In the phenylhydrazin anemia induced by the author's method a protracted and persistent anemia, an increase in the number of reticulocytes, a marked loss of the body weight, and striking hemosiderosis in the liver and other organs, could be observed. The author observed the manner of the recovery from anemia and the changes in hemosiderosis in these anemic animal after injection of such substances as ferritrat, ferrobalt, gluferricon, gelatin iron (kindly supplied by Dainihon Seiyaku K. K.) serum iron colloid (S. I. C.) prepared by mixing homologus serum with FeCl8. Besides these, similar experiments were carried on the phenylhydrazin anemic rabbits Whose reticulo-endthelial system had been blocked with carbon black. As the results, in the case of daily injection of 0.5mg. of such an iron compound per day, S. I. C. proves to be the most effective on the recovery of anemia, followed by ferritrat, ferrobalt, gelatin iron, and gluferricon in the descending order. As for the decrease in reticulocyte number, it occurs in about the same order as above. As for the recovery of hemosiderosis S. I. C. acts most effectively followed by ferritrat, but others hardly have any effect. When 10mg. a day is given twice during the period of 10 days. The recoveries of anemia are delayed comparing to those given 0.5mg. daily. Saying from the last series of experiment only anemia recovers more rapidly with gelatin iron or ferritrat than others, but no recovery of hemosiderosis can be recognized in the liver. However, in this instance the amount of liver ferritin is highest when S. I. C. is given followed by ferritrat, ferrobalt, gluferricon and gelatin iron in the descending order. In the rabbits whose R. E. S. is blocked by carbon black, the iron injection can not help to recover any of these disturbances. From these results, for iron there seems to be a fairly great difference in entering into the iron metabolic cycle according to the chemical structure of iron compounds, and in the case of the most effective ones like S. I. C. reticulocytes decrease in number along with the recovery of anemia; the amount of ferritin in the tissues increase; and hemosiderosis recovers markedly. However, as these changes do not occur when the reticulo-endothelial system is blocked, it is believed that the reticulo-endothelial cells play an important role in there changes. Furthermore, a smaller amount of iron injected daily is utilized much better than a large dose of iron given at one time.
By severing sciatic nerves in abult rabbits the author observed the degeneration and regeneration of the proximal and distal side of the severed nerves under the electron microscope and also observed variously-stained specimens of these nerves under microspectroscope, and obtained the following results. 1. The degeneration of myelinic axon on the distal side of the severed nerve occurs soon after the severance, and also the degeneration of individual nerve fibers commences ununiformly and its progress is rapid: namely, three days afterwards the majority of myelinic axons show a marked degeneration picture, and by the fifth day after the severance all the myelinic axons show a marked degeneration. The destruction of the laminar structure of the myelin sheath can be recognized 5 to 7 days afterwards, and it gradually proceeds with lapse of the time. 2. The processes of the destruction and disappearance of the degenerated axoplasm and myelin sheath can be observed mainly in the Schwann cells. 3. On the proximal end one week after the severance regenerated axons already infolded by the Schwann cells can be observed. And by the second to third week the regeneration appears in a laminated myelin sheath formation of the regenerated axon at the proximal end and distal sutured end of the severed nerve. As for the regeneration mechanism of the myelin sheath, the findings are similar to those reported by Gerren: namely, the myelin sheath is formed by the cell membranes of the Schwann cells encircling the regenerated axon in many folds. 4. The nerve tissue of the distal side 12 weeks after the suture is still young and shows many myelinic slender nerve fibers, as compared with the normal nerve tissue. 5. When the proximal side of the severed nerve is severed again, the retrogressive degeneration observable in the proximal end of the part severed again is almost identical with that of the part severed at first: and a portion of nerve fibers show the degeneration as much as 0.3 to 0.6 cm towards the proximal side. 6. In this instance the regeneration of nerve fibers observable at the proximal end of the part severed for the second time is a little less than that of the proximal end of the part severed at first: and there can be seen a strong tendency of connective tissue proliferating in the neurom caused by severance. 7. In comparing the regenerative capacity of the severed proximal end according to the length of period between the first and the second severance, namely, those severed at the intervals of from one to 8 weeks, the regeneration of the experiment in which the second severance was made at the interval of 8 weeks is especially poor.
Comparative study was done on the protein of gatsric juice in empty stomach of 54 persons including gastric patients and health ones by filter paper electrophoresis. The fluctuations of fractions of gastric juice by histamin stimulation were done to 29 cases of them. 1) Six fractions were found in the case of normal gastric juice, while 4-6 fractions were admitted in that of gastric patients. 2) These were Called A C1 C2 C3 C4 B counted from the order of larger mobility. 3) Fraction A has a larger mobility than human serum albumin. Fraction B moves to the negative side than human serum γ-globulin. Fractions C1-4 show a similar mobility to human serum albumin and globulin. 4) Fraction A was highly recognized in gastric juice below pH. 3.0 but in that beyond pH. 3.0 it was not quite found. 5) The enlargment or appearance of fraction A was found in the gastric juice under pH 3.0 by histamin injection, but nothing was found in that above pH 3.0. 6) No enlargement or its appearance of fraction A was found in gastric cancer patients with gastric juice above pH 3.0. 7) The same tendency could be found in fracion B.
The fraction in filter paper electrophoresis and protein contents of gastric wall tissue protein in resected stomachs from various gastric patients were measured. Moreover using dogs, protein construction of gastric wall from lesser curvature side of the pylorus, which is a predilection part of various gastric diseases, was examined to know its local disposition. 1) The filter paper electrophoresis of normal human gastric wall tissue protein is divided into 6 fractions both in mucous and muscle layers at every part of the stomach. In dogs, it was divided into 5 fractions. 2) At filter paper electrophoresis the first fraction is high both in mucous and muscle layer. Especially it is marked in corpus and pylorus. 3) In cancer tissues the first fraction is not admitted or it is extremely low, but the sixth fraction is high as that in the noncancerous part. The fractions are usually not stable. 4) The soluble protein content of normal gastric wall tissue muscle layer is at least in corpus and most in pylorus. On the contrary that of mucous layer is less in pylorus. 5) Both soluble and total protein content in gastric cancer tissue show lower values compared with those of normal, gastritis and gastric ulcer. 6) Comparing the soluble protein content of every part of normal gastric wall in dogs, the protein content exists apparently more in mucous layer than in muscle layer at sides of lesser curvature of fundus and major curvature of corpus. On the contrary, at the sides of lesser curvature of corpus and pylorus, it exsists less in mucous than in muscle layer. The latter two parts agree with the predilection part of gastritit, ulcer and cancer and they are supposed to be one of the local dispositions.
In order to explain the effect on the enzyme activities of bacteria to glucose and succinate on the reaction by resting cells under different pH from that of culture media, the author observed the enzyme activities of Sal. 57 S under a various pH of reaction media by means of conventional WARBURG's manometer. Sal. 57 S used in this study were cultured at the pH of 5.4, 7.2 and 8.3 respectively. The effect on the enzyme activity by a sudden change of pH during the reaction was also studied. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Concerns to the enzyme activity to glucose, the bacterial cells showed an adaptation to the different pH of reaction media by short time incubation of resting cells in that media and gave the proper reaction rate to the pH of reaction media. By the change of the pH of reaction media to the identical pH of culture media during the reaction, this adaptation to the reaction media was gradually lost and the reaction rate approached to the rate found at the same pH as growth media. But the bacterial cells cultured at the pH of 5.4 adapted to the pH of reaction media in alkaline by long time incubation in that and the reaction rate retained for long in spite of the change of pH to the pH of growth media. 2) In the case of the activity to succinate, the bacterial cells did not show an adaptation to the different pH of reaction media by such incubation as above. The enzyme activity of either culture was found to be highest at the pH of 5.4.
