Japanese Journal of Radiological Technology
Online ISSN : 1881-4883
Print ISSN : 0369-4305
ISSN-L : 0369-4305
Volume 47 , Issue 12
Showing 1-37 articles out of 37 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages Cover7-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages Toc7-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages Toc8-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages i-v
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages vi-x
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • HIDEKI KATO, NAOKI HIGASHI, IKUO SHIMIZU, MASARU NAKAMURA, TAKAO KAMAD ...
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2002-2008
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    The data table of a 1cm dose equivalent per fluence to estimate the effective dose equivalents conservatively from external photon beams were given by ICRP. However these data were calculated with single energy photon beams; therefore, it must be careful when for applying the data to photon beams with spectral distributions. In this paper, we calculated the 1cm dose equivalent per unit exposure for spectral photon beams by means of a Monte Carlo simulation, and ascertained the suitability of the usual method which estimates dose equivalents by means of ICRP data corresponding to the effective energy of the spectral beam. Consequently, the 1cm dose equivalent per unit exposure calculated for primary X-ray beams and for scattered photon beams from an irradiated body were in good agreement with the ICRP data corresponding to the effective energies of each beam. However, those calculated for X-rays transmitted through a lead shield showed a considerably lower value than ICRP data corresponding to their effective energies.
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  • TAIZO SANADA, AKIRA KITAYAMA, HIROE YASUI, TATSUSHI TOMOMITSU, KOUSHI ...
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2009-2016
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    Orthopantomograph Model OP-3 (Siemens) has a rotary knob for changing the position of the locus of X-ray beam rotation center (XRC) with respect to the guide plate. A change in the point setting (AL) of the rotary knob causes variation in image formation. Theoretical analysis was conducted on the AL of the rotary knob for assessment of image formation capacity of Model OP-3 and determine an appropriate AL for clinical application. Al of 28〜38mm and 57mm for adults and 20〜28mm and 48〜57mm for children (aged 4〜10) were found to show little strain of projected images and to be most appropriate for photographing the standard dentition region and mandibular joint region, respectively.
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  • KOZO MORITA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2017-2024
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • YASUNORI OBATA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2025-2031
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    In 1957, E. D. Thomas tried to treat some patients with leukemia by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after TBI. Also he began modern BMT with a large dose of chemotherapy and 10Gy single TBI in 1979. From the recent results, 12Gy/6fr/3days is mostly used for dose fractionation. Dose rate must be reduced under 10cGy/min. Not many hospitals use a bioclean equipment. A half reduction of the eye dose may be acceptable. Five year survivals of leukemia patients treated with TBI and BMT are 60〜70% for the good risk group and 30〜40% for the poor risk group. Probabilities of developing interstitial pneumonia (IP) is 35% but does not tend to be the cause of death.
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  • KOZO KUMAGAI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2032-2042
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    We studied the physical and technical situation of total body irradiation (TBI) for long SAD and a 6MV X-rays. In principle this paper consists of the following : Physical characteristics of 6MV X-rays; Basic TBI dosimetry; Dose distribution in the phantom; Compensating method for inhomogeneity; Practical TBI technique; In vivo dosimetry of the oesophagus. For TBI, it is very important to have uniformity of the three-dimensional dose distribution in the whole body. TBI technique is performed by AP/PA opposing fields, bilateral opposing fields and four fields (combined AP/PA and bilateral opposing fields). As a result of measured dose distribution in the phantom, four fields with compensators is the best TBI technique, which indicating unaccuracy dose of ±10%. It is impossible to deliver a dose uniformity of ±10% for bilateral fields. For TBI dosimetry, it needs to measure for the phantom size needs to be measured to achieve the full scattering conditions, but the phantom size for dosimetry is practically suitable for use of a minimum dimension of 30×30×30cm^3. Compensating methods are used to give homogeneous dose to different thick bodys and inhomogenities. We use tissue-equivalent bolus and compensator such as lead or copper. For in vivo measurement, expected dose ratio in the oesophagus is 0.947±0.044 for four fields, 0.994±0.025 for AP/PA fields, and 0.987±0.077 for the bilateral fields. The unaccuracy of irradiation doses are less than 5% for various TBI. In the future, TBI technique should be established the best irradiated method that the uncertainty dose is delivred within ±5%.
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  • MASAYUKI TSUDA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2043-2048
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    In Tokai University Hospital ever since 1982, TBI for bone marrow transplantation has been performed by the moving couch method. In this method, the patient is irradiated from the opposite direction of A-P and P-A in a comfortable supaine position as is. This technique has been well studied and greatly improved. For example, the moving speed of the couch is automatically varied depending on the dose rate deviation of the electron linear accelerator, function having variable speed with the dose rate (VSDR). Another function in variable speed with division (VSDV). In addition it has a self-recording function for the actual condition for the dose and couch movement. In such small areas as the eyes and gonad, the shielding effect cannot be effectively used. For the lungs, but it is able to shield and compensate to a sufficient extent. It applied to actual treatment resulting from data obtained from the measurements using a phantom. During the irradiation we must check the reproducibility of the systems which are dose rate, couch position, and so on. This is one reasonable concept of the dose monitor.
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  • TAKASHI KIKUCHI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2049-2055
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    Moving beam technique in performing total body irradiation (TBI), which sweeps the X-ray beam completely over the whole body axis, is a useful technique for small treatment room in our hospital. However, homogenous dose distributions for patient cannot be obtained without changing the output during gantry rotation. We developed a method for obtaining a homogenous dose distribution by changing the software of the control unit of the linac without any change in the construction of the machine. The change of output/degree and /or the field width at each gantry angle can be automatically calculated by our method, the result, homogenous dose of ±3% at the reference plane was obtained in treating a useful length of 200cm. From this study, though the results are still preliminary, our method might be promising in performing TBI.
