We devised a method for non-invasively assessing intracranial compliance with retrospective ECG-triggered phase contrast cine MRI. This method was examined in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) group and those with asymptomatic ventricular dilation or brain atrophy (VD group), and in healthy volunteers (control group). Intracranial volume change (ΔVmax) was calculated from arterial inflow, venous outflow, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, and spinal cord motion at the C2 level during a cardiac cycle. Next, craniospinal CSF pressure gradient change (ΔPGmax) was calculated from measured CSF flow velocity using a simplified Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, Ci was obtained by dividing ΔVmax into ΔPGmax. Ci in the NPH group was significantly smaller and could be differentiated from other groups. This method makes it possible to non-invasively obtain a more detailed determination of the intracranial state and dynamics in NPH and to assist in its diagnosis.
Attenuation correction in SPECT has been used for uniformly absorptive objects like the head. On the other hand, it has seldom been applied to nonuniform absorptive objects like the heart and surrounding lungs because of the difficulty and inaccuracy of data processing. However, since attenuation correction using a transmission source recently became practical, we were able to apply this method to a nonuniform absorptive object. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of this attenuation correction system with a transmission source in myocardial SPECT. The dose linearity, defect/normal ratio using a myocardial phantom, and myocardial count distribution in clinical cases was examined with and without the attenuation correction system. We found that all data processed with attenuation correction were better than those without attenuation correction. For example, in myocardial count distribution, while there was a difference between men and women without attenuation correction, which was considered to be caused by differences in body shape, after processing with attenuation correction, myocardial count distribution was almost the same in all cases. In conclusion, these results suggested that attenuation correction with a transmission source was useful in myocardial SPECT.
The SET-3000 G/X (Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan) has a large aperture and functions as a three-dimensional (3D) dedicated PET scanner. However, the large number of line of responses in the SET-3000 G/X scanner creates a large volume of sinogram data and prolongs reconstruction time in iterative reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to optimize basic acquisition parameters (maximum ring difference and span) for sensitivity and spatial resolution for 3D whole-body 18F-FDG PET. Methods: Detector rings and image planes numbered 50 and 99, respectively. In sensitivity measurement, the maximum ring difference (MRD) was changed from 1 to 49. In the measurement of spatial resolution, the span was changed from 3 to 21. For sensitivity and spatial resolution measurements, the standard protocols defined by the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) 1994 and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2001 were used. We also evaluated the corresponding image noise by placing identical ROI on the reconstructed images. Results: The total sensitivity of MRD=49 was 85.7 cps/Bq/ml in a uniform phantom (15 cm diameter, 30 cm tall cylinder) filled with 18F. This was approximately two times higher than MRD=13. The image noise in the center of the axial FOV decreased with increasing MRD. Spatial resolution was slightly decreased as MRD increased, but axial resolution deteriorated with a span of more than 11. Conclusion: Optimum basic data-acquisition parameters for whole-body 18F-FDG PET were MRD 49 to obtain maximum sensitivity and span 9 to avoid decreasing spatial resolution. Additionally, it was concluded that the basic data-acquisition parameters should be carefully selected for 3D whole-body 18F-FDG PET in order to maximize the efficiency of PET measurement.
We carried out a questionnaire survey to determine the actual situation of radiation safety management measures in all medical institutions in Japan that had nuclear medicine facilities. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the evaluation of shielding capacity; radiation measurement; periodic checks of installations, equipment, and protection instruments; and the calibration of radiation survey meters. The analysis was undertaken according to region, type of establishment, and number of beds. The overall response rate was 60 percent. For the evaluation of shielding capacity, the outsourcing rate was 53 percent of the total. For the radiation measurements of “leakage radiation dose and radioactive contamination” and “contamination of radioactive substances in the air,” the outsourcing rates were 28 percent and 35 percent of the total, respectively (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). For the periodic check of radiation protection instruments, the implementation rate was 98 percent, and the outsourcing rate was 32 percent for radiation survey meters and 47 percent for lead aprons. The non-implemented rate for calibration of radiation survey meters was 25 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to region and establishment). The outsourcing rate for calibration of radiation survey meters accounted for 87 percent of the total, and of these medical institutions, 72 percent undertook annual calibration. The implementation rate for patient exposure measurement was 20 percent of the total (p<0.001, according to number of beds), and of these medical institutions 46 percent recorded measurement outcome.