Heinz's Bodies in the erythrocytes floating in the urines and in the body fluids of healthy individuals, and those found in the cases suffered from various diseases were studied. In view of the vicissitudes of Heinz's Body formations in the blood and by means of Yoshida' s method, the following results were obtained. 1. Heinz's Bodies in the microscopic hematuria after the exercises were foiund in 3 out of 32 cases of healthy males and in 3 out of 5 healthy females. No Heinz's Body was found in the circulating blood. The quantity of Heinz's Bodies produced by Yoshida's method was increaced in comparison with the previous reports, but there was no relationship with those in the urine. 2. Heinz's Bodies in the urine were positive in 3 out of 10 acute nephritis cases (3.7%) and so were in one case of valvular heart disease (2%). 3. It was thought that Heinz's Bodies in the hematuria where produced in the tubules by escape and oxydation of catalase in erythrocytes filtered from glomeruli. 4. In one case with the joint exudate, Heinz's Hodies were found at the rate of 2%.
The vicissitudes of Heinz's Bodies in the hematuria, in the blood, and of those produced by Yoshida's method after the experimental renal impairments on rabbits by means of Cantharidin causing damages of renal glomeruli and of uranium nitrate and mercuric chloride causing damages of renal tubules. And the following results were obtained. 1. The formation of Heinz's Bodies was accelated by Cantharidin. 2. The vicissitudes of Heinz's Bodies produced by Yoshida's method were in parallel with toxicity and lassitude after renal impairments. 3. It might be thought that Heinz's Bodies in the urine were formed at first in the blood and then were excreted into the urine. Incidentally, it also might be thought that they were formed in the erythrocytes while which were in the tubules following being filtered from the renal tubules. In the renal tubules were necessitated to be relatively normal condition.
Bilirubinoide in the feces of various patients was separated by column chromatography. And the results were as follows. 1. Bilirubin and urobilin could be separated from the feces of various patients, but other bilirubinoide was only identified by the absorption curves because of the scanty dosis. 2. Bilirubin, mesobilirubin, dihydromesobilirubin and urobilin were separated from the feces of 6 cases in the 8 cases with the administration of antibiotics for a long period, and bilirubin, dihydrobilirubin, mesobilirubin and urobilinogen in other one case and bilirubin, dihydromesobilirubin in another case. 3. In the above 2 cases with the administration of antibiotics, mesobilirhodin and mesobiliviolin were identified in the mixture of urobilin, but each fraction of them could be scarcely separated. Since dihydromesobilirubin was separated at that time, it was thought that mesobilirhodin and mesobiliviolin were produced by the oxydation of dihydromesoblilirubin during the separation process. Therefore, it was thought that dihydromesobilirubin produced in the intestine was composed of two isomerides. 4. The formation of urobilinogen in the intestine was supposed to take the same reduction process of bilirubin by colloidal palladium in vitro.
The separation of bilirubinoide in the anaerobic cultured solution of bilirubin with the fecal filtrate of the patient taking antibiotics and the cultured solution of the above fecal filrate in the phosphate pepton solution for 24hours under the anaerobic condition was attempted. And the results were as follows. 1. Indirect, direct bilirubin and mesobilirubin were separated at the 12th hour, same products at the 24th hour, dihydromesobilirubin and the above products at the 36th hour and urobilin and the above products at the 48th hour after the action of fecal filtrate to bilirubin, but only urobilin was identified after 72hours. 2. Indirect-, direct bilirubin, dihydromesobilirubin were separated at the 12th hour, indirect bilirubin and mesobilirubin at the 24th hour, dihydromesobilirubin at the 36th hour, and indirect bilirubin, mesobilirubin, dihydromesobilirubin and urobilin at the 48th hour after the anaerobic incubation of bilirubin with the cultured solution of a small amount of fecal filtrate in the phosphate pepton solution, but only urobilin was identified after 72hours. 3. Bilirubin was reduced to urobilinogen pasing though mesobilirubin, dihydromesobilirubin by anaerobic bacterial flora and it's reduction process was same to the reduction process of bilirubin by colloidal palladium, clarified by H. Fischer.
The influence to the formation of verdohemochrme was spectrochemically observed on the action of hydrazine sulphate and oxygen to pyridine hemin in various changes of the reacting condition and the formation process of the product with the absorption maximum at 630 mμ was spectrochemically observed on the action of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine sulphate to pyridine hemin under the airless condition. And the results were as follows. 1. In this reaction system, the influence of pH was great, the formation dosis of verdohemochrome was low on the high pH-value of reaction solution, the reaction was slow and the formation dosis of verdohemochrome was declined on the pH-value around 7.0, and it was decided that the pH-value at 8.5-8.0 was the most suitable. 2. The pyridine concentraticn was the most suitable in 20% of absolute concentration, the reacting process was not good below 20% and the decomposition of verdohemochrome was promoted on the over dosis. 3. There was the correlation between the hemin concentration and hydrazine concentration, the most proper concentration rate was needed and the dosis of hydrazine sulphate was needed in 10 or 25 times' Mol. concentration of hemin dosis. 4. The most proper concentration of hemin was 20mg/dl, when the concentration of hydrazine sulphate was made to be the most proper concentration rate to the hemin concentration. 5. In the reaction using hydrazine sulphate, the shaking of flask at 50°C was necessary and it was more slow in comparison with the reaction using ascorbic acid. 6. The formation of the product with the absorption maximum at 630 mμ was certified in the pyridine hemin-hydrazine-H2O2 reaction system and the absorption maximum was easily shifted to 650mμ on the aeration of oxygen to the above product. 7. In this reaction system, it persevered the absorption of pyridine hemichrome, and the absorption picture of pyridine hemochrome was observed on the progression of the pyridine hemin-hydrazine-H2O2 reaction system under the airless condition. 8. Since the above results, it was understood that the oxydation-reduction potential in the hydrazine reaction system was much different in comparison with that of the 1-ascorbic acid reaction system.
The combination of the verdohematin produced by the method of R. Lemberg and the human serum which was previously produced or globin of hemoglobin was observed. And the results were as follows. 1. Verdohematin combined with albumin of human serum and albumin verdohemichrome and degenerative albumin verdohemichrome were produced. 2. The production of albumin verdohemochrome and albumin verdohemichrome was spectrochemically observed on the decomposition process of the methemalbumin, which was produced by the combination of hematin with human serum, to bile pigment. 3. Verdohemation combined with globin of unchanged hemoglobin and globin verdohemichrome was produced. 4. The adsorption maximum agreeing with that of globinverdohemichrome was not obtained on the decomposition process of hemoglobin to bile pigment. Therefore, there were some difference of chemical constitutional formula between the substances named choleglobin or verdohemoglobin. 5. Verdohematin was relatively stable to the oxydation by the combination with albumin and globin.