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  • KAZUO IZAWA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2056-2061
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    We discussed suitable X-rays energy, dose monitorring system and other problems in the total body irradiation. As the results, 1) X-rays energy : 10MV X-rays is better than 4MV X-rays for flatness on central axis, although 4MV X-rays is better than 10MV X-rays for large field and the short surface axis distance (SAD). A dose distribution of 4MV X-rays is improved by the four field technique, of anterior-posterior and lateral opposed fields. 2) Phantom which is as large as a human body is necessary for the dose measurment of large field. 3) Dose monitoring : Standard point dose in the pelvis must be kept within 99.5±3.4% for expected dose. 4) Dose monitoring system : This system is necessary for the dose evaluation on the mid-line of the body. The mid-line dose is influenced by the flatness in the field and compensating material.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2062-2064
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • TAKESHI MURAKAMI, SHU IKEDA, TOSHIO FUKUDA
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2065-2071
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    We have examined basic ploblems of radionuclide digital imaging for an archiving and communication system using ROC analysis and power spectrum. By ROC analysis on the 512 and 256 matrix, results were affected by the signal frequency, but not affected by the noise level. For good image quality, radionuclide images with a Nyquist frequency of ×4 of signal frequency appeared to be needed. In power spectrum, the signal frequency was by various factors. The maximum signal frequency in clinical images were about 1.5cycles/cm. Gamma camera system noise was detected in the low noise images. Suitable matrix size was a 512^2 matrix for high quality static images, a 256^2 matrix in general static image, a 2048×512 matrix or a 1024×256 matrix for whole body image. Data volume per 1 month was estimated to be about 400Mbyte in a hospital with 1000 beds, and 100Mbyte per hospital on the average in Japan. Whole body images have more than half of the total data volume.
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  • HITOSHI IGARASHI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2072-2077
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    A trend toward hospital computerization is accelerated and clinical work computerization are adopted in many hospitals to contribute to the improvement of medical work and become useful for service of patients. Total hospital information system (HIS) based on order-entry system (GUNMAS) is going on smoothly to date. In HIS of GUNMAS, in vivo nuclear medicine examinations system are involved in physiological and radiological examination system which include plain X-P, MRI, ECG, and so on, because in vivo nuclear medicine examination subjects to a person as well as the order physiological or radiological examinations. In contrast, in vitro nuclear medicine examination system is involved in clinical laboratory system. The medical physician selects the necessary item such as examination's name, purpose and the order on CRT, and then, the date of scintigraphy is reserved. While the reception of samples for in vitro nuclear medicine examination is performed to feed of patient's number into HIS (GUNMAS). In the field of in vivo nuclear medicine ordering system, GUNMAS is connected to the Nuclear Medicine Computer System through a computer system which includes reporting and data base functions. Ordering and reporting for in vivo nuclear medicine examination can be done by these two computer systems. The introduction of HIS (GUNMAS) is useful to save labor and rationalize the clinical work, which contribute to better service for patients.
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  • HIDEO ONISHI
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2078-2083
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    The great interest is recently being paid to the importance for building synthetic image information by the combination of the morphological images with the functional images for the systemic image diagnosis. Then, the building of a network system of image communication is essential to unify the various image data (multimodality images) generated from each image source. The standardization of image communication and the image processing format between the medical imaging devices, is the most urgent theme to operate the network system. The device-to-device communication between image-processing devices for nuclear medicine has more experience than other image diagnostic methods, but the protocol formats and the interface between these devices, have yet to be stanardized. On the other hand, the amount of information of each image from the device of nucler medicine is not so large as other diagnostic images, thus is easier to build the image communication system between the image devices for nuclear medicine than other image diagnostic methods. In the near future, the research field of management of the medical image network system and image data, will play a great role in the processing of the medical information.
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  • KAZUHIRO SATO
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2084-2089
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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    There are many hospital information systems (HIS) in Japan. However, still its application is limited to information processing except for image data. Recent advances of computer technology, optical technology for high-speed data transmission and storage system, and display technology for high-resolution images bring the possibility of image data management of a hospital wide (PACS; Picture Archiving and Communication System). This paper describes the technical possibility of an image data management system of nuclear medicine images and also the relation between HIS and PACS. It is known that the image data of nuclear medicine is between 1 to 3GB in a large hospital on a yearly basis. It was found that this quantity falls in a capacity of recent optical disk data filing system such an optical juke box using 5" optical disks or 12" optical disks. Also data transmission of a local area network has almost enough capacity and speed for daily nuclear medicine image data. Nevertheless, there is a problem on the image data transmission between each modality. In 1985, the ACR (American College of Radiology) and NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) introduced a standard interface protocol for medical image data exchange. In 1987, also MIPS (Medical Imaging Processing)-87 interface standard had beed introduced in Japan according to the ACR-NEMA-85 standard. After that, some enhancements were done on those two standards and then called ACR-NEMA-88 and MIPS-89. However, the standards have yet to contain information exchange protocol between HIS and PACS.
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2090-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2090-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (159K)
  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2091-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2091-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2091-2092
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japanese], [in Japane ...
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2093-2112
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2113-2115
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • [in Japanese], [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2116-2119
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2120-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2121-2124
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2125-2129
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2130-2132
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2133-2135
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2135-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages 2135-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages App9-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages App10-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Appendix
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages App11-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    1991 Volume 47 Issue 12 Pages Cover8-
    Published: December 01, 1991
    Released: June 29, 2017
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