The passage of colloidal particles across the endothelial wall of sinusoids and their accumulation in the marrow parenchyma have been studied, after an intravenous injection of a large amount of India-ink and saccharated iron oxide. The injected colloidal particles are first deposited evenly on and in the sinusoidal endothelium within 30 minutes, and then beginn to enter into the marrow parenchyma, passing through the endothelial wall. Thereafter, the colloidal particles are rapidly taken up by the reticular cells in the parenchyma and accumulate in their cell bodies. In these processes of transportation of colloidal particles, the phagocytic activity of both the sinusoidal endothelium and the reticular cells in the marrow parenchyma seem to play a major role. The chemically stable carbon particles are gradually brought together into large masses formed by coalescence of carbon-laden reticular cells and persist for a long time; whereas the colloidal particles of saccharated iron dioxibe phagocytized by reticular cslls disappear rather rapidly within a month or two, probably having been utilized in the iron metablism of the organism.
The deposition and passage of colloidal particles on and across the endothelial wall of sinusoids, their persistence in the parenchyma as well as their transportation to the regional lymph nodes have been studied, after an intravenous injection of a lage amount of India ink and saccharated iron oxide. The injected colloidal particles are rapidly taken up for the most part by the stellate cells of Kupffer lining the sinusoids and accumlate in their cell bodies, However, a part of colloidal particles are transported to the portal lymph nodes that receive the effluent lymph from the liver, after passing through the intercellular gaps of the sinusoidal endothelium and entering into the lymph stream in the space of Disse. The chemically stable carbon particles are gradually brough together into large masses formed by coalescence of carbon-laden phagocytes-either stellate cells in the liver or reticular cells in the portal lymph nodes-and persisted for a long time. The colloidal particles of saccharated iron dioxide, on the other hand, appear to be gradually metabolized, after having been phagocytized by either stellate cells in the liver or reticular cells in the portal lymph nodes, and disappear within a month or two. A small amount of carbon particles appear to be taken up by the liver cells during period from 1 to 30 days after the injection.
Effects of the thymectomy at birth on immunological function, especially on humoral factor, were studied in mouse. The following results were obtained. 1. Changes in circulating lymphocytes were followed daily for fourty-five days after thymectomy. No increase of lymphocytes was observed in thymectomized mice, although ratio of lymphocytes/neutrophiles increased from two to three during growth in control gronp. 2. Changes in γ-globulin fraction were investigated by paper electrophoresis. No marked difference was found between thymectomized and control groups. 3. Anaphylactic shock was induced after sensitization with egg albumin added with hemophilus pertussis vaccine. There was found no difference in incidence and severity of shock except survival time from onset of shock to death between both groups. 4. The immunological response to foreign tumor transplant was studied using Yoshida and Hirosaki sarcoma of rat. Behavior of growth of tumor cells implanted into peritoneal cavity of mice was investigated. Three or four days prolongation of survival time of tumor cells was only observed in thymectomized group. These results show that suppressive effect of thymectomy at birth on immunological function is apparently relating ro cellular antibody, although perticipation of humoral antibody is not completely neglected.
Reently, it has been discussed the menstrual disorder caused by deranged metabolism of androgens in ovaries. While the derangement may not be demonstrable by urinary total 17-KS estimation, it is necessary to study urinary 17-KS in detail such as 1) fractionation study of 17-KS, 2) adrenal suppression and gonadal stimulation, dynamic test, after Netter, 3) ratio analysis of specific 17-KS fraction, as androsterone or DHA (dehydoepiandrosterone), to total 17-KS. The ratio analysis of urinary 17-KS after Yoshida were performed in 32 cases of menstrual disorder and 19 carses of normal female in proliferative phase and dynamic test was combined in 15 cases of menstrual disorder. 1) Specific change in urinary total 17-KS level has not been observed in the cases of menstrual disorder. 2) Urinary 17-KS fractions also did not show specific excretion pattern in these patients. 3) The ratio analysis of androsterone/total 17-KS and DHA/total 17-KS clearly revealed deranged metabolism of androgens in Primary amenorrhea patients. 4) The ratio analysis combined dynamic test demonstrated more clearly the deranged metabolism. As the conclusion, it should be emphasized that the ratio analysis and the dynamic test were required in evaluating deranged steroid metabolism.