In pursuit of the life span curve of rabbit erythrocytes with the use of radioactive iron as the tracer, and by transfusion of 1 ml/kg labeled erythrocytes, divided into young, mature and old, into normal rabbits, the author studied changes of radioactivity in peripheral blood, and the distribution and changes of radioiron in the liver, spleen, kidneys and bone marrow after the destruction of erythrocytes in each group of animals; and obtained the following results. 1. By administering intravenous injection of Fe59-globulin into blood-depleted anemic rabbits and then giving daily intravenous injection of 3 mg/kg non-radioactive gluferricon per day for the period between the tenth day and seventieth day after the previous injection when the radioactivity of the labeled erythrocytes in circulating peripheral blood has reached the maximum, it has been found that the maximum rate of Fe59-utilization on the sixtieth day has declined to 28.5 per cent as compared with the maximum of 84.6 per cent in Fe59-utili zation at the early stage of the tenth day. This proves that there is a marked inhibition on the re-utilization of iron after destruction of erythrocytes. 2. The average life span of rabbit erythrocytes calculated from the life span curve under these experimental conditions is roughly 30 days. 3. When transfusion of 1 ml/kg labeled erythrocytes divided into young, mature and old, is given to different groups of normal rabbits, the older erythrocytes disappear quickly from the circulating blood, while the rate of decrease in mature erythrocytes is relatively slower, taking generally three weeks to decrease. However, in the case of young erythrocytes the changes is most peculiar in that it rapidly decreases about 20 per cent within 24 hours after the transfusion and thereafter the decrease is slowest. In other words, those erythrocytes that have been physiologically disintegrated and disposed of are mostly older erythrocytes, but some of young ones with extremely short span of life seem to be included. 4. In the pursuit of visceral distribution of radioactive iron after the similar blood tranfusion firstly no significant difference in the distribution rate among various organs can be recognized by the age of transfused blood. As for the distributed quantity per unit of organ weight it is decidedly great in the spleen as compared with other organs. The percentage of the iron distribution by different organs is generally higher in the liver and bone marrow, followed by the spleen; and in the kidneys it is found to be in only a trace. Therefore, as for the site of physiological disposal of erythrocytes at least the spleen seems to have no special bearing but rather the liver and bone marrow seem to be closely involved in such physiological processes. Moreover, in contrast to the case where hemoglobin is loaded, no significance can at all be attributable to the kidneys as the site of erythrocyte disposal, and in the meanwhile a secondary change in iron content can be recognized in bone marrow as the hematopoietic organ.
With the purpose to elucidate the in vivo aging processes of erythrocytes as a follow-up study of the previous report, the author studied the changes of easily split off iron, resistance to osmotic pressure and mechanical fragility in the labeled erythrocytes, young, mature, and aged, obtained after intravenous injection of Fe59-globulin into blood-depleted anemic rabbits and further given a large dose of non-radioactive iron compound; and obtained the following results. 1. In the observations conducted on changes in the easily split off iron of labeled erythrocytes from young ones to aged ones after intravenous injection of Fe59-globulin into blood-depleted anemic rabbits, the easily split off iron content is greatest in the regenerating stage and least in the mature stage; whereas in the aging stage it again tends to increasa slightly. Furthermore, these fluctuations are considered to ba stochastically significant changas. 2. In comparing the percentage of residual erythrocytes with the change in the easily split off iron content in peripheral blood after the transfusion of labeled erythrocytes, young, mature, and aged, into normal rabbits, generally there can be recognized an inverse relationship between the two, and it has been reconfirmed that the content of easily split off iron in erythrocytes, including some young erythrocytes destined to an early destruction increases along with the aging. 3. In estimation of osmoticpressure resistance of erythrocytes in various age by the hemolytic ratio in hypotonic saline solution, it has been found that the resistance to osmotic pressure is weakest in young erythrocytes, and it increases rapidly with maturation, reaching equal to or slightly over the resistance of whole erythrocytes. Moreover, no significant changes in the osmoticpressure resistance can be observed along with aging processes, and the resistance of aged erythrocytes is about the same as that of whole erythrocytes. 4. In estimating mechanical fragility of erythrocytes in similar age range, by the ratio of hemolysis due to shaking, the fragility is greatest in aged erythrocytes, followed by young ones and least in mature ones.
Bronchospirometries in the supine and both lateral positions have been performed on 20 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Ten of them had also determination made while sitting. Following results were obtained. 1) The total oxygen consumption showed a slight increase in both right and left lateral positions as compared with while supine. A definite increase both in the absolute amount and in the percentage of oxygen consumption was noted in the under lung in the lateral position. 2) A slight increase in absolute amount and a definite increase in the percentage of minute volume and tidal volume were noted in the under lung. 3) The ventilation equivalent decreased in the under lung, indicating increased efficiency. 4) Both total and differential vital capacity showed no change in both lateral positions. However, a definite decrease both in the absolute amount and in the percentage of reserve air was noted in the under lung in the lateral position. 5) In the sitting position pulmonary function improved in every respects. This position was considered less resistant for respiration than the other positions. These findings were entirely similar as found in the study of the same kind made on normal persons.
Bronchospirometric study was performed with ambient air and oxygen on 46 patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Entire series were divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 28 patients where bronchospirometry was made under air and oxygen breathing, alternatively. The test was made on ten patients of the second group where one lung breath air and the other oxygen. The third group was consisted of 8 patients where one lung breath air and the other oxygen following oxygen breathing of both lungs. 1) Decrease of oxygen uptake was marked under air breathing compared to in oxygen breathing in advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, no constant changes in oxygen uptake were noted in moderately advanced and minimum cases. 2) Increase of ventiratory volume, respiratory frequency and minute volume were usually noted in the lung which breathes ambient air. Increase of minute volume is marked in the side of better functioning lung. 3) Respriatory equivalent increased in the lung which breathes air, especially marked in advanced and moderately advanced cases. 4) Vital capacity increased slightly in the side breathing air. 5) Bronchospirometry with air breathing can be performed without any undue burden on patients, if the test is limited in ten minutes, and give more precise information of pulmonary function of the affected lung than in ordinary bronchospirometry with oxygen.
1) Effects of surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, especially, lobectomy, thoracoplasty, extrapleural pneumothorax, segmental and partial resection on respiratory function were studied by bronchospirometry preoperatively andsix months postoperatively. Following results were obtained. 2) Effects on operated lung were most marked in thoracoplasty, and diminished in lobectomy, extrapleural pneumothorax and segmental resection in that order. It was minimum inpartial resection. 3) Decrease of respiratory function was exaggerated in cases where thoracoplasty was supplemented or pleural thickening developed following lobectomy compared to in cases without complications. 4) Decrease of vital capacity was most prominent in all the groups and decrease in oxygen consumption is in the second place. Decrease was minimum in minute volume. 5) In the contralateral lung, compensatory increaseof oxygen uptake and minute volume were noted though vital capacity decreased in all the groups. 6) Effects of extrapleural pneumothorax on respiratory function were variable. Some showed marked increase in ventiratory function, though marked decrease ensued in others.
Research on the biological activity of proteins has developed on the basis of studies carried on the chemical derivatives of proteins produced after a selective reaction between some chemical reagents and specific amino acid residual group in proteins. Following the techniques of G. C. Butler, C. R. Harington and M. E. Yuill (1940) the author produced aspirin-protein by chemically combining amino group of serum protein (ε-Amino group of lysine residual group) with aspirin, and carried out serological studies with this aspirin-protein, especially on the homogeneity between aspirin-protein and serum protein, and on the change in the property of proteins by the introduction of aspirin, and obtained the following results. 1. The free amino acid group consumed in the chemical combination of aspirin with protein can be confirmed by the ninhydrin reaction with reagent hydrindantin. 2. The viscosity of aspirin-protein is higher than that of normal serum protein. 3. And aspirin-protein has moved its isoelectric point towards the acidic side. 4. The aspirin group of aspirin-protein is possible to isolate and extract with toluene, after hydrolyzis aspirin-protein, and to be determined colorimeterically by Gerhardt's iron perchloride reaction.