To assist in the selection of complicated computed tomography (CT) scan protocols and to obtain stable image SD values, prototype “Scan Plan Simulator” software with the following functions was developed and evaluated. 1) The image SD value that will be obtained in actual scanning is estimated by entering the patient's body size and scan protocol, after which a simulated image is displayed so that the estimated image SD value can be checked. The exposure dose can also be estimated in the Scan Plan Simulator. 2) The appropriate tube current is automatically set by entering the required image SD value. We evaluated the accuracy of the Scan Plan Simulator by comparing the simulation results with the image SD values and exposure dose obtained in actual scanning and assessed the usefulness of this method using Monte Carlo simulation based on body thickness data obtained in clinical examinations. The results showed that the Scan Plan Simulator not only stabilizes image SD by minimizing the effects of body size but also permits the exposure dose to be reduced by optimizing tube current.
This paper describes the extended development process (extended process) that compensates for the image quality of mammographic film exposed at a lower radiation dose. First, we developed films exposed to a phantom with several small particles that simulated micro-calcifications at high and lower radiation doses, respectively. Next, we evaluated the image quality of those films developed for the standard development time of 90 seconds, and for the extended development times of 150 seconds and 210 seconds. Then we extracted micro-calcification regions and calculated the areas, perimeters, and normalized areas of micro-calcifications by using image analysis. There was no significant difference in areas or shape measurements between the development times of 90 seconds and 150 seconds in obtaining the same high-quality images as the standard process. Therefore, we determined that the development time of 150 seconds was the most appropriate time. As a result, we achieved a 20% reduction in radiation dose by using the extended process for mammographic film.
Following the introduction of a new multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanner, it has become possible to produce high-speed CT angiography (CTA), the preferred method for imaging in emergent abdominal vascular conditions. Unlike catheter angiography, multislice CTA not only depicts the vessels but also allows perfusion in adjacent organs to be assessed. To make the most effective diagnostic use of multi-detector row CTA and three-dimensional image post-processing, radiologists must be familiar with the optimal CTA protocols and the typical CT findings in various emergent vascular conditions using computational flow dynamics (CFD). This article describes a technical approach to estimating the blood flow state of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in more detail by constructing realistic three-dimensional (3D) vessel models using CFD methods, focusing on pre- and postoperative cases.
The purpose of this study was to optimize the reconstruction phase in order to improve depiction of the coronary artery in the relative delay method of the retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction technique using a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scanner with four channels. The following items were evaluated; 1) image quality of the coronary arteriogram, 2) degree of difference between the standard phase corresponding to the diastasis period and the selected phase, which was determined in each case to obtain the best image, and 3) the factors causing the phase difference. The image quality in the selected phase was better than that in the standard phase. A positive correlation was observed between the degree of phase difference and the median value and standard deviation of the heart rate. The degradation of image quality was remarkable in cases showing a large degree of phase difference. A negative correlation was observed between image quality in the selected phase and the degree of phase difference. Individualizing the reconstruction phase is required to improve the image quality of coronary arteriograms with MSCT. It should be noted that the condition of a low and stable heart rate results in reduction in the degree of phase difference, which is useful for the acquisition of better images.
Purpose: Positional reproducibility in patients with prostate cancer fixed in the prone position with a set of immobilization devices for external-beam intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was evaluated. In addition, the adequacy of our positional error reduction strategy and current planning target volume (PTV) margins was also evaluated. Results: Systematic error was corrected by the positional correction that we executed at the first stage of irradiation. The setup margin that we had calculated was 1.1 mm in the L-R direction, 1.3 mm in the A-P direction, and 2.7 mm in the C-C direction. Conclusion: We determined that the effectiveness of the method of correcting the error margin and the setup accuracy of the fixed method were well maintained.
Purpose: In percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), intraosseous venography is performed using water-soluble ionic iodinated contrast media (iodine contrast media) before injecting bone cement. However, because of contrast medium remaining in the fractured cleft, we experienced the persistence of intravertebral opacification that obscured visualization of the cement under X-ray fluoroscopy. To solve this problem, we examined carbon dioxide (CO2) as a contrast medium. Methods: We measured the contrast of iodine contrast media and CO2 and performed a subjective assessment of imaging by enforcing intraosseous venography by changing the tube voltage and image intensifier (I.I.) entrance dose in a bone sample of a cadaver using iodine contrast media and CO2. In vivo study, we performed a subjective assessment of images obtained by intraosseous venography using CO2 under two kinds of X-ray views. Results: We determined that the contrast of CO2 is 1/6-1/7.5 that of iodine contrast media, and that CO2 fluctuates less in its contrast value with changes in tube voltage. In our assessment of the image of the bone sample, CO2 performed worse that iodine contrast media. However, if the I.I. entrance dose is kept above 2.5 μGy/F, CO2 is considered to be of clinical use. In the clinical image assessment, the best conditions were an image collection rate of 7.5 F/S and matrix of 1024×1024. Conclusions: CO2 did not cause any obstacles when we injected bone cement, and its I.I. entrance dose, image collection rate, and matrix size indicate that it can be used for intraosseous venography.