Using the human stomach tissues resected at the operation for gastric ulcer and gastritis, histochemical studies were carried on five kinds of hydrolysates such as AlP, AcP, beta-Est, AmP and beta-Gl and the following results were obtained. 1. In gastritis the AlP activity in vascular endothelial cells has been observed even in those of the capillary blood vessels of the stomach mucosa. 2. In the case of atrophic gastritis the activity of AcP, beta-Est and beta-Gl are somewhat decreased, while there can be seen no activity of AlP nor of AmP. 3. In hypertrophic gastritis the activity of AcP, beta-Est and beta-Gl in the stomach mucosa is slightly elevated, but there can be observed no activity of AlP and AmP. 4. While there can be observed a marked activity of AlP in the neoplasm at the fundus of gastric ulcer, the activity decreases as there occurs hyaline degeneration, and the regenerated blood capillary vessels in this regenerated area run perpendicularly to the ulcer base. In the stained specimens of these tissues from such a region there can be detected a slight activity of AcP and beta-Gl, but no activity of beta-Est, while that of AmP can be seen occasionally. 5. In the regenerated mucosal gland ducts in the peripheral area of ulcer the activity of AcP, beta-Est and beta-Gl is found to have increased. 6. In the case where the tissue has fallen into a degenerated necrotic state the activity of everyone of these hydrolysates is increased. 7. In the area of intestinal metaplasia, all these enzymes show strong activity, resem-bling that in the villi of duodenum. 8. In those smooth muscles adjacent to inflammatory region, the activity of beta-Est is specifically increased. 9. The activity of AcP and beta-Gl of the epithelial cells in the area with marked cell infiltration is higher than in those epithelial cells located in other regions.
Whith the use of tissue specimens obtained from 60 patients of stomach polyp, gastritis or gastric ulcer at the time of operation, some histochemical studies on 8 kinds of dehydrogenases, such as SDH, LDH, MDH, alpha-GDH, beta-HDH, G-6-PDH and ICDH were carried out, and the results are briefly summarized in the following. 1. It has been found that the activity of everyone of these dehydrogenases is slightly increased in the tissue of stomach gastritis. 2. In the case of hypertrophic gastritis such activity is still higher. 3. In atrophic gastritis the activity of everyone of these enzymes in gland cells decreases with the decrease in the number of gland cells, but the activity is maintained in proportion to the degree of inflammation. 4. The activity of SDH and NAD-linked dehydrogenases is increased in those encapsulated epithelial cells and gland cells located adjacent to the region of a marked cell infiltration. 5. On the proximal side of the capillary blood vessels in the inflammatory area, the activity of NADP-linked dehydrogenases appears faintly but it is not so noticeable as that of alkalinephosphatase. 6. Among wandering cells, the activity of SDH, LDH and MDH is high in lymphoid cells; the activity of LDH, beta-HDH, G-6-PDH and ICDH is strong in histiocytes; and the activity of SDH and LDH is relatively high in granulocytes. 7. In the neoplasm of the ulcer base, with exception of SDH, everyone of these dehydrogenases shows either a minimal or a moderate activity, but it is somewhat decreased in the region of hyaline degeneration. 8. While the enzyme activity is seen to increase transiently as the necrosis sets in, it decreases with the lapse of time, finally disappearing altogether. 9. The activity of everyone of these enzymes in the regenerated mucous epithelium is found to have increased slightly, and it is stronger than that in the proliferated area of the gastric gland cervix. 10. In those regions of intestinal metaplasia, generally each of these dehydrogenases shows a strong activity, resembling to that in the villi of duodenum.
In the bone-marrow tissue culture conducted previously the auther found that on the addition of anticancer agents in a very low concentration the agent rather accelerated the growth of the human bone-marrow cells obtained from the cancer bearing and noncancer bearing individuals. Therefore, it has been assumed that the administration of a small amount of anticancer agent might accelerate the cancer growth rather than inhibit it. On the basis of this supposition, a series of experiments were conducted to see the effects of various anticancer agents on cancer bearing mice as well as on tumor growth itself. For this purpose three strains of mouse ascites tumor cells, namely, Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, lymphoid leukemic cells strain SN 36, and Sarcoma 180 cells were selected and these were inoculated intraperitoneally into mice. Next, anticancer agents, namely, Mitomycin C, Cyclophosphamide, and Chromomycin A3, each in the concentration of 1/20 and 1/40 of their effective dose, were administered to these mice receiving transplantation of tumor cells, at two different stages, one at an early stage after the transplantation of cancer cells (initial stage) and the stage where the animals were on the threshold of death from tumor (terminal stage). The results of observations are briefly presented in the following. 1. Looking over the survival curves and the average of survival time of the cancer bearing mice, in the group of animals that received the anticancer agent at the initial stage of cancer there could be observed no definite trend but there seemed to be a strong tendency to prolong the average of survival time. In contrast to this group, those received anticancer agent at the terminal stage definitely showed the shortening of the average of survival time. 2. As for the changes in the increase of body weight and the total packed cell volume, while the group receiving the administration of anticancer agent at the initial stage generally showed lower values than the control group, and the group receiving it at the terminal stage showed higher values, indicating the acceleration of tumor growth. 3. With respect to the mitotic index, in the group receiving the administration at the initial stage the index fell on the whole, but it recovered markedly after lapse of 72 hours. In the group receiving the administration at the terminal stage there could be observed two different groups; one that had a decreasing tendency in the index value after the administration but it turned to rise markedly after 72 hours, and the other group that showed a marked rise in the index value immediately after the administration and maintaining this high level even after the lapse 72 hours. 4. As for the rate of DNA synthesis in tumor cells (computed on the basis of the labeling index with the combined use of 3H-thymidine and autoradiography), the rate as a whole tended to fall in the group receiving the administration of anticancer agent at the initial stage, whereas in the group receiving it at the terminal stage it tended to increase. 5. By the same technique with the use of 3H-thymidine the average of grain count in labeled tumor cells was calculated to see the change if any. As the result it was found that on the whole the group receiving the anticancer agent at the initial stage tended to show a fall in the average of grain count, while the group receiving it at the terminal stage revealed a rise in the average of grain count, suggesting that the rate of DNA synthesis was decreased in the former group while it was accelerated in the later.