On the Precipitation reactions in homologous and heterogous antigen-antibody systems, the author studied the immuno-chemical properties of aspirin between anti-aspirin-proteins rabbit sera with homologous antigen (bovine serum globulin-aspirin, human serum aspirin) and heterogous antigen (rabbit serum globulin-aspirin) as aspirin-protein conjugates. And also the inhibitory action of aspirylglycine on the antigen-antibody reaction was studied and the following results were obtained. 1. It is possible to confirm in vitro serological antigen-antibody reaction between the aspirin-protein conjugates and the anti-aspirin-protein rabbit sera. 2. It is also possible to confirm the immuno-chemical properties of aspirin from the cross reaction occurring in the antigen-antibody reaction. 3. From this immuno-chemical characteristic it has been possible to recognize that aspirin as a hapten possesses antigenicity. 4. In the above-mentioned cross reaction, inhibitory phenomenon by aspirylglycine is established. 5. The inhibitory phenomenon by aspirylglycine can be recognized not only in the antigen titer but also in the antibody titer.
There are already many reports in various allergic reactions by aspirin, but most of them deal with the reactions induced by aspirin alone or a physical compound of aspirin and serum protein, as the antigens. For this reason they failed to demonstrate the antigen-antibody reaction in vitro although they recognized the establishment of active allergy. In addition, there are few reports in which conjugates of aspirin to serum proteins are used as antigen, but there seems to be no report on any experimental localized passive allergy. In the present experiment, the author selectively sensitized rabbits and guinea-pigs using conjugates of aspirin to proteins or aspirin solutions as the antigens, and studied the localized skin allergy in these test animals. The results are as follows. 1. In the rabbits and guinea-pigs sensitized with aspirin-protein, active and passive Arthus' reactions have been recognized. 2. In the above-mentioned active and passive Arthus' reactions, a cross reaction has been recognized to occur by heterogous antigen just as in the case of the precipitation reaction. 3. In the sensitization of guinea-pigs using aspirin alone, it has been recognized that there occurs the active Arthus' reaction by aspirin-proteins and by aspirin. 4. In the active Arthus' reaction induced by the aspirin-protein, there can be recognized some reaction differences between the sensitizing antigen and the cross-antigen. The grade of these reactions is more marked in the former. 5. In the active Arthus' reaction induced in the guinea-pigs sensitized with aspirin alone, no reaction differences such as mentiones above can be recognized. 6. In the passive Arthus' reaction there can't be recognized some reaction differences between the corresponding antigen and the chemical cross antigen. 7. The animals sensitized either actively or passively with aspirin have been found to respond to sodium salicylate.
Spectrochemical observations were chiefly attempted on the formation process of verdohemochrome from protohemin dimethyl ester by O2 in the presence of ascorbic acid. And the results were as follows. 1. Verdohemochrome was obtained from pyridine hemin dimethyl ester by the action of ascorbic acid and O2. And the process of this reaction was spectrophotometrically similar to that of hemin. 2. The reaction construction was same to that of hemin and the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. was found in the course of this reaction, as a intermediate product. This product was purely obtained from pyridine hemin dimethyl ester by the action of H2O2 in the presence of ascorbic acid, and it was transformed into verdohemochrome by O2. 3. It was supposed that the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. and verdohemochrome were dimethyl ester. Biliverdin could be extracted from the latter by HCl and it was difficult to conclude if it was dimethyl ester, but it was thought that some part of it was probably ester. The absorption curves of these reaction products were nearly same to that obtained from hemin. 4. The necessary concentration of ascorbic acid for the formation of verdohemochrome in 60% pyridine water was 9.4 Mol. to 1 Mol. of hemin dimethyl ester, and it was equivalent to 3/4 on the occation of hemin. It was thought that the difference was caused by the reactivity. And the necessary concentration of ascorbic acid decreased with increasing pyridine concentration. 5. The most appropriate concentration of ascorbic acid was the smallest amount described the above, on the view point of reaction velocity and verdohemochrome yield, and they decreased with the higher concentration of ascorbic acid than the above. However, the formation velocity of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. was increased with increasing the ascorbic acid concentration. 6. It was supposed that the catalytic action of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. and verdohemochrome was remarkably reinforced in the higher concentration of pyridine and it was thought that the secondary reaction by the excessive concentration of ascorbic acid was caused by the above action. The secondary reaction velocity of them was 1/2 of that obtained from hemin. 7. The abnormal reaction of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. was observed as the absorption band around 610mμ. The process of the further oxidation of verdohemochrome by ascorbic acid was, spectrophotometrically, quite similar to the oxidation of it by H2O2, and both of them were oxidized to yellow substances. Positive pentdyopent reaction was observed in this process. 8. Since the above results, the reactivity of hemin was fairly declined by the esterification of carboxylic acid groups in the side chains, but it was recognized that the formation process of verdohemochrome was not essentially effected by the above esterification.
The formation process of verdohemochrome from pyridine hemin by O2 in the presence of ascorbic acid on the use of pyridine chloroform as the reaction solution was spectrochemically observed, in comparison with that on the use of pyridine water. And the results were as follows. 1. The formation process of verdohemochrome from pyridine hemin by O2 in the presence of ascorbic acid on the use of pyridine chloroform as the reaction solution spectrophoto metrically showed the same process with that on the use of pyridine water and verdohemochrome was finally produced. The reaction construction was same to that on the use of pyridine water and the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ., as a intermediate product, was found in this reaction. 2. On the use of pyridine chloroform with the pyridine concentration below 10% as the reaction solution, the stadium thought to have only pure compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. was observed. And both of the formation process of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. from pyridine hemin and of verdohemochrome from the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. were clearly observed in the same reaction. The above results were caused by that the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. from pyridine hemin was formed with momentary speed on the use of pyridine chloroform in the low concentration. 3. The property of verdohemochrome obtained from pyridine hemin in pyridine chloroform agreed with that of verdohemochrome obtained from pyridine hemin in pyridine water and biliverdin was obtained from it by HCl. 4. The formation velocity of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. from pyridine hemin was very rapid on the use of pyridine in the low concentration (2.5-5%), when the concentration of ascorbic acid was kept constant. And it decreased with increasing pyridine concentration; at higher concentration of pyridine it decreased remarkably. This had relation to pyridine itself, and not to water or chloroform in the reaction solution. On the other hand, it's velocity was proportional to the concentration of ascorbic acid, when pyridine concentration was kept constant. 5. The necessary concentration of ascorbic acid for the formation of verdohemochrome from pyridine heroin in pyridine chloroform was not related to the pyridine concentration, and it was 6.3 Mol. to 1 Mol. of hemin and it was equivalent to 1/3 on the use of 20 % pyridine water. 6. The yield of verdohemohcrome was not related to the pyridine concentration up to a concentration of 20%, and it was the best with smallest amount of ascorbic acid discribed the above, but it became less regularly with increasing ascorbic acid concentration over the above. It became much less in 60% pyridine chloroform. 7. The velocity of th reaction was easily influenced by the pyridine concentration and the yield of verdohemochrome was easily influenced by the concentration of ascorbic acid. 8. The necessary concentration of ascorbic acid for the formation of verdohemochrome had relation with the presence and it's quantity of water in the reaction solution, and the less water decreased, the less was the ascorbic acid and it had no direct relation with pyridine. On the other hand, the catalytic action of pyridine hemin, the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. and verdohemochrome had relation to the former and it was remarkably influenced, and it was reinforced with the decrease of water. The secondary reaction of the above reaction had same relation with the above. 9. The secondary reaction on the use of pyridine chloroform was due to the abnormal decomposition of the compound with the absorption maximum at 630mμ. and verdohemochrome as same as that on the use of pyridine water. 10. In this reaction, the existence of water was not necessary.
