic acid and dulcin are detected by the ascending paper chromatography with iso-amyl alcohol-pyridine-water, or n-butanol-aqueous ammonia. In order to identify these artificial sweeteners when they are accompanied with some food preservatives, such as salicylic acid, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, etc., the former solvent is an excellent one as a developer.
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  • Kozo SHINODA, Koji ITO, Ken-ichi YASUDA, Kyoji KINOSHITA
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 387-391
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The amount of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate remained on the rinsed tableware and vegetable has been determined by radio tracer technique using labeled dodecylbenzenesulfonate 35S. If tableware rinsed, for example, two seconds with fresh water right after it was washed in 0.157% aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, 3.9×10-6, 2.2×10-5, 1.1×10-5 and 4.7×10-5mg/cmcm2 of dodecylbenzenesulfonate remained on the porcelain, plastic, glass and stainless surface, respectively. If, for example, cabbage was rinsed for about five seconds to one minute in the trough supplying fresh water right after five minutes washing in 0.05% aqueous solution of dodecylbenzenesulfonate, 0.1-0.2mg of dodecylbenzenesulfonate remained in hundred grams of cabbage.
    The effects of detergent concentration, washing and rinsing periods, etc., on the amount of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate remained on the vegetable and tableware were also examined.
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  • Iwao KAWASHIRO, Taro OKADA, Takashi TATSUNO
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 392-398
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We carried out the determination of residual ABS remained in vegetable and fruits treated with the chemical detergent.
    1) Chemical method
    There are few reports on the determination of ABS contained in vegetables and fruits, but in this case we adopted the following method; a sample sliced and miced as finely as possible is extracted with alcohol containing hydrochloric acid. After evaporating alcohol from the alcoholic extract, the residual fluid is adjusted to pH 10 and filtered. The filterate is washed with petroether. The petroether-washed liquid is treated according to Longwell and Maniece method.
    As a result of our experiments we could find the following.
    Vegetables: The residual detergent was 20-70ppm after soaking a sample in 0.05 per cent ABS solution (usual concentration for use) for 1-5 minutes, but when once washed with water after soaking, the residuals were decreased to 4-13ppm, when 3 times to 2-7ppm.
    Hurt vegetables showed a larger amount of the residues as compared with normal ones.
    Fruits: 0.5-2ppm of the residues were found to remain in a sample after washing with water.
    In the case of strawberry as a sample, it was found the longer time of soaking the more residues of the detergent.
    On the contrary apples showed no more than 0.5ppm of the residual detergent after soaking in the solution within 1-5 minutes.
    2) Radiochemical method
    As a result of our radiochemical experiments, when 10g of spinach was soaked in 150ml of 0.05 per cent ABS solution containing labeled sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate for 10 seconds, and washed again with 300ml of water, we found 2ppm of ABS remained in the sample. And when soaked for 30 minutes under the same conditions, 12ppm of ABS in the sample.
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  • Yoshio IKEDA, Yoshito OMORI, Tokuichi ITOMINE, Hiroshi MUTO, Hamako YO ...
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 399-400
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    At the beginning of this year a group of scientist in Japan reported that alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS), which has been widely used as principal ingredient of anionic detergent, might not be harmless to human health. In order to clarify this point following experimental studies were made on this chemical.
    1) Acute toxicity in mice
    2) Primary irritation test on the skin and mucous membrane of rabbits
    3) Skin sensitizing test in quinea pigs
    4) Chronic Toxicity in rats
    5) Absorption, storage in organs and excretion in rats and rabbits, using ABS35
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 400-401
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Part III Artificial Sweeteners Part IV Bleaching Agents
    Iwao KAWASHIRO, Yutaro HOSOGAI
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 402-411
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Yoshitaka NAGASE, Yoshinaka YOKOMORI
    1962 Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 411-415
    Published: December 30, 1962
    Released: March 01, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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