By using Ehrlich tumor ascites of ddN mice, the phagocytosis of ascites macrophage and the tumor cell has been observed in vitro in the medium containing chondroitin sulfric acidiron colloid. Observations revealed that macrophage phagocytizes the colloid particles but the tumor cell does not in spite of its marked pinocytotic activity. Macrophage adsorbed the colloid particles on its surface but the tumor cell did not, indicating that the adhesion of the colloid particles induces phagocytosis. At the area where the colloid particles were adsorbed small rhopheocytotic vesicles developed and then phagocytotic vesicles were formed, suggesting that rhopheocytosis is the initial step of phagocytosis. The adsorption of the colloid particles occured on the cell surface with a certain distance but not covering whole the surface of the cell. This fact indicates that specific groups having the affinity to the colloid particle should exist on the cell surface of macrophage, by which macrophage can phagocytize the particles. The particles were found to be accumulated in the phagocytotic vesicles. This should be obtained by the membrane flow toward the inside of the cell. Generally the vesicle is connected to the cell surface by narrow tubule. The number of colloid particles in vesicle will increase with the reduction of vesicular volume by dispersing water and the small molecules into cytoplasm.
By using n acrophage found in Ehrlich tumor ascites of ddN mice observations have been made how the process of phagocytosis is dependent to the energy metabolism of the cell. The process of phagocytosis has been observed in the presence of various inhibitors for glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and the following results were obtained. 1. Phagocytosis of the macrophage for chondroitin sulfric acid-iron colloid was inhibited by monoiodoacetic acid and sodium fluoride, and also in the cold environment (0°C), but not by potassium cyanide, 2, 4·dinitrophenol and antimycin A. 2. Monoiodoacetic acid and sodium fluoride resulted in the swelling and rounding of the cell with the disappearance of pseudopod. In the cold environment the cell was also swollen but the pseudopod formation was retained as well as in hypotonic media, where active phagocytosis was observed. 3. From these findings it was concluded that phagocytosis is an energy dependent reaction and the main energy will be provided by glycolysis.
Studies on the free tumor cells in the circulating blood of the patients with malignant tumors were made before and after the treatment of the disease, The results are as follows; 1) There are more frequent appearances of atypical cells such as plasma cells, atypical lymphocytes and megakaryocytes in the peripheral blood of the patients with malignant tumors than the normal cases. Specially, the megakaryocytes were seen in 53% of the cases with malignant tumors and it is definitely higher incidence than that of normal cases (14.8%). 2) The tumor cells were detected in the peripheral blood of 25 out of 87 cases 28.7%) with malignant tumors which include 4 cases of sarcomas. 3) The tumor cells were detected more often in the cases with larger tumors. 4) Tumor cells were seen in the peripheral blood of 6 out of 32 operable cases with malignant tumors (18.8%) but 21 out of 55 inoperable cases (38.2%), this means twice as much as higher incidence of tumor cells detection in the latter than the former case. Specially in the cases with recurrent tumors, tumor cells were observed in the very high incidence, 9 out of 16 cases (56.2%). 5) Tumor cells were detected more often in the peripheral blood of the case with undifferentiated tumor than one with differentiated tumor. 6) In the blood of regional venous system, the tumor cells were seen in 19 out of 49 cases (38.3%) which is twice as much as higher incidence than that of the peripheral blood. 7) In the postoperative cases, the peripheral blood were examined up to the 7th postoperative day and tumor cells were noted in the 6 out of 41 cases. 8) The cases with recurrent tumor or in the terminal stage who were being treated with anticancer agents were revealed to have tumor cells in the peripheral blood in 56% of the cases (13 out of 23 cases) before starting the treatment, temporary increased up to 64% at the 3rd day, 44% at the 7th day and 40% at the 14th day decreasing slightly in the incidence. On the contrary, the cases which had irradiation treatment showed no temporary increasing of tumor cells in the peripheral blood at the 3rd day after starting the treatment. 9) No definite correlation was noticed between the prognosis and changes in number of tumor cells in the peripheral blood of the cases during the treatment either with anticancer agents or irradiation.