T. P. T. staining is a supplementary diagnostic procedure for the detection of carcinoma of the uterus, based upon its varying stainability of endogenous dehydrogenase activity in the cells. In order to clarify an underlying mechanism of the histochemical reaction, the biochemical and histochemical studies were done, using Neo-tetrazolium chloride as an indicator of the enzyme activity, on both the cervical tissues and vaginal smears of cancer and non-cancer patients. In respect to succinic dehydrogenase activity, it appeared to be augmented 2.8 times in the carcinomatous cells than in the non-carcinomatous cells, and 2.4 times in the cancerous smears than in the non-cancerous smears. Also, in regard to endogenous dehydrogenase activity, it seemed to be increased 17 times in malignant cervical tissues than in the non-malignant tissues. Although a striking decrease in the activity was observed in the vaginal smers due possibly to its unstable reaction, it showed to be 1.6 times higher in the cancerous smears than in the non-cancerous smears. Furthermore, the exfoliative cells in the cancer patients, such as cancer cells, non-cancer cells, leucocytes and microorganisms showed a higher activity compared with those in the non-cancer patients. From the evidence above described, it is assumed that the T. P. T. positive reaction observed in the cancer patients might be due to the elevated activity in the various cells and the microorganisms and the concurrent elevation of the vaginal pH approximately close to the optimal pH for the stainability of succinic dehydrogenase. Thus, in the carcinomatous cells, T. P. T. is highly deoxidized with a resultant formation of formazan which makes its appearance in the necrobiotic cells or lipid-phagocytic cells.
Out of 964 patients housed in the Oku Komyoen (a leper house) the author selected 500 patients at random for the statistical observation. They were consisted of 312 males (62.4%) and 188 females (37.6%), whose age ranged from 19 years to 78 years old and most of them were in the ago range between 31 to 50 years old, occupying about 50 per cent of the total. The type of disease can be classified somewhat similar to the classification reported by Ikeda. Those who had claw hand at the onset of leprosy occupy 9.6 per cent, and the claw hand can be seen in 90 per cent of patients 30 years after the onset of the disease. In 37 per cent no claw hand occurred, while in 63 per cent claw hand appeared: and most of them were bilateral. Sensory disturbance can be found in 82 per cent, and the majority of them show peripheral disturbance but some have disturbance in the trunk. Those with the disturbance in ulnar nerve occupy the greatest population, reaching as much as 78.3 per cent. When the grade of claw hand is classified into three degrees, the degree I occupies 13 per cent: the degree II 20 per cent: the degree III 29 per cent: and the rest with normal hand or with fingor defect occupies 38 per cent. The disturbance of opposition of the thumb can be observed in 50 per cent, and 45 per cent of them can not make the thumb-to-finger movement. Those with normal opposition amount to 48 per cent while finger defect can be found in 2 per cent. Disturbance in the finger-to-finger movement can be observed in 52 per cent, surpassing the number of those with claw hand, and those with complete inability to make finger-to-finger movement reach as high as 57 per cent. Those with normal reflex amount to 41 per cent. For the determination of the degree of amyosthenia different muscles were classified according to different bands and Daniels' test for muscle force was conducted. The one that is attacked severest is the interosseal muscle of the small finger eminence of the hand, followed by intorosseal muscle of thumb eminence, lumorical muscle, and flexor carpi ulnaris in the order mentioned. The paralysis of flexor digitorum profundus as well as of m. flexor digitorum sublimis of the small and middle fingers can be observed in many. These points must be borne in mind when the operation is performed for the improvement of claw hand. As for the skeeze dynamometer test the author employed sponge method. It seems that the sponge method is excellent to test the patient's grasping power, as it represents actual skeezing force of the patient. The operation for the improvement of amyosthenia was performed on 39 patients to the total of 168 fingers, and excellent results were obtained practically in all of them. As for the operation of thumb to finger movement Bunnell's method is modified in such a way that a hole is drilled through bone and interruted suture is made so that the proxi mal phalanx of thumb is fixed more firmly and also the tension of tendon is improved. As for the distal phalangeal flection of the thumb during this fixation the tension of extensor longus digitorum muscle of the thumb is increased and its flection is modified by hooking one end of the tendon to the tendon of extensor longus digitorum muscle. In this manner six out of 11 cases showed good results. However, this fixation method occasionally brings about over extension or the disturbance in flection of phalangeal joints of the middle finger so that it must be compared with the method of using the short abductor muscle of thumb as recently reported by Flynn and must be modified appropriately. In case the tendon is passed under flexor carpi ulnaris, although it is not absolutely necessary, there is apt to occur the paralysis of this muscle as high as in 36 per cent. Therefore, it will be advisable to make pulley here. The operation for claw hand was performed on 132 fingers, and all yielded satisfactory results. In contrast to Bunnell's method, m.
Organ specifities in each embryo were investigated in the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organs such as brain, kidney, mucous membrane of small intestine and etc. And the following results were obtained. 1. Vicissitudes of antibody titers in the sensitized rabbits with various organs of dogs showed a sudden increase, in all, after the first and the second week and maximum in the fifth and sixth week. Some of them had relatively high titers. No significant difference in the course of sensitization with each embryonic organs. 2. The Congo Red Indeces of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens of dogs had increased according to the repeats of the sensitizations. 3. The erythrocytes sedimentation rates of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens of dogs were almost stable inspite of repeated sensitizations using various kinds of organ antigens. 4. No significant changes were noted of erythrocytes and of hemoglobin of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens of dogs inspite of repeated sensitizations using various kinds of orgaan antigens. However, there were some tendencies of anemia in a few rabbits after repeated sensitizations. 5. Leucocytes count and its differentials of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens ef dogs; with repeated sensitizations many showed leukocytosis, and in differential two groups were noted, the one of which revealed pseudoeosinophilia with lymphopenia and the other lymphocytosis with pseudoeosinopenia. 6. All the cases of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens of dogs had some weight losses on sensitizations, especially marked initially. 7. On the same days of the administrations of these antigens, all the cases of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organ antigens of dogs had rising body temperatures of about 1.0°C. 8. In the cross reactions between the sera of the sensitized rabbits with each embryonic organs of the dogs and the various organ antigsens of the dogs, the antibody titers for these organ antigens were the highest in all the sensitized rabbits. In the cases with other organ antigens, the antibody titers were lower, and kept up rather short time in the blood. Simultaneously the relative organ specifites could be recognized especially for brains which stemed from ectoderm comparing with other embryonic organs.
