Three hundred fifty-nine senior high school students were examined for dental caries and dietary habits and the findings were subjected to mono- and multivariate analyses. Dental caries were higher in female students and differed between the anterior teeth and molars. In female students, frequently eating potatoes and having increased dental caries showed a significantly higher odds ratio. On multivariate analysis, a mixed group of male and female students showed high odds ratios for bread, fruit and dairy products. These results indicate that modernization of dietary habits is closely associated with dental caries in adults.
A high speed video system was compared with a conventional video system for measuring saccadic eye movements to evaluate temporal and spatial profiles of these measurements. Video image processing techniques are used to determine the pupil center, and this consequently provided a spatial resolution better than that of one diode of a charge-coupled device (CCD). Although the spatial resolution of both systems is influenced by pupil size and intensity of illumination, spatial resolution in practice is equal to 0.1 to 0.2 degree. Compared to the conventional video system, the high speed video system with a video frame rate of 1000 frames per second offers a marked improvement in temporal resolution for evaluating saccadic eye movements. Each eye being illuminated by an infrared light source with nothing attached to the eye, this video system measurement allows the subject to fixate and follow an object of regard without being disturbed. Therefore, the high speed video recordings and processing techniques have proved to be useful method for analyzing saccadic eye movement.
We report a novel prophylactic strategy for peritoneal dissemination and serosal invasion of digestive tract cancer in a murine model, in which the murine abdominal wall was compared to the wall of the human digestive tract. Subcutaneous injection of MH-134 cells to the abdominal wall of C3H mice induced tumors on the parietal peritoneum, and eventually caused peritoneal dissemination with time. In this model, the intraperitoneal administration of OK-432, a type of biological response modifier, after tumor implantation significantly inhibited the development of peritoneal dissemination of tumor cells. This effect was more profound in mice with tumors that extended to the peritoneal surface (designated as S1 stage). Histological examination revealed both the remarkable necrosis of tumoral tissue and the formation of a collagen fiber at the edge of the tumor. This antitumoral effect of OK-432 is thought to be mediated by both macrophages and lymphocytes migrated into the peritoneal cavity, because the administration of Carrageenan and anti-lymphocyte serum completely blocked the antitumoral effect of OK-432.
There are two major surgical procedures for excision of esophageal carcinoma and reconstruction of the esophagus: the one-stage procedure and the two-stage procedure. In the present study, we evaluated the two methods by comparing the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune parameters of 10 patients who underwent one-stage procedure with those of 10 other patients who underwent two-stage procedure. To estimate cardiovascular function, we measured the left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI)-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). Most of the patients treated by the one-stage procedure showed a significant decrease in LVSWI-PCWP, whereas the index of patients treated by the two-stage procedure did not change much. When we assessed the respiratory system by forced vital capacity (FVC) and peak expiratory flow (PEF), the patients treated by the two-stage procedure recovered much faster and better than those receiving the one-stage procedure. Natural killer (NK) activity in lymphocytes was also measured as a marker of the immuno-reactive system. Although most patients show a drop in NK activity one week after major surgery, NK activity did not demonstrate a significant change in any of the patients who underwent the two-stage procedume. Thus, our systemic comparison of the three different parameters demonstrated better results after the two-stage procedure and we recommend it over the one-stage procedure, especially for aged and high risk patients.
The administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony- stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) increased weight and cellularity of the spleen, leukocyte and granulocyte count of the peripheral blood in a dose- and duration-dependent fashion in mice. When spleen cells as well as serum from mice treated with intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg of rhG-CSF daily for 7 days were added to an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) culture, MLR was significantly suppressed nonspecifically and in a dose-dependent fashion. MLR was also suppressed by adding supernatant of spleen cells using transwells, indicating that suppression was mediated by soluble factor (s) secreted from the spleen cells. The producer cells of the inhibiting factor were found in more mature granulocytes with a high density in the spleen. These results suggested that the proliferated granulocytes induced by G-CSF produced and released factor (s) that suppress allogeneic immune responses.