For the purpose to study morphology and fine structures of the reproductive cells such as vitelline cells and vitelline globules as well as the structural arrangement of the female reproductive organ and the mechanism of the formation of operculum in Echinostoma hortense Asada, electron microscope observations were conducted, and the results of this study are briefly presented in the following. 1. The morphology of Echinostoma hortense has a basic structural arrangement as observed in general trematodes, and it is a characteristic feature of this trematode that numerous vitelline glands are distribted in the posterior half of this worm and many vitelline globules in the insemination chamber. 2. This insemintion chamber of the worm is the thickened, enalarged oviduct, and many sperms and ovums are detected in it. 3. There can be recognised the formation of egg-shell in the proximal part of uterus in the observation of live worms, and in the formation of operculum there are seen one or two vitelline cells whose sceleroma is delayed at one polar end of the longitudinal axis and at this site the egg-shell is formed. 4. In the electron microscope observations on fine structures of vitelline glands it has been possible to trace various steps from the beginning of vitelline cells to the ones that are mature and free. In those cells that are still immature there can be already detected groups of vitelline globules of high electron density. 5. Electron microscope observations of the fine structures of mature vitelline cells revealed two different kinds of vitelline globules; namely, one group was composed of vitelline globules that existed from the immature stage of the cell and the other was of those globules produced from fibroid bodies and were relatively less eleçtron dense globules. 6. There are two kinds of cells in the gland cells of Mehlis' gland of this trematode, and their morphological differences are that B-type cell located near the ootype has two kind of secretory globules while A-type cell located farther away possesses only a single but different secretory globules.
The adult worms were collected from rats 30 days after infection with metacercariae of Echinostoma hortense which cysted on the gill of Misgurunus anguillicaudatus. The testis and ovaries of matured worms were extracted from live adult worms and there were stained with 45% aceto-orcein solution for chromosome observations. The results of the study are briefly presented as follows. 1. Ten bivalent chromosomes can be seen in both primary spermatocytes and oocytes, which signifies the diploid number of chromosomes to be 20 (2n=20). 2. A spermatocyte is divided into four spertides after binary division. 3. The spermatozac after being transformed into the same number of spermatides, pass through vas deferens and wanter out to the seminal vesicle, and after copulation there, they are ejected into the uterus. 4. When the ovum has moved to the center of ovary, it reaches the leptotene stage and is inseminated. 5. The cocyte after insemination enters into egg-shell at ootype and then migranting towards the uterus, under goes two mitotis (meitotic) division and is transformed to prenucleus. 6. Sperms are gradually enlarged within the oocyte and forming the nucleus, now are transformed to sexual pronucleus. Oocytes that have formed sexual pronucleus in the center of uterus undergo karyogamy near she periphery of uterus, and after the first cleavage of ovum, there are formed two cells of a large and a small one each having 2n=20 chromosomes. Subsequently, they undergo the second cleavage to form one large cell and three small cells. At the time of spawning the ovum is composed of the primary and secondary polocytes and a cell at the fourth cleavage as well as a vitelline cell just before disintegration.
Morphology of four different larvae of Nematodes inclusive of Anisakis type (Filocapsularia) was studied. Larvae were collected from Trachurus japonicus on which they live as parasites. These larvae were classified by the method of Skrjabin et al, and they were found to be larvae of Raphidascaris, Anisakis (Filocapsularia), Contracaecum, and Amplicaecum. Both light and electron microscope observations were carried out with cross-section specimens of these larvae, and it was possible to obtain some characteristic morphological features of the larvae of Anisakis type. Some of these features that differ from those of other larvae are described briefly in the following. 1. The length of larvae of Anisakis type is longest of all the four kinds, and the cross-section of this larva revealed a lateral cord which has a peculiar shape and size. 2. This larva has the thickest cuticle as compared with other three kinds, and the number of muscle cells is most numerous. In addition, the arrangement of the bond of myofibrils is characteristic.
We encoutered a patient suspected of appendicitis. and after the surgical operation we discovered four migrated worms in the submucous tissue of the small intestine. These worms, from their morphology and fine structures of the body, were proven to be larvae of Amsakis (Filocapsularia) type Nematoda.