Investigating the functions of reticuloendothelial systems in the sensitized rabbits with hetero-organ antigens (brain, kidney, mucous membrane of small intestine etc.). Also the effects on sensitizations after administrations of Nitromin were observed. The following results were obtained. 1. Productions of antibodies for hetero-organ antigens were depressed in the sensitized rabbits with hetero-organ antigens blocking reticuloendothelial systems with Indian-ink. 2. The antibodies for hetero-organ antigens were slightly increased in the sensitized rabbits with hetero-organ antigens about 4 hours after the administration of Communin. 3. After the administration of Nitromin, the productions of antibodies for hetero-organ antigens were depressed in the sensitized rabbits with hetero-organ antigens. 4. Each antibody titers showed the highest for the corresponding hetero-organ antigens in the rabbits after the administration of Nitromin. 5. In the rabbits sensitized with hen's egg albumin instead of organ antigens, the antibody titers for the hen's egg albumin increased markedly. However, in the rabbits sensitized only for a short time, the cross reactions between the sera of the sensitized rabbits and the various hetero-organic antigens were hardly observed.
The antibodies, corresponding with sensitizing organ antigens in the circulating blood of the sensitized animals with the antigens extracted from hetero-organs (liver, spleen, colon, gall bladder etc.) with physiological saline, were studied. Considering from a standpoint of anamnetic reactions the following results were obtained. 1. By administration of ACE (Interenin) marked anamnetic reactions were seen in the hetero-organ antibodies. One to six days after the injections of ACE the corresponding antibodies were evidently observed in the circulating blood. 2. Leukocytosis and increased gamma globulin fractions were noted on the appearance of anamnetic reactions antibodies for the hetero-organ antigens. Anamnetic reactions were depressed by giving Nitromin beforehand. 3. On appearing the anamnetic reactions of the hetero-organ antibodies, the cross reactions between various organ antigens and their antibodies were marked, especially with sensitizing organ antigens in compared with other organ antigens. And it was clearly understood that the antibodies produced by sensitizations with organ antigen had relative organ specifities.
The significance of vital reaction was immunochemically observed on the sensitization of rabbit by the heterogeneous organic (canine stomach and duodenum) antigen. And the results were as follows. 1. On the sensitization of rabbit by the extracted antigen of canine stomach and duodenum with physiological salt solution, the body weight of rabbit showed a little decrease at the 1-2 week, but it gradually increased or it did not show remarkable change after then. In the blood picture, the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin value showed a little decrease around the 2-5th week after the sensitization, but the leukocyte count increased since the 1-2nd week after the sensitization and it repeatedly decreased after the 5-6th week and returned to the normal count. In the classification of leukocyte, slight neutrocytosis was seen in some cases at the first, but lymphcytosis was seen since the 4-6th week. 2. On the sensitization of rabbit by the extracted antigen of canine stomach and duodenum with pyhsiological salt solution, the production of antibody corresponding to the antigen was certified. And it became clear that the organic antibody produced by the attempt of cross-reaction with the extracted antigen of other canine abdominal organs with physiological salt solution relatively had the organic specifity in vitro. 3. Comparing the antigen of lipid, phospholipid, polysaccharide and protein etc extracted from the above described organic antigen with their antibodies' reactions to them, no remarkable difference among those antigens was observed. 4. No significant change of the complement titer was observed on the sensitization of rabbit by the extracted antigen of canine stomach and duodenum with physiological salt solution. 5. As for the hitological changes on the sensitiztion of rabbit by the extracted antigen of canine stomach and duodenum with physiological salt solution, no remarkable changes were observed on the gastric and duodenal mucosa corresponding to the antigen, and the hypertrophy of splenic follicle, multiplication of reticular tissure, hypertrophy and multiplication etc., i.e. pathologic findings of the reticuloendothelial system, were observed.
The serological and histological changes were observed on the administration of anti-canine gastric and duodenal mucosa-rabbit's serum, which was obtained from the sensitization of rabbit by the extracted solution of canine gastric and duodenal mucosa with physiological salt solution, into dog. And the results were as follows. 1. In the cases with the administration of comparative great amount of organic antiserum, other than the cases decreased within a short period by shock, the loss of weight, decrease of erythrocyte count and decline of hemoglobin value were generally found since the 1-5 day after the administration of both of the above organic antisera and it was supposed that there were the participation of one valued antibody in addition to the two valued antibody (hemolysin, erythrocyte agglutinin) included in both of the organic antisera, and the leukocyte count showed slight decrease since the 1-3rd day after the administration of both of the above antisera. The change in urine was not observed, but blood stool and occult blood in stool at the 1st. day after the administration were observed on the cases with the administration of anticanine stomach-serum and the cases with the administration of anti-canine duodenum-serum. 2. As for the change of antibody titer corresponding to the organic antigen, on the administration of anti-canine gastric and duodenal mucosa-rabbit's sera into healthy dog, the slight decline of the antibody titer was seen in many cases at the first period after the administration and the rise of both of the antibodies titers was seen at the 14th day from the 5th day after the administration. As for the vicissitude of complement titer at that time, the complement titer slightly declined at the first period after the administration and it showed the declining tendency with the rise of both organic antibodies' titers, after then. And the increase of γ-globulin, in the change of serum protein picture, was observed on the administration of both of the organic antisera, but the decrease of albumin was not remarkable and the total protein value showed the decreasing tendency, and the vicissitude of γ-globulin and both of the organic antibodies showed the same change. 3. The changes having the organic specificity, as the histological changes in the dog with the administration of anti-canine gastric and duodenal mucosa-rabbit's serum, were considerably observed on the gastric mucosa and duodenal mucosa of the dog as compared with the changes of other organs. Since the results of observation on the above histological changes and the vicissitude of the antibody and complement titer corresponding to both of the above organic antigens at that time, it was thought that the decrease of complement titer at the first period meaned the disturbed process of organ by the antigen-antibody reaction of both of the organic antisera in the organs corresponding to the antigen and the rise of both of the organic antibodies titers after the above period was due to the damage of the organ corresponding to the antigen and it was the auto-antibody which was secondarily produced in the self-body.
1. The cardiac measurements obtained by teleoroentgenography were similar to those of previous reports in comparison. 2. In the cardiac measurements it was noted that the longitudinal diameter (L) to stature, the transverse (Tr) and the longitudinal diameter to weight and the transverse rather than the longitudinal diameter to chest girth were increased proportionally. 3. The fluorograms (6×6cm. in size) represented a close correlation with the teleorentgenograms, although an acurate convertion rate was difficult to determine because of variable conditions. 4. It was supposed that the cardiac measurements by means of fluorograms (6×6 cm. in size) could be applied in clinical use with considerations of age, sex, stature, weight and girth of the chest of patients on those the fluorographic cardiac measurements showed similar alteration to teleoroentgenographic ones. The cardiac measurements by means of fluorograms revealed that the rightsided half of the transverse diameter (Mr) was ranging 0.6 to 0.7 cm., 1.3 to 1.4 cm. in the leftsided half of the transverse diameter (Ml), 1:2 in the ratio of Mr and Ml, 1.9 to 2.1 cm. in the transverse diameter (Tr), 2.2 to 2.5 cm. in the longitudinal diameter (L) and 1.0: 1.1 in the ratio of Tr and L. The hight of the left ventricular chord (Bh) was ranging between 0.6 and 0.17 cm.
