In the present paper, some experiments are described on enzyme systems of Bacterial Viruses. The purified high concentrated S. gallinarum (Akita strain) phage (abbrebiated Sg Bp) was used as enzyme preparation, and the enzymatic activity of Bacterial Viruses was widely reserched by Warburg apparatus, Thurnberg tube, Absorption spectrum and other enzymatic methods. The findings obtained are summarized as follows. I) We have made clear with the absorption spectrum analysis the catalase activity of Sg phage is taken place by the Hematin like substance, but it is very difficult to prove the catalase activity is to be the activity of phages itself or hosts itself. 2) It appears that Sg phage has no enzymatic activity e.g. Raspiratory enzymes, Enzymes in Carbonhydrate metabolism (contains Enzymes in TCA Cycle), Transacetylase, Transaminase, Desmolase, Amino Acid Oxydase, Amino Acid Decarnoxylase etc.
As we recognize that mephenesinpropyleneglycol is clinically useful for the treatment of influenza, we wish to know by which mechanism influenza cases cure with mephenesinpropyleneglycol. At first we study on inactivation of influenza virus with mephenesinpropyleneglycol by tissu-culture method, egg-culture method and by mice-inoculation test. The experiments indicate that the drug has weak ability of inactivation of virus when we use the tissue-culture and the egg-culture and that, in the case of mice, it has no apparent ability of inactivation of virus. It may be said that the cure of influenza with mephenesin depends on any other factor than inactivation of influenza virus.
Many interesting problems still remain to be studied in the field of viral hemagglutnation. The present authores have taken particular interest in the findings that viruses have specific affinity to the componen's of the erythrocytes. The biochemical studies of the metabolic process of erythrocytes treated with virus are to be made in parallel with electrostatical studies, and so the mechanism of the viral hemagglutination might be expected to be easily understood. The authores have made biochemical and electrostatical studies on viral hemagglutination. The present paper deals with the results of the manometrical experiment which have been undertaken on oxidative respiration of erythrocytes treated with virus. And it has been observed that the existence of a certain mathematical relationship between the endogenous oxidative respiration of erythrocytes and its hemagglutination titer. In fact, if, changing various conditions of hemagglutination (kinds of reaction medium; addition of serum or glucose to medium) and using various erythrocytes (those treated with trypsin, tannic acid, virus, or RDE), measurement is to be conducted on the influence of the endogenous oxidative respiration of erythrocytes on the hemagglutination titer, one may notice that hemagglutination titer decreases with the increase of the endogenous oxidative respiration, on the other hand, hemagglutination titer increases with the decrease of the endogenous oxidative respiration of erythrocytes. All these findings would indicate that there exists a common component, between the substrate of endogenous oxidative respiration enzyme end the important part of receptor of erythrocytes.
It was already presumed on the basis of epidemiological survey on poliomyelitis as well as immune state of inhabitan's against polimyelitis that Japan might be under so poor sanitary conditions that any new born could be infected with poliomyelitis virus during the childhood (Paul, Kitaoka and others). In order to give positive evidence for such a conception attempt was made to isolate poliomyelitis virus from stools of healthy looking infants, The stool samples were collected for poliomyelitis virus isolation by using skin muscle of human embryo from 306 healthy children aged one day to 3 years old in the 4 Infant Homes, 2 located in Tokyo Prefecture and each one in Yamagata and Aomori Prefectures respectively, and 58 children of nonpoliomyelitis in the Aomori Prefectural Hospital As a result 6 (7.8%) out of 77 children in the Setagaya Infant Home, Tokyo Prefecture, were proven to be poliomyelitis virus positive. All of them were identified as type II virus. These positive samples were collected during the period from August to September 1955 but not during the other seaon. In 1955, no case was recognized among the infants at the same Infant Home. The youngest positive child was 2 months 28 days old and the other positive were under 2 years old. Five of 6 new isolates produced the poliomyelits syndrome in mice following intracerebral inoculation but not the other one which gave rise to paralysis after intraspinal inoculation. In other words they were not proven to be avirulent for mice. The neutralizing antibodies ranging from 1:16 to 1:64 of titer were found against type II poliomyelitis virus in the serum collected two months later after the date of stool collection from each poliomyelitis positive child. During the poliomeylitis virus isolation procedure 16 nonpoliomyelitis viruses were encountered which gave rise to cytopathogenic effect on human embryo tissue. Compared with the cytopathogenic effect of the new isolates including poliomyelitis and nonpoliomeylitis viruses on mokey kidney, cells, human embryo skin muscle, HeLa and human amnion cells it was reconfirmed that the monkey kidney cells would be the most suitable for isolation of poliomyelitis virus.
In this communication a report is made on inoculation of dengue virus (Hawaiian strain) in one-day-old hen's egg. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The Hawaiian strain of dengue virus has been propagated in one-day-old chick embryos. The titer of embryos harvested within a period of up to 6 days after inoculation, remained at levels of 10-3.6 (mouse adapted strain) to 10-4.5 mouse LD50 (egg successive strain). 2) The highest concentration of virus was found in one-day-old chick embryos, and five-days-old chick embryos contained the virus 10 to 23 times less per 0.02g of tissue than the former. But, there was no difference between one-day-old chick embryos and five-days-old chick embryos in the content of virus in whole chicke mbryas.
