Purpose: We conducted a field survey about pediatric nuclear medicine. As a result, it was suggested that 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy was performed at many institutions, whereas various examinations such as image acquisition and processing are not carried out using the renal phantom. Therefore, we developed the body phantom for the evaluation of appropriate administered radioactivities and image quality with renal scintigraphy in pediatric nuclear medicine. Methods: We created three differently sized body phantoms (1-, 5-, and 20-year-old models). These pediatric body phantoms were filled with a 99mTc solution based on the consensus guideline of pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered radioactivity in Japan. The planar image was evaluated using acquisition count, uniformity and defect contrast. SPECT images were evaluated with a recovery coefficient (RC). Results: The acquisition counts for pediatric body phantoms were relatively corresponded to the clinical study. The appropriate acquisition counts and the pixel size for the planar image were approximately 140 counts per pixel and 1.23–1.35 mm at 5 min acquisition times in 1- and 5-year-old pediatric body phantom studies, respectively. Although the uniformity and the cold contrast did not depend on pixel size and body size, the cold contrast was affected by body size. The RC for SPECT images depended on the performance of SPECT systems, the resolution recovery algorithm and body phantom size. Conclusion: The developed pediatric body phantom could allow us to establish optimal image acquisition and more evidence on renal scintigraphy in pediatric nuclear medicine.
It is well known that head computed tomography (CT) examination is an area affected by beam hardening because the brain parenchyma surrounded by thick bones is an object to be imaged. Therefore, it is essential to use the beam hardening correction process. However, the beam hardening correction processing varies depending on the apparatus. The purpose of this study is to verify the influence on the image by the difference of the beam hardening correction method from the CT value of the phantom and to prove the effect of the beam hardening correction method. We obtained CT value fluctuation amount, CT value correction amount, and CT value correction effect by the beam hardening from the CT value measurement result of phantom imaging. This was compared with 1st pass method, 2nd pass method, and Brain forward projected model-based iterative reconstruction solution. From the results, it was confirmed that the intensity and precision of the beam hardening correction process differ depending on the correction method. As a result, in the head CT examination, even if the same subject is imaged, there is a possibility of a difference in CT value due to the beam hardening correction method.
This study examined the conditions influencing degauss of the magnet using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used to fix the measurement magnets to the MRI bed at angles from 0° to 180° for the magnetic flux vector of static magnetic field. The PMMA was moved in the MRI magnetic field. Magnetic flux density was measured before and after bed movement, and the rate of degauss was calculated. The contents examined are as follows: (1) the angle of the magnetic flux vector of the measurement magnets for the magnetic flux vector of the static magnetic field, (2) the number of movements, (3) moving velocity, and (4) the movement on the spatial gradient of magnetic field. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis of the data. In conclusion, the effect of the angle of the magnetic flux vector of the implant magnet was high under the conditions of degauss in this study. Therefore, during the MRI examination of a patient with a cochlear implant magnet, the operators identified the directions of the magnetic flux vector and static magnetic field of the implant magnet.
The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimal function for regression of spectral Hounsfield Unit (HU) curves. The optimization procedure consists of the following steps: 1) obtaining dual energy CT (DECT) images of the RMI 467 phantom, 2) obtaining virtual monochromatic images from DECT images, 3) mapping each region of interest (ROI) to a phantom rod on virtual monochromatic images, 4) obtaining spectral HU curves for all rods, 5) regression of spectral HU curves using various functions, including linear, quadratic polynomial, cubic polynomial, quartic polynomial, quintic polynomial, sextic polynomial, septic polynomial, exponential, corrected exponential, bi-exponential, and logarithm, and 6) calculating the coefficients and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of the functions listed above. Results indicated that the quintic polynomial function is suitable for analyzing the regression of spectral HU curves. The coefficients generated by the quartic or higher order polynomial functions were significantly higher than those generated by other functions (p<0.05). The median AIC of the quintic polynomial was the lowest among all functions. Therefore, we conclude that the quintic polynomial is the best function to use for the regression of spectral HU curves.
Purpose: In this study, we proposed and evaluated position correction accuracy assessment method with a phantom for IGRT system with add-on six-degrees-of-freedom radiotherapy (6D) couches in couch rotation. Methods and Materials: A phantom was used in a self-build phantom. We were scanned with computed tomography (CT) for radiotherapy planning and planned treatment isocenter to fall in line with CT center by treatment planning system. At first, we examined data of CT slice thickness for digitally reconstructed radiograph of QA phantom. Next, we measured uncertainty for IGRT system. We performed position correction accuracy for IGRT system with QA phantom and digital angle meter. Results: Detection and correction errors for pitch and roll direction were within 0.3 degree in all verifications. Conclusions: We proposed a quality control method for position correction accuracy of 6D couch. The method was able to evaluate the accuracy of detection and correction of 6D couch and revealed the deviation of the origin of the couch rotation.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of active collimator by changing acquisition parameters and obtaining dose profiles in z-axis direction. Dose profiles along z-axis were obtained using XRQA2 Gafchromic film. As a result, the active collimator reduced overranging about 55% compared to that without the active collimator. In addition, by changing the combination of X-ray beam width (32 mm, 40 mm), pitch factor (1.4, 0.6), and the X-ray tube rotation time (0.5 s/rot, 1.0 s/rot), the overranging changed from 19.4 to 34.9 mm. Although the active collimator is effective for reducing overranging, it is necessary to adjust acquisition parameters by taking the properties of the active collimator for acquisition parameters, especially setting beam width, into consideration.
Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.
Currently, non-contrast angiography using the balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) method, which uses a short scan time imaging method, has been reported as an alternative to lower-extremity MRA’s conventional method. We investigated a new imaging method using balanced SSFP. This method uses a sequence of spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) pulse for fat suppression, selective saturation pre-pulse for imaging range of background signal suppression, and rest slab on the downstream side of the imaging range for vein signal suppression. In the examination, we changed dummy pulse (0, 5, 10), saturation delay time (150 ms, 225 ms, 300 ms), and acquisition time (200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). For physical evaluation, we used the ROI method and for visual evaluation, we used the Scheffe’s method. CR was the best and the visual evaluation was also good 10 for dummy pulse, a saturation delay time of 150 ms, and an acquisition time of 200 ms. Balanced SSFP with saturation recovery has the potential to shorten scanning times. Balanced SSFP with saturation recovery is useful for lower-extremity MRA.