1. On measuring the details of the heart in the fluorograms it was noted that the cardiac measurements were somewhat decreased in females. The transverse diameters were increased in parallel with weight or nourished condition rather than stature. The cardiac measurements were increased in proportion to the increase of the girth of the chest. Also they were increased as getting older in age, but a tendency of slight decrease was noted in those of over 60 years. 2. Increased Ml was observed in the cases who had hypertension or over loaded left ventricles. 3. Judging from Sokolow's criterion about left ventricular hypertrophy, a definite increase in Tr, on account of increased Ml, was observed in the fluorographic cardiac measurements of the cases with left ventricular hypertrophy patterns in the electrocardiograms. According to other criterion adjusted for Japanese, no increased cardiac measurements were noted in the cases with left ventricular hypertrophy electrocardiographically. In consequence, the above indicated the fact that in early stages of the left ventricular hylertrophy they were concentric in nature and that in these stages electrocardiograms had more diagnostic value in comparison with the fluorographic cardiac measurements.
With the preparation to study on the fate of iron isolated from the decompostion process of hemoglobin in vivo since the distribution of ferritin in organs, the apoferritin quantitative method by L. Heilmeyer and others, as a quantitative methode of ferritin in organ, was investigated and the apoferritin dosis in the liver, kidney and spleen of healthy rabbits were measured. And the results were as follows. 1. The material was suitable to use that concentrated for 30-40 minutes by the water jet pump until it was almost dried, in boiling water at 40-60°C., at the end step. 2. As for the condition of paper electrophresis, it was the most suitable to make the migration by the fixed electric pressure of 25 volt to the 1 cm width of filter-paper of Schleicher & Schüll No.2043a for 24 hours. 3. The measurement became easy and accurate by the farther coloring of the stained area with ammonia gas before the fixation of filter-paper by solid paraffin. 4. The degeneration of material made an error on the paper electrophoresis of apoferritin, but the error was not observed on the material by this improved method. 5. The appearance rate of apoferritin in 1g of liver, kidney and spleen of healthy rabbit was 7.6, 7.8, 6.4.
With the purpose to clarify the significance of apoferritin in various organ on the iron metabolism, ferritin in the liver, kidney and spleen of rabbits with liver damage by carbon tetrachloride or chloroform, thrombosis of reticuloendothelial system and binding of common duct were measured, besides, the vicissitude of those was timely observed after the administration of phenylydrazin to the above cases and the vicissitude of hemoglobin dosis, easy split iron dosis in blood and serum bilirubin was also observed at the same time. And the results were as follows. 1. The mobilization of apoferritin was first observed on the administration of phenylhy drazin into healthy case and it was remarkably decreased, but the increase of easy split iron in blood and serum rion accompanied by hemolysis, then the increase of bilirubin were occured and apoferritin became showing the increase since that time. In other words, ferritin in the liver, kidney and spleen was quickly mobilized as the deposit iron, and a part of the iron isolated from easy split iron with the decomposition of hemoglobin was securely deposited as ferritin. 2. In the cases with liver damage by carbon tetrachloride, the mobilization of apoferritin in various organs was not occured at the early period because it might be caused by the function damage of bone marrow, on the contrary, those increase being related to the increase of easy split iron and serum iron accompanied by hemolysis was observed and the mobilization of apoferritin in various organs was observed afterward. Furthermore, it was thought that ferritin in kidney had not only the meaning of deposit iron, but also it had the meaning of block to iron excretion at that time, since the vicissitude of apoferritin in kidney. 3. The decrease of apoferritin in organ was observed on the liver damage by chloroform, but the vicissitude of apoferritin in liver after the administration of phenylhydrazin was not always agreed with vicissitude of hemoglobin dosis, easy split iron blood and serum iron and it was supposed that the mechanism of iron mobilization from ferritin and the mechaniam of ferritin formation in the liver were attacked with the damage of liver itself. 4. In the cases with thrombosis of reticulcendothelial system, apoferritin in organ increased with serum iron, but the mobilization of iron was not remarkable after the administration of phenylhdrazin. And the increase of apoferritin was not observed, even though easy split iron in blood and serum iron was increased after the decomposition of hemoglobin. 5. In the cases with binding of common duct, all of hemoglobin, serum iron and organ iron decreased and apoferritin in ordan increased with the increase of easy split iron and serum iron after 6 hours of the administration of phenylhydrazin. 6. Since the above results, ferritin in the liver, spleen and kidney had the significance as the deposit iron and the spleen was the most sensitive for the mobilization of iron in various conditions. And the significance of block to the excretion of iron in a part should be considered in the kidney.
The production and the specificity of hemogeneous organic antibody were investigated by the precipitation test in the agar layer. And the results were as follows. 1. Sensitizing the homogeneous animal (rabbit) by the homogeneous (rabbit) organic (liver, kidney or spleen) antigen, the substance corresponding to the above organic antigen was identified in the sensitized rabbit's blood and the precipitation band was clearly found by the precipitation test of Oudin's method in the agar layer. And the production of antibody by the extracted antigen of homogeneous organ with physiological salt solution was certified. 2. Sensitizing by the organic antigen, the precipitation band appeared most remarkably around the 4 th week after the sensitization. 3. There were both of antigen excess zone and antibody excess zone and the precipitation band was clearly separated on the use of liver antigen in dilution of 16 times, kidney and spleen antigen in dilution of 8 times and antiserum in dilution of 8 times, when the organic antibody of 40% was used as the original solution. 4. In the cases sensitized by the organic antigen, the migration velocity of precipitation band was proportional to the squar root of time after the accumulation. 5. Carrying out the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer on the use of the liver, kidney and spleen antigen of homogeneous and heterogeneous animals, the number of the appeared precipitation band was much in th cases sensitized by the homogeneous antigen than that in the cases sensitized by the heterogeneous antigen. As for the antigen-antibody reaction among the organs in the same system, the precipitation band appeared more numerous on the antigen-antibody reaction among the homogeneous organs than that on the antigen-antibody reaction among the heterogeneous organs and the relative specificity of organic antigen was observed. On the other hand, the number of precipitation band appeared at that time was 3-4 in the cases sensitized by the liver antigen, 2-3 in the cases sensitized by kidney and spleen antigen. In other words, the number of precipitation band showed more numerous in the cases sensitized by the liver antigen than other cases. 6. The reaction of each antigen with the antibody corresponding to each antigen was observed on the cases sensitized by each organ and the appeared state of precipitation band was also hourly observed. The precipitation band appeared the most remarkable around the 3 rd. week after the end of sensitization and the precipitation band corresponding to the organic antigen appeared more early in the cases sensitized by the spleen antigen than that in the cases sensitized by other organic antigen. Moreover, It was seen that the disappeared precipitation band appeared again after several weeks or the number of precipitation band increased after several weeks. 7. On the sensitization of rabbit by the phosphatid, extracted from each organ, with the addition of neat serum, it's antiserum showed more precipitant band to it's organic phosphatid than that to each organic phosphatid, and the organic antigen relatively showed the specificity. 8. Studying on the precipitation band by the immuno-electrophoresis, it appeared 6-7 in the cases sensitized by the rabbit's liver antigen and 5-6 in the cases sensitized by the rabbit's kidney and spleen antigen. On the other hand, the precipitation band appeared 3 by the method in the cases sensitized by each organic antigen of rabbit's liver, kidney and spleen.