The paired sera obtained from two groups of patients with polio and with polyradiculoneuritis so-called Guillain-Barré syndrome (G. B.) encountered in the Setouchi area 1953-1955 were attested for the polio antibody of three types employing. tissue culture HeLa tubes. The objecives of this study were to clarify the relation of these two entities. The four piloting marks would be of significance; 1) polio antibody of G. B. against one of three types were revealed in 21 cases out of 24 (87.5%) while 3 cases (12.5%) of negative reading. This percentage is in good accordance with the polio antibody distribution in the placebo groups, 2) type distribution of G. B. was in the range of placebo groups, namely type I 11 (45.8%) II 11 (45.8%) and III 13 (54.2%). 3) yearly analysis of presence of polio antibody of G. B. was revealed in the vicinity of placebo groups, 4) This might be compared with the 100% positive reading in the polio antibody titer of paralytic polio groups against one of three types. 4 cases among these 23 cases showed double types (17.4%). Type I 14 cases (60.9%) II 5 (21.7%) and III (34.8%). The yearly variation of the type distribution manifested predominancy of type II in 1953, type I in 1954, type I and III equally in 1955. Accordingly it would appear probable that G. B. could be of dissimilar entity from polio, and the presence of polio antibody in G. B. would be of inapparent infection of polio in the process of continuous exposure to the polio virus as illustrated in the placebo groups. The data on the placebo groups will be shown in the following paper.
The 38 paired sera obtained on the day of april 30th and september 10th 1955 from the heatlthy 8 years old children in Shobara city, Hiroshima prefecture were attested for the presence of the polio neutralizing antibody employing tissue culture HeLa tubes. The type distribution of first sera was I 71%, II 68% and III 68% which was in the similar range to Okayama area. Negative reading 3%, double type 18% and tripple type 32% and the remainder for one type. The 7 cases of negative reading in the first sera revealed type I positive in the secondand the elevation in the titer in type I in 4 cases already positive in the first. Thus during the summer 1955 it might be suggested that there was the type I epidemy in this area. The appearance of the type II and III antibodies in the second sera was observed partially.
The comparative feature of the distribution of polio antibodies in Minomi area, Hiroshima Prefecture was revealed on december 10th 1955 sera of 34 cases of 8 years old healthy children against three types employing tissue culture HeLa tubes. Type I 76%, II 79% and III 56% were duly illustrated which is of similar range to the results obtained in the Shobara area namely type I 89%, II 71% and III 71%. The cases of double types eqully high in both area and tripple higher in Shobara and for one type more in Minomi and no negative reading in both area respectively. No significant differences were detected in both two area in the view of the polio epidemiology. Whereas the suggestion would seem to be obtainable that the two entity Guillain-Barrè syndrome and Polio would be of dissimilarity.
The mouse adapted strains of polio Lansing, Leon and Mahoney three types and the Coxsackie virus Okumoto strain (A-2) and Dohi strain (A-19) which were obtained from the patient with typical Guillain-Barré syndrome were crossingly challenged through discernible route of adult mice to attest the interference. 1) The positive interference was observed in the group inoculated with C. V. Okumoto strain 106LD50 previously and challenged with Lansing strain 50LD50 after 4 days. 2) No interference was observed in the following style: a. subcutaneous injection of Okumoto strain followed by the intracerebral route of Lansing strain after O, 2 and 6 days. b) intracerebral route of Okumoto strain followed by same route of Lansing strain after O, 2, 4 and 6 days. c) subcutaneous and intracerebral route of Dohi strain followed by intracerebral route of Lansing strain. d) subcutaneous or intracerebral of Okumoto or Dohi strain followed by intraspinal route of Mahoney strain after 4 days. e) intracerebral or subcutaneous route of Okumoto or Dohi strain followed by Leon strain after 4 days.
Similar attempts were made in the suckling mice. The following results were obtained. 1) Positive interfecence was observed in the group inoculated with 102LD50 of Lansing strain through intracerebral route followed by 101LD50 through subcutaneous route of Okumoto strain (C. V. A-2), after 1 and 2 days. 2) No significant interference was observed in the followings: a) intracerebral route of Lansing followed by C. V. Okumoto strain after 0 and 3 days through same route. b) Intracerebral route of Lansing strain followed by C. V. Dohi strain (A-19) after 0, 1, 2 and 3 days, c) intracerebral route of Leon and Mahoney strain followed by Okumoto and Dohi strain after 0, 1 and 2 days.
As shown in the preceeding papers, it was revealed that the coxsackie virus isolated from the patient with typical Guillain-Barré syndrome Okumoto strain interfered the polio Lansing strain. The possible interpretation on the production of the syndrom on the basis of interference phenomena was sought in analysing the histopathological picture in this report. The involvement of the interfered case exhibited the indiscernible features produced by the single infection of coxsackie virus or polio virus independently which is dissimilar to the actual changes observed by Guillain-Barrè syndrome. The extent of the involvement of the mice without significant signs of paralysis revealed no changes or of minor degree in the site. The interference would seem to be produced prepathological level between polio and coxsackie virus.
Epidemiological pattern in the infancy of coxsackie viruses has been analysed by the illustration of 34 isolations (9.7%) from the 352 fecal specimens obtained from the four grouped population in Okayama Prefecture during 1954-55. The survey on the seasonal influences of the isolation curve revealed the striking decrease in winter (October-March), presumably with complete negative reading. Prevalency was given to the group of child under age 5. The marked difference of the incidence of virus isolation between the child in the individual family 11 isolations (4.3%) and the child in the nurseries 23 isolations (23.5%) would seem to warn the possible group infections frequently associated with the feverish episodes. The problem of asymptomatic carrier again enhanced their epidemiological significance.