In manufacturing, systems that offer products in combination with services have attracted considerable attention. According to this background, the authors of this paper have conducted conceptual research on design services from the viewpoint of engineering. This series of research is called ‘Service Engineering.’ Services consist of various entities ranging from physical products to nonphysical products, such as employees and organization. This paper aims to present a design method that allows designers to determine service modules consisting of several entities. Concretely, two analysis methods are proposed to analyze service architecture in consideration of dependencies between service elements.
By applying a renormalization technique to atomistic models, it is shown that molecular dynamics (MD) can be extended to simulate mezzo-scale phenomena of arbitrary time scale. The particles in the extended MD are renormal-ized atomic clusters and their interactions can be obtained by multiplying a coefficient to atomic interactions. The coefficient value can be determined based on tensile fracture simulations of bars using the extended MD itself. The motions of the particles in the extended MD are described by a mixture of quasi-static and dynamic motions, their mixing rate being determined by the cluster size and strain rate. It is also shown that the quasi-static motion can be obtained by modifying the standard MD scheme so that the quasi-static motions are realized as the time average for arbitrarily specified time interval. Finally, the method of numerical simulations is presented based on these results.
This report presents a method to confirms whether a mirror surface is made properly. A mirror surface is made based on the combination of multiple rational curves. It is not easy to make the identical curved surface which is consistent with the mathematical model actually. Therefore, the curved surface is described by a set of discrete 3D points after affine and rotational transformations. Then, photographic image is parsed by computing where the inspection points are reflected on the curved surface. The image can be used for evaluating the actual product by getting the reflection image of the inspection points and comparing them.
As current large quartz masks have a warp range of 10 to 100 μm, polishing to a flatness of better than 10 μm is required. However, it is difficult to fabricate a mask that does not warp because the mask substrate cannot be held during the polishing process without deformation occurring. To resolve this matter, a nondeforming freezing pin chuck has been developed. This paper describes the shear peeling strength of the freezing liquid, the freezing process, and the deformation of a quartz wafer as a result of solidification. The shear peeling strength of the freezing liquid between a steel plate and a small quartz specimen increases to an average of 950 kPa by lapping with GC#400, however it varies widely (±188 kPa). The strength of a lapped pin chuck with a pitch of 1 mm and a pin diameter of 0.5 mm is 157 kPa—much larger than the target value of 49 kPa. The pin chuck, with the exception of the pin top, is coated with an oil repellent to prevent the generation of a thin freezing film around the periphery of the freezing liquid on the pin top. Thus the increased volume of freezing liquid resulting from volume expansion flows out from the pin top to the spaces between the pins, and the variation in strength decreases markedly. The increase in freezing temperature significantly decreases the average shear peeling strength from about 150 kPa at 5°C to less than 49 kPa at above 13°C. The deformation of a convex quartz wafer frozen on the pin top is less than ±0.5 μm and is 25% less than that for the entire frozen surface. Based on these results, the prospect was obtained that substrates free of warping could be fabricated by polishing.
In this research, an arc welding technology has been applied to melt the metal and accumulate layer by layer for the fabrication of three dimensional metallic objects such as the machine parts and molds. In this paper, the effect of fabrication parameters such as electric current, voltage, feed speed of welding torch, and cooling method on the strength of the fabricated objects and its micro metallographic structure were investigated. It is shown that hardness becomes lower as it goes upper part where the cooling rate is low. However, that hardness decrease can be avoided by the control of temperature and the cooling rate of the fabricating product by using the developed cooling device and water cooling.
Development of machine tool according to minimization of parts size has been required by downsizing of parts and progress of high precision. A new CNC lathe has been developed combining the enough rigidity and space utility for chip treatment based on the frame structure that consists of pipes and joints with enough space. The active vibration control is applied to suppress the specific relative vibration modes that appear under 100Hz by using actuators driven by PZT. The effects of vibration control are evaluated by comparison of relative vibratory motion between tool and spindle. Over 50% of suppression can be achieved by applying the vibration control. The measurement results of roundness and its frequency analysis of workpiece shows over 30% of improvement with this control.
Conventionally, in intelligent buildings in a metropolitan area network and in small-scale facilities in the optical access network, optical connectors are joined manually using an optical connection board and a patch panel. In this manual connection, mistakes occur due to discrepancies between the actual physical settings of the connections and their management because these processes are independent. This reduces reliability. Moreover, manual cross-connection is time-consuming and expensive because maintenance personnel must be dispatched to remote places to correct mistakes. We have developed automatic optical fiber cross-connect equipment in which a fiber-handling robot provides automatic cross-connection among any of 200 pairs of input and output optical fibers. This equipment allows the cross-connection and management of optical fibers in networks in intelligent buildings and optical access networks to be performed by remote control. We evaluated the performance of the equipment, such as optical characteristics, electromagnetic compatibility, earthquake-proof requirements, and environmental specifications. The evaluation results confirm that the automated optical fiber cross-connect equipment is suitable for practical use in intelligent buildings and optical access networks.
In the field of semiconductor manufacturing equipments, acceleration signals from servo-type accelerometers are widely used. In order to apply direct velocity and displacement feedback (DVDFB), it is preferable to use seismo-type absolute displacement sensors which can simultaneously detect acceleration, velocity, and displacement signals. However, the displacement signal includes offset output due to alignment errors of the sensor, even if a PI compensator is utilized. This is because of mechanical and electrical factors. Specifically, the sensor has a mechanical pendulum as well as the servo-type accelerometer, and we have simply implemented electrical circuits of the PI compensator. In this paper, the offset output is modeled by considering input voltage and current offsets of operational amplifiers. In addition, leak currents and dielectric absorbers of capacitors are also considered. Using the models, the alignment errors are calculated and simulated. As a result, it is revealed that the input offset current of the operational amplifier will mainly influence to the offset output.