Liver diseases, especially epidemic hepatitis were studied, employing the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer. And the results were as follows. 1. The auto-antibodies corresponding to the liver and kidney antigens were observed, by the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer, on 9 cases of acute hepatitis, 17 cases of chronic hepatitis, 6 cases of liver cirrhosis and other diseases. In liver diseases, it remarkably reacted to the liver antigen and showed many precipitation bands, and the precipitation band became numerous with the progress of disease in order of acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. On the other hand, it remarkably reacted to the kidney antigen and showed many precipitation bands, in kidney diseases. 2. Comparing each form on the classification of epidemic hepatitis with the results of the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer, the liver antigen remarkably reacted to the typical form, jaundiced form and influenza form and the precipitation band appeared few in the gastroenteric form, mixed form and latent form, in comparison with the former. On the other hand, the kidney antigen showed no difference on the number of precipitation band in each form of kidney diseases. 3. Comparing the number of days after the attack of epidemic hepatitis with the results of the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer by the liver antigen, the appearance of precipitation band was remarkably seen at 6-9th month after the attack of disease and it became more remarkable at the chronic stadium and the shifting stadium to liver cirrhosis. 4. Comparing the liver function with the Oudin's precipitation test in the agar layer, the higher the positive serum colloidal reaction (the results judged on the serum Takata's test, Gross test, Weltman's test, thymol turbidity test, cobalt chloride test, colloidal red test, cephalin-cholesterol flocculation test and cadmium test etc.) became, the more was the number of precipitation band. No correlation between the above precipitation test and the hippuric acid test was observed, but there were some correlation between the above, precipitation test and the bromsulphalein test, and the appearance of precipitation band was remarkably observed on the cases with the liver function damage. 5. As for the relation of it with the blood picture, the more the precipitation band corresponding to the liver antigen appeared, the fewer were the hemoglobin value, erythrocyte, thrombocyte, leukocyte and monocyte count, and the more were the lymphocyte and eosinocyte count. 6. As for the relation of it with the serum protein value showed the declining tendency, the albumin value on the proportional picture of serum protein showed the decreasing tendency, the α-, β- globulin value slightly showed the decreasing tendency and the γ-globulin value showed the increasing tendency.
The pathohistological changes of various organs, chiefly the blood vessel system, other than spleen, were observed on several liver diseases, manily epidemic hepatitis. And the results were as follows. 1. In acute hepatitis including violent hepatitis. the dilatation of inner space, distension and coarseness of vessel wall, serous exudation, collagen of hemorrhage and so-called melting picture of argentaffine fiber etc. caused by angioparalysis were highly observed on various organs of the whole body. 2. In chronic hepatitis and livercirrhosis, the above described changes gardually diminished and the sclerotic process of organs as the secondary restorable mechanism became remarkable, and the multiplication of connective tissue's component and fibrination picture became remarkable even though their degree was different in each organ of cases. 3. The above results agreed with the conventional opinion of our department, i.e. the genetic pathology of epidemic hepatitis was based on the functional and organic damage of blood vessels in the whole body, in the first meaning.
The histological studies were made on the spleen, manily the blood vessel system, in violent hepatitis, severe acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, livercirrhosis and Banti's disease. And the results were as follows. 1. As for the histological findings of the spleen in violent hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis, the serous exudation and tissue's melting changes were cheifly observed. 2. As for the splenic changes in Banti's disease, the sclerotic change of the connective tissue of blood vessel was mainly observed, and the disturbance of blood vessel was in the firest meaning. 3. The clinical and pathohitological findings of splenomegalic chronic hepatitis showed the transitional picture between hepatitis and Banti's disease and it was thought that splenomegalic chronic hepatitis played an intermediate part of them. 4. No essential difference between Banti's disease and livercirrhosis was observed, and it was thought that livercirrhosis was occured, if the secondary organic sclerosis originated in the disturbance of blood vessel was strong in the liver, and Banti's disease was occured, if it was strong in the spleen.
The distribution of liver tissue iron was histochemically observed on the cutting section of liver tissue diseases, especially acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, subacute liveratrophy, livercirrhosis and posthepatic syndrome, and the correlation of it with the pathohistological findings of the same cutting section and liver function, serum bilirubin value and serum iron etc. in the same patient was studied at the same time. And the results were as follows. 1. The Prussian blue method, Turnbull blue method and removed surface method, as the detective method of liver tissue iron, and the possibility of the error by the detective method were observed. And the reliable condition was decided. 2. The iron detected in the liver tissue of liver diseases was triatomic iron, but diatomic iron was not observed. And the detection of iron before and after the removed surface was obtained in the same dosis at the same place. 3. In acute hepatitis, the increase of iron was mostly seen in the liver cells of lobular central zone and intermediate zone and it was next in the sinus and stellate cell, and the distribution of iron in the Glisson's sack was very few. But the increase of it in the Glisson's sack was observed on the cases with the inflammation of Glisson's sack. 4. In subacute liveratrophy, the deposited dosis of iron was remarkable and it's distribution was remarkable in the liver parenchymal cells of intermediate zone and marginal zone. 5. In chronic hepatitis, the iron dosis of liver tissue was generally increased and the distribution of the iron deposit was decreased, on the contrary, in the central zone and the increase of it was seen in the intermediate zone, marginal zone and Glisson's sack. In the cases with the inflammatory findings of Glisson's sack, the increase of iron deposition was observed. 6. In livercirrhosis, there were the cases with the increase of iron and the cases without the increase of iron and it's distribution was remarkable in the circumference liver lobulus, especially the Glisson's sack. 7. In posthepatitic syndrome, there were the cases with considerable increase of iron and the cases without increase of iron and it's deposition was remarkble in the intermediate zone, especially the marginal zone, but no increasing tendency of iron deposition was found in the Glisson's sack. 8. The above iron deposition of liver tissue was mostly found in the degenerative cells in which the nucleus was not markedly attacked from the degeneration. 9. The liver tissue iron of these diseases was due to the hemosiderin produced from the erythrocyte flowing out to blood vessel with the pathologic changes of the liver and the liver cells without the pathologic change of the nucleus, in the region with the remarkable pathologic change participated in it.
Acute and chronic liver damage were caused by the liver poison of formic acid allyl and carbon tetrachloride on the grown up dog, and the distribution of liver tissue iron was observed, in comparison with the histological picture of the liver, blood easy split iron, serum iron and serum bilirubin value. And the result were as follows. 1. In the cases with acute toxication of formic acid allyl, the iron deposition was remarkable in the circumference of liver acinus i.e. marginal zone and Glisson's sack, and it was considerably found in the central zone and intermediate zone. 2. In the cases with chronic toxication of formic acid allyl, the iron deposition was localized in the circumference of liver acinus i.e. marginal zone and Glisson's sack. 3. In the cases with acute toxication of carbon tetrachloride, the iron deposition was remarkable in the central part of liver acinus. 4. In the cases with chronic toxication of carbon tetrachloride, the iron deposition was not only found in the central part of liver acinus, but it was also considerably found in the marginal zone and Glisson's sack of the circumference of liver acinus. 5. These iron deposition were the most remarkable in the stellate cells of local area and then in the liver cells, and the stellate cells had the picture thought the fullness of iron with the sewelling. This change was due to the hemolysis and local change produced by the administration of the above liver poisons, and it was different from the findings described in the first chapter. 6. The above tissue iron was triatomic region were not changed by the removed surface. Therefore, it was thought that the above tissue iron was the hemosiderin iron originated from the destruction of erythrocyte flowing out of the blood vessel.