To evaluate local Shwartzman's phenomenon in the treatment of malignant tumor, mice were given local injections followed by intravenous injections of biological response modifiers (BRMs). An intradermal injection of IL-1β and TNFα followed by an intravenous injection of OK-432 24 hours later induced acute inflammation with hemorrhage and necrosis at the injection site. An intratumoral injection of these cytokines into MH-134 tumor in the back followed by an intravenous injection of OK-432 induced similar hemorrhage and necrosis in the tumor, and repetition of combined injections suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Intravenous injections of TNFα were also effective as an eliciting agent in this tumor therapy model. These results indicated serial local and systemic combination therapy with BRMs may be a new clinical therapy for patients with malignant tumor.
Low dose and long-term erythromycin (EM) therapy showed obvious improvement of symptoms and prognosis in patients with DPB. However, mechanisms involved in these clinical effects of EM therapy remain controversial. In this study, the clinical effects of EM therapy on respiratory function, baeterial flora in the lower airway and serum levels of soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) as an indicator of T-cell activation were examined. All parameters of respiratory functions in patients with DPB including %VC, %FEV1.0, %V50, %V25 and V50/V25 showed marked improvements within 6 months of EM therapy. Continmous administration of EM for 6 to 24 months produced minimal changes in these respiratory functions though decreases in some parameters were observed in patients with advanced clinical stage and in eldely patients. The increase of %FEV1.0 exceeded those of %V50 and %V25 after EM therapy. This indicates severe pathological changes in small airways or variable effects of EM therapy. Bacterial species and sensitivities to antibiotics showed no apparent changes after long-term EM therapy. The serum levels of sIL-2R in patients with DPB were higher than those in normal controls. With EM therapy, serum levels of sIL-2R decreased rapidly within 6 months, but these levels remained higher than those in normal controls, even after long-term EM therapy.
Efficacy of a combination therapy with two biological response modifiers (BRMs), oral PSK and systemic IL-2, was evaluated in a mouse model system of hepatic metastasis from colon cancer. Hepatic metastasis was significantly suppressed and the duration of survival was significantly prolonged by combination therapy, but not by either therapy alone. The therapeutic effects were attributable to the mechanism that non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity of hepatic non-parenchymal lymphocytes activated by IL-2 was augmented by PSK-activated Kupffer cells with direct cell-to-cell contact. These results suggest that local immunity in the liver plays an important role in the formation and development of hepatic metastasis and that the combination of these two BRMs may provide an effective new clinical therapy.
Epinephrine is the most widely used vasoconstrictive drug. However, its radioprotective potential has not yet been studied for radiation-induced mucositis and dermatitis. Other vasoconstrictive drugs induce a radioprotective effect, but are not used because of their severe side effects. We studied the radioprotective effect of epinephrine on the oral mucosa and scalp of the mice. The radiation dose was 20Gy in a single fraction to the head of the mouse. In the group treated with epinephrine ointment, secretion from the oral cavity was slight, body wieght loss was less and hair loss was observed in fewer cases compared to those in the group without of epinephrine ointment. The mechanism is thought to be related to oxygenation. Epinephrine causes vasoconstriction, therefore the blood supply is lowered and the oxygen concentration in the tissue decline. In conclusion, epinephrine is considered to have potential as a radioprotective ointment for mucous membranes and skin.
Dissection of 25 adult Japanese cadavers revealed an artery that consistently arose from the subclavian artery and ascended between the scalenus anterior and medius muscles. This accessory ascending cervical artery, when developed, issued the dorsal scapular artery which penetrated the scalenus medius muscle. Typological discussion suggested that the accessory ascending cervical artery was a remnant of the longitudinal anastomoses along the embryonic intersegmental arteries.
We report a case of Mirizzi's syndrome managed by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and endoscopic sphincterotomy. An 84-year-old man who was suspected of choledocholithiasis but preferred non surgical treatment was transfered to our hospital. The stone impacted in the dilated cystic duct was removed by endoscopic sphincterotomy after fragmentation by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed that the dilated cystic duct branched into the lower common hepatic duct. Long-term results should be assessed carefully, but extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in combination with endoscopic sphincterotomy for Mirizzi's syndrome should be actively attempted because it is a non-invasive and effective technique.
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic gall stone disease. However, laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hemodialysis patients is considered to be relatively contraindicated because of anemia and bleeding tendency. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in three patients being treated by hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. No significant complications were observed after surgery. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be considered for hemodialysis patients requiring cholecystectomy.